of these articles is concerned with the food bread, other meanings under bread (term clarifying).
German rye wheat and rye bread
French weissbrot
Turkish Fladenbrot
Swedish Knäckebrot
English Toastbrot
landing run of the bread paste in an Afghan baker's shop

bread is a traditional food, outa paste from gemahlenem grain (flour), water, a propellant and possibly further added one bakes. The firm, dark exterior of bread is called crust; the two ends, if available, one calls edges. The inside is the Krume. Breadkrümel also „Brosamen are called “(from the medium high German).

Table of contents


the definition for bread afterthe “guiding principles for bread and small pastry” (see Web on the left of), publishes No. in the German federal legal gazette. 66a of 9. April 1999, reads:

Bread becomes totally or partly from grain and/or Getreideerzeugnissen, usually after addition of liquid as well as of other food (z. B. Leguminosen,Products of potato) by kneading, forms, loosening, cheeks or hot extrude usually the bread paste manufactured. Bread contains less than 10 parts by weight fat and/or kinds of sugar on 90 parts by weight grain and/or Getreideerzeugnisse.

1500 g rye wheat and rye bread contain approx. 1 kg flour, 850ml water and 30 g salt (approx. 4 tl); when baking are lost well 10% the weight.

bread in times of distress

in hunger times can be stretched bread with grain surrogaten. Would pay attention: The grain flour added Beans - or pea flour lets the paste go badly, for potato flour makes it damp and mould susceptible into higher doses. Acorns are to be peeled first to rinse to pellets, to out-cook to the necessary Entbitterung with pure water then husbands (no more than tooto add a third) the grain flour before baking. With the purchase numerous not feeding are to fear often harmful admixtures so gypsum or sawdust.


(major items: Brotsorte)

two basic kinds are differentiated from bread:

  • acidified bread,by impulse means (Sauerteig or yeast) manufactured, whereby it gets a loose consistency
  • ungesäuertes bread, which is baked, before the sour paste fermentation begins, often as Fladenbrot.

Besides Brotsorten become among other things after the used Grain (z. B. Wheat, Dinkel, Kamut or rye), the kind of flour (excerpt flour or full grain flour, finely or roughly husbands) and/or. special added (z. B. Cure until cores or sunflower cores) divided.

Germany is considered as the country, in that most Brotsorten, over300, to be baked. Half of verzehrten bread is approximately wheat and rye bread, which is baked from a mixture of rye and Weizenmehl. However in the German linguistic area over 600 different black and white bread places are offered.

Special Brotsorten are


Polnischer Junge mit Brot (ca. 1943)
Polish boy with bread (approx. 1943)

For approximately 10,000 years humans build grainto the own nutrition on. Originally the grain husbands was eaten and blended with water as mash. Later the mash on hot stones or ash than Fladenbrot was baked. Acidified bread might after archaeological finds already more than 5000 years agoadmits been its, among other things in Egypt, where bread in larger measure in baker's shops was manufactured already at that time. The Egyptians had the surname Brotesser in the antique one also. they were it, as the first yeast the cultivated and thus thosefirst baker yeast used. Already between 2860 and 1500 before Christ 30 different Brotsorten were well-known in the country at the Nile. Of Egypt from arrived the knowledge of the bread baking of Greece and the Roman realm to Europe. A Roman large baker's shop already was before 2000 years in the situation to manufacture 36,000 kilograms bread per day. After the fall of the Roman realm ascended bread into the rank of a holiday and a gentleman food. This position kept it in Germany into the time afterthe dreissigjährigen war and in Russia even up to the beginning 20. Century.

Apart from the meaning as basic food bread has also a large symbolic and/or. mirror-image-ritual meaning. In the communion of the Christian Liturgie one intends thereby the Kreuzigung Jesu Christi(“Christi body for you broken”).

Politically the demand had always great importance after bread:

  • The poet Juvenal coined/shaped those bread and (circus) plays (panem circenses et) as a sign of his criticism at the people in the Roman realm.
  • Marie Antoinette becomesafter-said, it would have it with if no more bread to have, is it nevertheless cakes to eat (S'ils n'ont plus de pain, qu'ils mangent de la brioche.)!answered, when you was reported, arms of the population would have noneTo eat bread.
  • In the twenties 20. Century in the heavy depression the Wahlspruch work and bread was used.

Arising of bread of of great importance was culture historical. By the changed Esssitten terms did not only change, butalso social conceptions.


  • in a container from ceramic(s) with vents and at ambient temperature is well stored bread.
  • In addition, in a hermetically lockable container from plastic bread remains longer freshly easy, can mould.
  • If thatBread is verschimmelt, the Aufbewarungskasten with a vinegar solution wipe out/clean.
  • Holzkästen or paper suck the humidity from bread and it become drying. The same applies to the keeping in the refrigerator. Between +7°C and - 7°C ages bread fastest.

bread production

in a dish becomes among other things from yeast, flour and water and/or. Milk a Vorteig in an educated manner, then approx. one quarter of an hour “go” must. In order to receive the taste for bread, one gives some more saltin addition. As desired still different added added. Afterwards the paste must “go” again approximately one hour. Then bread is brought into its form and with approx. 200°C baked.

round around bread

Web on the left of

Commons: Bread - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Bread - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Bread - quotations
information and prescriptions


products of baking [work on] to literature to today most comprehensive culture-historical work over bread the Heinrich Eduard Jacob (1889-1967) under the title six thousand years bread(Hamburg, Rowohlt publishing house, 1954).


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