|coat of arms||map|
|geographical situation:|| |
Coordinates: 47° 30 ' N; 19° 3 ' O 47° 30 ' N; 19° 3 ' O
|height:||102 m and. NN|
|surface:||525 km ²|
|inhabitants:||1,695 million (2005)|
|Population density:||3,229 inhabitants for each km ²|
|postal zip code:||H-1xxy, whereby xx ever the number of a district represents|
|city arrangement:||23 urban districts|
Budapest ['budɒpɛʃt] is the capital andat the same time largest city of the Republic of Hungary. With approximately 1.7 million inhabitants (conditions 2005) is Budapest the seventh-largest city of the European union. The unit municipality Budapest resulted 1873 from the pool of the before independent cities Buda, plague and Óbuda. The name Budapest did not emerge before, usually in the linguistic usage was plague Buda.
Table of contents
] is located at the Danube, which leaves here the Hungarian low mountain range and into the Hungarian low country flows. The highest collection inBudapest is the 527 meters high János mountain. Geotectonically seen the city lies on a location of fracture, therefore particularly Buda is so rich at Thermalquellen.
ways of the Binnenlage and the shielding effect of the mountains hasBudapest a relatively dry continental climate with mild winter and warm summer. The middle temperatures are in January with -1 °C as well as in July about 21 °C. In the early summer the most productive precipitation is to be registered. The middle amount of precipitation amounts to in the yearapproximately 600 millimeters.
of Budapest history begins around 89 with the establishment of a settlement with fortress named Aquincum by the Romans and a citizen city within the northern range of the today's Óbuda. The inhabitants at that time of this area were Eravisken of celtic origin. Aquincum was between 106 and the end 4. Century capital of the province Pannonia, because it were to Pannoniens, the Danube because of the natural border (Limes). Here the place with the fortress got a prominent role, andbecame the seat of the Roman governor. the building of a governor palace began 107 by emperors Hadrian.
after the fall of the Roman realm began the migration of the Hirtenvölker (like the Hunnen) from the east. This wave reached approximatelyEnd 4. Century Pannonien. The storms of these martial trunks devastated the landscape and partly destroyed the Roman cities. Relative peace turned only by the colonization of the Magyaren around 896 in. It came to the settlement of the entire pannonischen basin andalso the area around Óbuda. By the Christianisierung established Hungary become lived in villages with churches, built by them, and operated agriculture and cattle breeding. In the center of the traffic routes plague gained ever more significance. Over the Danube (about) an active vehicular traffic with the opposite Buda developed for the today's Elizabeth bridge. With the coronation/culmination step Hans I. 1000/1001 to the first king of Hungary those removal Hungary their supremacy and 1361 became the city, despite the nearly complete destruction throughthe idea of the Mongols (Mongol storm) 1241 and the transfer of the royal residence after Visegrád 1308, capital of the kingdom. 1514 took place a farmer rebellion.
the Osmanen attacked castle mountain with palace again and again Hungary, whichin the occupation of the largest part of the country culminated. Thus plague 1526 and Buda (Latin for „furnace “because of the warm source) fell, by the castle something protected, only 15 years later; the new capital of the still vacant Hungary, that nearlyonly from the today's Slowakei existed, became from 1536 - 1784 press castle (the today's Bratislava, Hungarian Pozsony). While Buda became the seat of the Turkish governor, plague however hardly received an attention and lost a large part of itsInhabitant.
Finally it succeeded to the having citizens to drive since 1526 kings of Hungary, the Osmanen out and repair Hungary. For the population of Buda and plague, it changed however only little was further suppressed and had very highTaxes pay. The inhabitants resisted in a rebellion the eliminator, which was however struck down. Plague, which was since 1723 the seat of the administrative administration of the kingdom, became despite adverse conditions and a devastating flood 1838 with 70.000Victims to one of the fastest increasing cities 18. and 19. Century. 1780 were introduced German of the having citizens as office language to be able to control also in order again and again the flashing revolutionary movements better. The Croats, those for many centuriesand was subordinated also Budapest formed a personnel union with Hungary, also today still calls the city Budimpešta (kroat. Budim for the quarter Buda and Pešta for plague).
During the Hungarian revolution 1848 was Budapest one of the main places of unrests,with those the Hungary against for more than 150 years the persisting suppression of the having citizens fought. The rebellion was bloodily struck down with the help of Russia, but the events of 1849 led 1867 indirectly into reconciliation between Austria and Hungary,in the Hungary became to a large extent independent. Symbol of reconciliation was the annual stay of several weeks emperor Franz Josephs in Budapest. As a king of Hungary it resided on the Budaer castle and took in this time in Hungarian language and ina Hungarian uniform dressed - with the Ministers k. Hungary and the k. Hungarian Reichstag its Hungarian offices truely.
The pool from Buda, Óbuda and plague had been already ordered 1849 under the revolutionary government of Hungary, as however the having citizens, recalled they re-established their power this resolution. Only 1872, five years after that Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation of 1867 came it finally to the combination of the two city halves. Had preceded already 1870 the establishment of a “mainurban advice for public work “, thatthe structural and infrastructural development of the entire town koordnieren should.
for the thousands of years celebration of the colonization that Hungary (the so-called Millennium) 1896 numerous large-scale projects became, like z. B. the hero place and the first underground on the European mainland finished.The number of inhabitants in the entire city versiebenfachte itself thereby between 1840 and 1900 and rose to approx. 730.000.
The lost First World War, the victims and the withdrawal of Hungary from the Danube monarchy, resulting from it , 1918, in addition, the enormous cessions of territoryHungary (Hungary lost by the contract of Trianon nearly ¾ its realm area) shifted Budapest only a brief impact.
After the establishment of a communist soviet government under Béla Kun 1919 Miklós Horthy took that as a war Minister of the conservative-reactionary Gegenregierung formed in SzegedFight against the regime of Béla Kun up. After the victory it pulled on the point of the conservative troops to 16. November 1919 in Budapest. Miklós Horthy became realm Weser (manager; Hungarian:kormányzó) Hungary, which was still kingdom.
By the German crew during the Second World War in Hungary approximately a third of the Jewish population of 500.000 Hungary died, although the German crew came only to the attempt of the solution of Germany 1944 and thus only one yearpersisted. 1944 were partly damaged the city by anglo American bomb attacks. The strongest destruction took place however via from at the end of Decembers 1944 to at the beginning of of February 1945, 102 days continuous FE storage by Soviet armed forces as well as by the enclosed German and Hungarian troops,with their retreat on the Budaer the side of the boiler, also all bridges over the Danube blew up. 38,000 Budapester civilians died during the FE storage.
After the end of the war 1946 proclaiming the republic and 1949 proclaiming followed that People's Republic of Hungary. 1956 were Budapest the starting point of the Hungarian rising of the people, to whose bloody striking down it came to cleaning waves generally speaking country.
To 23. October 1989 was proclaimed in Budapest the Republic of Hungary, which away-preparing for the decay of the whole Eastern Bloc will should. In the year 2000 Hungary far ceremonies took place for the thousand-year old anniversary of the establishment of state. From this cause also the capital was adorned: the park plant and the cultural center Millenáris park and the Milleniumsstadtteil with the national theatre were established, the Budaer Danube sidewith the Campus of the technical university modernizes. Finally followed at the 1. May 2004 the membership of Hungary in the European Union, which was particularly celebrated with large celebrations generally speaking country, but in the capital Budapest.
Budapestseems oversized as capital for the Hungarian 10-million-people, because when the today's outlines already coined/shaped the townscape, Hungary was substantially larger. The country had lost also three fifth of its population by the peace treaty of Trianon 1920. Of the historical large Hungaryonly large Budapest remained.
- 1800: 54.200
- 1830: 102.700
- 1850: 178.000
- 1880: 370.800
- 1890: 491.900
- 1900: 733.400
- 1925: 957.800
- 1980: 2.004.900
- 1990: 2.016.700
- 2005: 1.695.000
the city consist of three formerly independent cities, which only 1873 were united to the municipality Budapest. On the eastern, flat side to the Danube is plague, which takes two thirds of the city surface, on thatwestern, hilly page Buda (dt.Furnace) and Óbuda (dt. Old furnace) the remaining third of the city.
Budapest is administratively into 23 districts divided. At the 1. January 1950 became the citydivided into 22 districts, the 23. (XXXIII.) 20 became later from that. (XX.) divided. On the basis of the first district around the castle quarter (Vár) the districts in the clockwise direction with Roman numbers are durchnummeriert and several times the Danube is jumped over.
|District I||Tabán, Vár (castle quarter), Krisztinaváros (Christinenstadt), south Víziváros|
|district II||Rózsadomb (rose hill), Pasarét, Hegyvidék, Hűvösvölgy, Pesthidegkút, north Víziváros, Országút, Törökvész|
|district III||Óbuda (alto Buda and/or. Old furnace), Újlak, Békásmegyer, Óbudai sziget (island)|
|District IV||Újpest, Káposztásmegyer|
|district V||Belváros (internal city), Lipótváros|
|district VI||Terézváros (Theresienstadt)|
|district VII||Erzsébetváros (Elizabeth city)|
|district VIII||Józsefváros (Josefstadt)|
|district IX||Ferencváros (Franzstadt)|
|district X||Kőbánya (quarry)|
|district XI||Újbuda (Kelenvölgy, Kelenföld, Lágymányos, Albertfalva, Gellérthegy, Sashegy, Gazdagrét, Őrmező)|
|district XIII||Újlipótváros (new Leopoldstadt), Angyalföld, Margitsziget (Margaretheninsel)|
|district XIV||Zugló (Alsórákos, Herminamező, Istvánmező, Kiszugló, Nagyzugló, Rákosfalva, Törökőr, Városliget)|
|district XV||Rákospalota, Pestújhely, Újpalota|
|district XVI||Mátyásföld, Sashalom, Cinkota, Rákosszentmihály|
|district XVII||Rákosmente (Rákoskeresztúr, Rákoscsaba, Rákosliget, Rákoshegy, Rákoskert)|
|district XVIII||Pestszentlőrinc, Pestszentimre|
|district XIX||gravel plague|
|district XXII||Budatétény, Nagytétény, Budafok|
|note: Districts in blue lie in plague, districts in red in Buda, those in yellow on an island.|
partnerships between cities
- New York (the USA), since 1991
- Fort Worth (the USA), since 1990
- Vienna (Austria), since 1990
- Berlin (Germany), since 1992
- Frankfurt/Main (Germany), since 1990
- Tel Aviv (Israel), since 1989
- Sarajewo (Bosnia-Herzegovina), since 1995
- Lisbon (Portugal), since 1992
- Zagreb (Croatia), since 1994
- the respected district maintain a partnershipwith the district of the same name Josefstadt in Vienna and with Josephstadt in Timişoara in „the federation of the Josefstädte “.
objects of interest and culture
objects of interest
the most important objects of interest of the city are because of the bank of the Danube. On thatthe rocky Gellértberg with the liberty statue and the citadel rises western , Budaer side. Because of the foot of the mountain the Gellért hotel with thermal bath continues to be as well as river downward the main's building of the technical and economiceconomics university. North the Gellértberges lies the castle mountainwith the former royal castle. It accommodates today the national library, the national gallery as well as the city museum. Beside the castle the seat of the Hungarian president is in the klassizistischen Sándor palace.
in the northern part of the castle mountain rises the Matthias church and,it to the Danube pre-aged, the Fischerbastei. The Budaer castle quarter and the Danube panorama stand since 1987 on the list of the UNESCO Weltkulturerbes. Under the castle quarter a partly publicly accessible labyrinth system runs.
On the eastern Danube bank, on the flat Pester side,rises parliament building, the Academy of Sciences, a number of large hotels at the so-called Donaukorso, the Pester Redoute (ballroom), the Corvinus university (school for economics) Budapest and far south the national theatre and the palace of the arts.
the Danube is thoseactual main attraction of Budapest and is spanned in the city by nine townscape-coining/shaping bridges. The most important, because oldest and at the same time landmark of the city is, the chain bridge.
From here side the small ring states to the liberty bridge, past on Pesterthe large synagog, the national museum and the large market hall. The large synagog in Dohány utca marks the entrance to the historical Jewish quarter of Budapest, convenient between small and large ring. The small ring follows that in for instance the processearlier Pester Stadtmauer, their last city gates end 18. Century were broken off. Remainders of the Stadtmauer stand however still. Between small ring and Danube the actual city center of Budapest lies. Parallel to the river the oldest trade route runs and with the Váci utcatoday most well-known Flaniermeile of the city.
The large ring becamebetween 1872 and 1906 establishes. It leads of the Petőfibrücke to the Margaretenbrücke and is one of the most important architecture ensembles of its time in Europe. The west station lain here is common to that with the east station certification large station architecture.
at the largeSeveral buildings of theatres (up to its breakup 1965 here, at the Blaha Lujza place also the national theatre stood) and many Filmtheater stand for ring, whose sections carry the names for holy Stefan as well as the adjacent districts of the Teréz, Erzsébet, József and Ferenc, from those some endthe 1990er years to close had, since at the west station and other places of the city the multiplex cinemas of more spectators could attract. The ring is crossed with the octagonal place octagon by the Andrássy road, which connects the town centre with the Stadtwäldchen.
The Andrássy road is to today the most outstanding project concerning town construction of the Hungarian capital. In only fourteen years, from 1871 to 1885, a 2.4 kilometers long avenue is established, by so-called living palaces in historicism, the Hungarian state State of , the museum house is gesäumtthe terror, several places and on the hero place leads, which is set in by the arts center and the museum of the beautiful arts. In the center of the place the fixed images of fourteen Hungarian kings group themselves around the Millenniumsdenkmal.
Are appropriate for Széchenyi bath of far ones east out of town, directly behind the hero place in the Stadtwäldchen the Vajdahunyad castle, which was established to the Budapester Millenniumsausstellung 1896, the zoo, the circus, the ice art career as well as the Széchenyi bath. Beside the Gellért bath it is the probably most well-known Budapester of thermal baths.
Outside of the city centre are the Roman settlement Aquincumas well as, from recent time, the sculpture park with statues of socialist time.
culture and spare time
Budapest 86 theatres, two opera houses, concert halls, music clubs and numerous large and small cinemas possess. Beside the 32 museums ordersthe cultural center of Hungary over several small galleries. The Budapester Ludwig - museum is resident since 2005 in the palace of the arts. Annually in the spring and autumn large Kulturfestivals takes place, in spring the Budapester Frühlingsfestival, in the autumn the Budapester Herbstfestival,in February the Hungarian one film-look, in April the international Filmfestival Titanic, annually an international Theaterfestival and in August the Inselfestival. A new cultural center on the Budaer side is the Millenáris park, that in the year 2000, on the occasion of the Milleniumsfeierlichkeitenfor establishment of state on an old factory site one established. Here take place in the summer concerts, exhibitions and other cultural events, the children's playground with have handcarved, a people fairy tale taken figures. Since October 2005 also the Hungarian child museum has Csodák palotája (palace thatMiracle) here a new at home.
The hilly environment of Budapest offers many trip possibilities. The pictorial town Szentendre north of Budapest and the lock Gödöllő, the favourite place of queen and empress Elisabeth, are interesting. The Danube knee extends to Esztergom. In the Budaer mountains, whose highest collection with 527 meters is the János mountain, the children's train operates and rises the transmitting pole Lakihegy. At the final stop the international mountain moving way iron oh Budapest ends to the children's train. In with parks under-suppliedCity takes the Margareteninsel as recreation area a central role.
economics and infrastructure
the most important shopping streets from Budapest are in 5. District (city center). The most well-known ofthem is the Váci utca, in which nearly all large mode labels of the world are represented. At the Vörösmarty tér each year a Weihnachtsmarkt is organized, which is here similar at the Viennese to the town hall square (the windows of the Gerbeaud Kaffeehauses function as Adventkalender).Since the department store luxury at the Vörösmarty made tér 2005 bankruptcy, there are hardly more traditional department stores. This was again-opened to at the end of of 2005, its fate is however uncertain. Vis A vis the department store now an enormous H develops & in place of a torn off office buildingM-branch. Admits was also the chain of department stores Skála, which could be called in the 70's relatively good sorted. In the place of the first Skála department store in the 11. District is established 2006 a modern shopping centre. In the largest Skála department store at the west stationbecame 2005 a Burger King - restaurant open, the remainder of the building is rented particularly by Chinese dealers.
Inside and outside the city large shopping centres are established to the consumer after American sample (Plazas), those except long opening times oneSelection of services of all kinds and catering trade offer. Further large hypermarkets are outside of the city much like. South of Budapest (in Budaörs) there is town center south for some years after the model of the Shopping with Vösendorf (Austria)a kind Shopping town center. The opening times are in the Budapester interior districts and in the shopping centres move on week and Saturdays to 21 o'clock, and on Sundays to 18 o'clock opened. Despite strong Amerikanisierung there are nevertheless civil movements,those the purchase of Hungarian products publicise and the spreading of the extra large shopping centres reject. Momentarily there are ten Plazas in the city.2007 will be finished the arena Plaza opposite the east station, the largest shopping centre in central and Eastern Europe. Hereit will give numerous business, cinemas and restaurants.
Budapest - a city of the baths
the history of the Budapester of baths can look back on one past of 2000 years. Already the Romans used the sources of the city. From thatYear 1178 gives it to referring to a settlement Felhéviz on the area of the today's Óbuda - the name means “source of welfare”. At the Gellértberg source of Elizabeth is mentioned (holy Elizabeth was the daughter of king Endre). The rule of the Osmanen accommodatedother one another other bath culture into the city, the architectural monuments of this time are until today used. In 18. Century, according to the decree of Maria Theresia one began to argue with the analysis of the sources of welfare of the city. 1812 beganone on suggestion of Pál Kitaibel to systematize the sources it wrote also a Hydrografie of the city. 1930 became Budapest, when to city with most sources, to which titles lent “bath city “, welfare-end.
The most important welfare and open-rir swimming pools are:Csepeli (open-rir swimming pool) Csillaghegyi (open-rir swimming pool), Dagály (welfare and open-rir swimming pool), Dandár (therapeutic bath), Gellért (welfare, free and experience bath), Király (therapeutic bath, Turkish bath), Lukács (therapeutic bath, swimming pool, Turkish bath), Palatinus (welfare and open-rir swimming pool, building of art nouveau on the Margaretheninsel), Paskál (open-rir swimming pool), Pesterzsébeti (open-rir swimming pool), Pünkösdfürdői (open-rir swimming pool), Római (freeand experience bath), Rudas (therapeutic bath, Turkish bath), Széchenyi (therapeutic bath, swimming pool), Újpesti (open-rir swimming pool).
Some baths have a subculture. Older men play chess on swimming chessboards for hours in the Széchenyi bath in the warm water. The Király bath is led separately for men and women and hasfor the locking of the Rácz bath look for its function as meeting place for men, the their-same taken over. The Lukács bath is traditionally a meeting place of actors, artists. The completely reconditioned, all around modernized, and again in enterprise taken Rudas bath was original only for menaccessible, however it had never the call Király bath. After the reopening there were protests of women, to who the city finally gave way, therefore in the bath “lady days” was by way of trial also inserted. In addition there is at night the possibility for both sexes, thatTo use bath together only in bath clothing. On the weekends the bath is some hours even to families at the disposal. The Palatinus, “Pala” mentioned, is a traditional bath for young people. There are also many swimming pools in Budapest, most well-known is thatCsászár in Buda and the sport swimming pool on the Margaretheninsel, which are designated after olympia winner Alfréd Hajós.
something similar as in Vienna flowered in 19. Century and around the turn of the century inBudapest an active coffee house culture. One of the literary centers was that more than one hundred years old kávéház Café New York, which was to be opened to summers 2006 again, a time existed it under the name Hungária Kávéház. A historical scenethe revolution in the year 1848 was the legendary Pilvax - coffee house, in which the trailers of Sándor Petőfi met. The coffee houses served also as job for writers, poet, journalist - Ferenc Molnár was for example a frequent visitor of these coffee houses. Thisin the communist times were put under state control and re-designed, many disappeared or were neglected. At these times the smoked small „Presszós “(Espressos) was the only restaurants, in which one enjoys Fekete “(a small black, strongly cooked Hungarian coffee) to secondly one „could. The Café Centrál at the Ferenciek tér was opened end of the 90's again and shines again in the old splendour. The Café museum at the Múzeum became körút rather a haute cuisine restaurant. As the most distinguished and most beautiful coffee house that is considered Café Gerbeaud at the Vörösmarty tér. The two oldest confectioneries in Buda are the confectionery Ruszwurm in the castle quarter and the confectionery August beside the Budaer Fény utca market.
public suburban traffic
3.8 million passengersmove daily on the net distances of the public suburban traffic in Budapest, altogether long over 2,000 kilometers. The Budapester transport enterprise (BKV) maintains Metro/underground -, streetcar, bus, O bus and rapid-transit railway lines. Beside the 1896 finished underground “Földalatti Vasút” (oldest underground upthe European continent) two further Metrolinien operate. Fourth is to be handed over 2008, a fifth is planned. At present 22% of all ways with the Metro are put back.
41% of all travel ways are bus travels, further 26% streetcar (mansion MOS) andnearly 5% O bus travels. Therefore nearly three quarters of all ways with road-bound means of transport are mastered.
Interesting means of transport are still the “Libegő “(Aerial ropeway to János hegy), the children's train (former pioneer railway), the rack railway to the Svábhegy, and the “Sikló “(endless rope haulage system) up to the castle mountain.
although the portion of the individual traffic of the entire traffic volume of the city is rather small, comes itdaily to back-up into and around the Hungarian capital. This is partly because of the historical road system of the city, above all however at omissions of the city and federal state government to modernize of Budapest traffic routes. More than 600,000 certified passenger cars use the Budapester road system alsoa length of over 4,000 kilometers. The city center districts and parts of Buda are short park zones. The situation is intensified by a striking lack of multi-storey car parks.
The historical road system of Budapest is characterized by ring and radial roads. Between these broad roads lie rathernarrow, today only traffic routes suitable for one-way street traffic.
Most motor roads of Hungary lead across Budapest. The road system must take up thus beside the city also the transit traffic. The few Danube bridges were not up to to the traffic volume any longer. Besides the city ordersover only few and to narrow feeder roads. A motorway circuit around the city is only in sections finished.
most courses arrive on the three large head stations : the Keleti pályaudvar (east station), that Nyugati pályaudvar (west station) and the Déli pályaudvar (south station). From on Pester side the east and west station lain gives it to direct connections to 25 European capitals, from the south station lain on Budaer side becomes among other things the disk lake started. All three stations are with that Metro attainable. The city lies on the “Magistrale for Europe “, an important transeuropäisches project, with which up to the year 2015 between Paris and Bratislava a railway - a high-speed distance are to be realized.
in the southeast of the citythe airport Budapest Ferihegy with the older terminal I and a newer terminal II. lies. At both terminals 2005 over 8 million passengers were counted (2004: 6,5 million). With the entrance of several cheap airlines into the Hungarian market the passenger numbers rise since2004 strongly on. The airport is attainable with a feeder bus (reptér busz ) or over a motorway. A rapid-transit railway or a Metroverbindung in the center is planned.
sons and daughters of the city
|Commons: Budapest - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Budapest - Quotations|
Web on the left of
- official side of the city in German language
- Budapester office for tourism
- regional map
- city plan
- Budapester spring and Herbstfestival
- list of the messages
- underground lines, suburb and streetcar net in Budapest
- Pester Lloyd - which German-language newspaper with Budapester round-look
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