printing in 16. Century

with the classical printing concerns it a high-pressure method, that mainly by Johannes good mountain in the center 15. Century one invented and one established.

Today books are mostly printed in the offset printing procedure, rarely in the gravure technique. The latter is mostly used for magazines and catalogs. The newest procedure (conditions 2005) is the digital pressure. During with the offset printing still to be produced, one does to pressure plates (artworks) with digital compression matters completely without the production of artworks. These techniques create the conditions for „the Book on and “.

To table of contents

technology of the classical typography

the types or type characters necessary for the enterprise of the typography in ruins into german type -, Antiqua - and italic writing beside in addition the due pointing - and other indication (asterisk, paragraphs etc.); their diversity and richness is an extraordinary. One differentiates it according to its kind with respect to bread and Zierschriften as well as according to their design with respect to gothical, kanzlei, grotesque etc. Writings, furthermore their cone after, i.e. after the classes, into which all writings of the height of their type picture are according to divided. To the writings belong also the excluding, i.e. metal bits without typeface and about a fifth lower than the actual types (Spatien, quarter, third, Halbgevierte, Gevierte, squares); they serve etc. for the separation of the words, for filling out empty lines. Serves similar purposes the leading, metal panel of to four typographic points strength and mostly 36 and 48 points a width at 54 points height, often in addition, of the whole width of the lines (Regletten). One through-shoots thereby the line set, i.e. one puts such panels between the lines, which appear moved away then; but the leading is used also with the production of difficult sentence (tables etc.).

A groove, carries form

and file of types each type the signature, for immediate correct seizing of the type at the front (in Finland and France at the back) of its body; and there these grooves differently are for the different, often however nevertheless very similar type kinds, then they facilitate also for their distinction. (A disorder of types of different writing kinds or also different types and the same kind is calledbulb fish “.)

the types intended for work and newspaper set to lie in wooden setting box with approximately 110 subjects for Germans and 160 for Antiquasatz, i.e. Latin, English, French etc.; the larger fan number becomes under Accentbuchstaben and Kapitälchen. The eastern speaking and the sentence of Musiknoten require box with still many more subjects. The size of the fan is to that more or less frequent occurrences of the letters adapted, and also their situation in the box depends on it. The setting box rests for instance in Brusthöhe on a desk-like rack (shelf), which with subjects for pushing in the box is provided.

Use of the types

before the shelf stands the Schriftsetzer (typesetter), holds in the left hand the Winkelhaken made of metal (in former times often from wood and laid out with metal), a kind, the flat small box with adjustable left side panel, open after two sides, forms, into which the typesetter with the right hand leads and to lines arranges the types from the subjects. The manuscript (the collecting main is called in such a way, even if it is printed an already) is mostly to a wood or a metal bar (Tenakel) with a kind fork (Divisorium) held and in comfortable Sehweite on the setting box attached. If a line is filled, then it must be excluded, i.e. it must receive those exactly to the respective format appropriate width moderately firmly and sit in the Winkelhaken, which is reached either by Verengerung of the word gaps, in order to bring exceeding word parts still into the area of the line, or the gaps are widened by adding excluding. On the regularity and care, with which this work is implemented, the good appearance of the sentence in the pressure depends substantially.

If the line is completed, then the thin plate is out-pulled and over-put from smooth metal, the reglet, which you served so far as document, under it and with setting so long continues, until the Winkelhaken is filled with lines. These are then lifted all at one time with a skillful handle on a ship, i.e. on a angleright Brettchen provided on two or three sides with a raised edge (or Zinkplatte), until the number of lines necessary for the education of a column or a side (column) or also a package is reached. If the typesetter sets in sides, then he has to provide these also with a running headline, which is dead called, if it consists only of the page number, or more living, as soon as it contains a keyword or a short indication of side contents; on its foot however it puts one for the achievement of safer stop suppresses, consisting of squares or sidebroad Metallklötzchen, and umwindet the whole then with a firm string, the Kolumnenschnur.

If the sentence is well implemented, then the side must to be been busy now be able, as if it would consist only of a piece. The completed sides are kept either up to the completion of the number on Papierlagen (haven pages), necessary for a pressure elbow, or equivalent posed on boards (setting boards) or closing plates and closing stones in a certain, the sequence of the sides appropriate sequence (out-shot), where then put of the width white the area necessary remaining on the paper for merging (federation, cross and centre web) removes wood or metal webs around the sides, the Kolumnenschnüre (the sides „dissolved “) and iron framework obtains the forms either with iron screws, wood wedges and bevelling gene or also with particularly designed toothed bars and wedges etc. to be closed, i.e. fastened in such a way that the whole form consisting of many thousands of type characters can be raised and laid down in the press, without only one letter from the sides falls.

The side forming (make up) and latches and the Unterleitung of the production of a work which is connected with it meanwhile mostly procure (with newspapers it is without exception the case) thereby skillful typesetters particularly entrusted, „Metteurs the EN of pages “; this function, with which the typesetter has to supply with only pieces (packages, of it package setters) of smooth sentence under Weglassung of all headings out to different than for the text record of related writing, is called „bad one EN of pages “. One achieves the easier determination of the sequence the finished elbow by attaching a number right at the foot first and repetition of the same number together with asterisks at the foot of the third side, the signature; first receives frequently also still left in small writing a standard, which has to indicate titles and volume number of a work in few words. The indication of signature with letters is in Germany except custom, equally the Kustos, i.e. in former times against the conclusion of each side the first word posed of the next came, in omission. The formats are designated after the number of the sheets, which an elbow contains after the Zusammenfalzen: Folio, quart, Oktav, duo December, Sedez, Oktodez etc.


the first casting, which is taken to packages by the closed forms or on the part of and in cords, is the correction departure; in this the Korrektor draws the errors arranged by the typesetter (omissions are called „corpses “, doubly setting „weddings “), after their correction further correction departures for authors and publishers is manufactured. If their corrections and changes of the typesetter are made and permission for the pressure is given, the correct position of the sides is examined and corrected. Only then the pressure can take place. That form, which contains the first and last side, is called the outside, great or Schöndruckform, it is usually first printed (enter above); the other one is designated than inside, Sekunda or Widerdruckform. The pressure takes place either in the hand press, prime route press mentioned, in the Accidenzmaschine or Tretpresse, or in the high-speed printing machine (machine, their leader: Maschinenmeister).

The paper, with exception of typewriting paper, is for this partly moistened, i.e. in stronger or thinner situations by water pulled or moulded on, whereby it becomes more suitable more supply and the admission of the printing ink, partly drying printed and, is finer the pressure, also glossy finishes, which shows it the smoothness lost by moistening. Before the pressure each form must become adjusted „“, i.e. all inequalities (unevenness of the printing part of the press or machine, thus inequality of the pressure, or the light unevenness in the types forming the form) must by adding or fine paper inserts to become balanced, which is mostly very time-consuming, with fine Illustrationsdruck in addition, makes high demands against the technical skill of the printer or Maschinenmeisters and a trained eye requires, since even the finest woodcut without good side dressing does not become effective fully. In order to achieve a good pressure, also good rollers belong to the rubbing and laying of the color on. They are mostly poured in the letterpress printings themselves either out of a mixture of glue and syrup or out of Glycerin, sugars and gel. They displaced in former times the bundles from Rosshaar with a coat from calf or dog leathers, common for laying the color on, soon after the invention of the high-speed printing machine.

The pressure effected in the press, which is usually served by two persons, via bend-wise inserting of the paper, pushing to and laying down Rähmchen and cover, bringing the truck in obtains turn of a crank, drawing the rascal, redriving and laying of the printed elbow over out out. All this is implemented by one of the two printers, while the other one rubs the color and the form in the time of the paper in and laying out in-blackened („bonds “). The high-speed printing machine procures all these operations, with exception of inserting, automatically, laying out is done with most to the same via a mechanical laying out apparatus. The Maschinenmeister has the course of the machine after side dressing only to supervise the uniformity of the colouring and the quality of the pressure.

After the pressure

the printed elbow, if there newspapers or other work which can be delivered immediately are not, brought to drying are hung up and then in smoothing presses to the removal of the unevenness of the paper developed with the pressure and to the re-establishment of its good appearance.

However one washes the record forms, if „printed out “, for the distance of the printing ink with a brush dipped into sharp caustic solution and it rinses off with pure water. If they are not to be kept for further pressures, „to stand remain “, receive the typesetter her back for taking apart, placings or clearing up. He distributes the type characters again into them corresponding the box fan, or only titles, headings, short lines etc. become. put down, the sentence however „up-bind “, i.e. umwunden in handy pieces with Kolumnenschnüren and, if they are well dried, in paper struck, labeled and for later need in the magazine kept. Worn out types are sold as „things “the schriftgiessereien to the transfusion.

Rolls good mountain

of good mountain technical achievement consisted of developing a set from procedures to the procedure of the printing only made possible:

of good mountain achievement lies also in the economic and social establishment of the printing by the first mass duplication of the Bible.

Meaning of the printing

printing in 15. Century

the invention and establishment of the type character pressure (type character) forms an important culture-historical cut, which introduced a fundamental data processing. There are only few as comparably fundamentally outstanding milestones:

The medium theory derives made of good mountain achievement fundamental consequences.

The printing made the accurate reproduction possible of knowledge in before an extent never known; while books were copied manually before in Skriptorien, the human factor became replaceable; also clerical errors with the copy became avoidable.

The author shank got meaning; it became important, who something said and/or. had written, what and how someone had formulated precise and when this was to be dated. Books became more attractive and better, as the marking interspersed itself by page numbers (pagination) , tables of contents , registers as well as title pages.

Reading changed: While books were read before loud (pre), it developed to today's quiet vintages. A general Alphabetisierung began and introduced an education revolution. Thinking changed in adjustment to writing. Methodology and the science of new books over-bid as understandable form of understanding, in figurative form, the metaphors and one sometimes even placed myself could books also without a mental picture form understand. Knowledge was brought generally more accessible, since printed books were more inexpensive than the handwritten copied, there it more copies of a book gave and to writings into the circulation.

Black art and writ

lost the printing however its characteristics: Centuries were proud „the knights of the black guild “on their occupation and their remarkable achievements. A highly differentiated set of rules applied to obey it.

The writ in today's time cannot follow due to the allowed time this any longer. There is in today's time also software, with which ligatures (connected type characters) can be set, however is a matter the knowledge of the black art to more and more lost.

The time of good mountain until approximately 1985 (computer typesetting) is called also gladly „lead time “.

Still there are some artists, who exercise the printing like good mountain before 500 years - and with meetings, for example in Mainz with the mini press fair, still the language of the black art is maintained. There technical terms indicate the clay/tone, for example:

  • Alphabet: a consequence of 23 pressure elbow
  • fly head: head over a set letter, some black small box produces
  • wedding: a doubly set word or one doubles set line
  • Hurenkind: a side or a column paging directly before the last line of a paragraph
  • corpse: a missing letter or a missing word
  • shoemaker boy: a side or a column paging immediately after the first line of a new paragraph
  • bulb fish: a letter of a wrong character font appearing in the text

see also

Wikiquote: Printing - quotations


  • J. H. Brook man: New manual of the typography. Voigt, Weimar 1876
  • Matthias's book ore among other things: Black art on green paths. Book production after ecological principles. Steidl, Goettingen 1997, ISBN 3-88243-383-3
  • Elizabeth iron stone: The Druckerpresse. Culture revolutions in early modern Europe. Springer, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-211-82848-6 (to the historical determination of the printer identification)
  • Heinrich Fischer: Guidance for the Accidenzsatz. Naumann, Leipzig 1893
  • Karl A. Franke: The typography. Practical manual for typesetter, printer, Korrektoren, your and Galvanoplastiker. Voigt, Leipzig 1904
  • Michael Giesecke: The printing in the early modern times. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 1998, ISBN 3-518-28957-8
  • Carl B. Lorck: The production of printing elements. Practical signs for authors and booksellers. Weber, Leipzig 1893
  • Hans Lülfing: Johannes good mountain and the book nature 14. and 15. Century. Publishing house documentation, Munich 1969 (for the sociological-economical background of the invention of the printing)
  • Eike Pies: The white and the black art. Occupations approximately around the book. Brockhaus, Solingen 2002
  • Sigfrid H. Stone mountain: The black art. 500 years book natures. Prestel, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-7913-0213-2
  • Andreas Venzke: Johannes good mountain - the inventor of the printing and its time. 3. Edition. Beep he publishing house, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-492-22921-2 (to the invention of the printing)
  • Hans Jürgen wolf: Black art. an illustrated history of the compression matters. German specialized publishing house, Frankfurt/M. 1981, ISBN 3-87150-162-0

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