Bronze

of these articles is concerned with bronze as alloy, other meanings under bronze (term clarifying).
Are excluded fragment of a Bronzebüste of Marcus Aurelius,

about 170 bronze alloys from copper with other metals, zinc (except as small attaching). Intin than second component is contained closer sense in the bronze. A copper zinc alloy against it is called brass.

The technical alloys were divided into kneading (to 8.5% tin content) and cast alloys (to 22% tin). The fusing temperature hangs off of the mixing proportion and liesusually scarcely under 1000° C. The density of cu 85 SN 15 (85% copper, 15% tin) amounts to 8,7g/cm ³. Bronze is not magnetic.

Table of contents

alloys

depending upon composition different kinds of bronze are characterized, however are the possibilities of combining different metals with one another beyond that very various.

Casting structure of a bronze with 11% tin, V=50: 1
name of the alloy components tooCopper characteristics use
tin bronze to 40% tin flexibly, toughly, corrosion resistant art casting, turbine, gear wheels, bells
aluminium bronze 5-12% aluminum sea water-steadily, verschleissfest, flexibly, goldfarben spring plate, scale beam, marine propellers, chemical industry
lead bronze up to 28% lead corrosion resistant, good sliding qualities axle camps, group and form cast materials
manganese bronze 12% Manganese corrosion resistant, heatproof electrical of resistances

(in the USA despite the zinc portion from 20 to 40%als manganese bronze, contained in some alloys, designates (e.g. with some materials) silicon bronze manufactured by

Ampco 1-2% silicon mechanically and chemically highly stressable, high conductivity overhead lines, sliding contacts,Chemical industry
beryllium bronze 2% beryllium hard, flexibly feathers/springs, clocks, transmit-free tools
Phosphorbronze 7% tin, 0.5% phosphorus high tightness and firmness tough-firm of machine parts, axle camp
guidance bronze magnesium, cadmium, zinc (entire 3%) electrical characteristics similarly copper, however course-firm overhead lines, high voltage systems
Red brass tin, zinc, lead (entire 10-20%) corrosion resistant, good sliding qualities and casting barness sliding bearing, armatures, worm gears, art
Konstantan 40% nickel temperature-steady conductivity electrical of resistances

the tin bronze is the most well-known of these alloys. Bell bronze consists to 20-25% of tin and is bothfor bells and for the building by cannons used, for latter purpose became in wars bells often umgeschmolzen (bell cemetery). Potin is a bronze alloy with high tin content, this contains beside silver and lead also traces of other metals.This material was used from the Celts to pouring potentiometer coins.

history

major item: Bronzezeit

the name leads itself off from Brundisium, latin name of the southItalian city Brindisi, those in the antique one a center thatBronze processing and the bronze trade were. The production of bronze is first proven for Egypt (approx.3500 v. Chr.). In China the use in the 3 began. Millenium v. Chr., at the latest during the Xia dynasty.

Bronze is considered as onethe first aimed manufactured alloys of mankind, however alloys from copper and arsenic were manufactured already before, whose arsenic contents are in such a manner high that these might probably be considered as intended. In the third millenium v.Chr. weapons displaced bronze and - toolsthe up to then common Gerätschaften from stone or copper. The Bronzezeit ended however not immediately with the invention of the iron smelting, since unalloyed iron had been subject to the bronze. The two materials were used next to each other for certain time, to thatConnection between carbon in the iron and its characteristics was more near understood (steelmaking). The much larger availability of iron ores and the outstanding characteristics of the carbon steel might be the reasons, why the bronze at meaning as material for equipment andWeapons lost.

Türgriffe aus Bronze - Universität Bonn
Door handles from bronze - University of Bonn

use

as ochestra

decoration, medals, decoration

technical applications

copper tin alloys become in the technology even with further additivesbegun. The additive of nickel about causes a higher firmness and for more strongly stressed camps and particularly in worm gears than worm gear is used; Lead as additive serves itself the easier cutting property and a better Notlaufeigenschaft, there it elementarily onthe grain boundaries deposits. Wires from Phosphor-Bronze in the qualities CuSn4, CuSn6 or CuSn8 find as pin so mentioned use in plug connectors within the electronics range. In addition the surface is partly coated galvanically. Fittings from bronze apply as connecting and connecting piecesfor pipings. For the production of propellers for sea-going vessels aluminum multi-material bronze are used. Inland waterway craft propellers are poured also out of brass alloys.

see also

Wiktionary: Bronze - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Bronze - pictures, videos and/or audio files
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