Buddha (Sanskrit, M., बुद्ध, buddha, wörtl. „Awakening “, also „illuminating “) designates in the Buddhismus someone, the Bodhi (wörtl. „Awaking experienced “, also „illuminating “). In the special one designated the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, both itselfeven as Buddha and those, which in before-historical time exactly as it from own Kraft, without the guidance of another Buddha, which had attained awakening.
A Buddha is a nature, which from own Kraft the purity and perfection of itsSpirit reached and thus a boundless development of all „his “potentials attained: perfect wisdom (Sunyata) and infinite, nevertheless reserved sympathy (Karuna) with all alive one. It carried out already during lifetimes Nirvana and is more buddhistischer after therebyConviction for no more to the cycle of the Reinkarnation do not bind. Of „its “spirit one cannot actually at all speak, because this acquisition is from transcendental nature not to seize with that understanding of unerwachten, world-arrested humans is „deeply and unfathomably howthe ocean “. Due to the most over-lay character of this experience this extracts itself from a lay-scientific examination. The quality of the Buddha experience is for humans, who did not make this experience not to reconstruct. The faith in the fact that individual humans such an experienceactually experienced, is for it quasi-religious nature, as long as they remain world-embarrassed.
An Buddha experience arises very rarely. After the buddhistischen tradition one age , in which a Buddha arises, is „a lucky age “, because there are a great manyAge, in which no Buddha arises and therefore also no theory of final release can be obeyed: „a dark age “.
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the word” Buddha “
” the word› Buddha ‹is in the Sanskrit and in the centralIndian languages those derived from itMaster form of the Participiums praeteriti passivi. from the verbal root› budh ‹, i.e.› awake ‹; it means thus› the awakening ‹and means with the fact that someone, which this name assign becomes awoke from the night of the mistake for the light of the realization. The Nominativthe word› Buddha ‹reads in the Sanskrit› Buddhas ‹, in the centralIndian Pa left language› Buddho ‹, and some researchers use therefore these forms; there however in the abendländischen science Indian words after the model of the native Lexikographen and Grammatiker not in the Nominativ, butin the master form to be used, the form Buddha was nearly generally in-patriated “(Helmuth of Glasenapp: ” The five world religions: Brahmanismus, Buddhismus, Chinese university versism, Christianity, Islam “; ISBN 3453058151).
threeKinds of Buddhas
it are differentiated three kinds from Buddhas:
„the perfect complete-awaked “(pali: sammásambhudda) after it was lost to the world, from itself, leading to release and completion, designates humans, the theory,out again discovered, carries out and the world teaches and due to his extensive abilities and earnings/services numerous humans to release to lead can.
- ” There humans in the things ungehörten before recognize themselves the truth and attain therein thoseAll knowledge and in the forces the championship. One calls this humans “perfectly awakening”.“(Pug. 28)
The all Buddhas peculiar, each time again of them on the new discovered and the world revealed teachings forms the four noble truths (sacca) of suffering, its developing, its expiring and the eightfold path leading to release from suffering.
The way leading to the implementation of the Sammasambuddha is (after original teachings) the way of the Bodhisatta (Bodhisattva). This does (with a Gelübde) consciously withoutfast reaching of Nibanna (Nirwana) and accumulates by a multiplicity of Wiedergeburten and along-feeling actions a maximum of perfection (Parami), it finally qualified to lead a very large number from humans to the goal of release.
„the singleawaked “, (pali: paccekabuddha) humans, who carry out also the theory from itself, leading to the release, out again discovered and, it does not designate however announced, other humans not didactically, it not to release to lead can.
- ”There humans in the things ungehörten before recognize themselves the truth, but he does not attain therein all all this and in the forces not the championship. One calls this humans singleawaked.“(Pug. 29)
that“as listener-awaked” (pali: savakabuddha) or era-has, designates humans, who experience the teachings and practice leading to release as a pupil of a Sammasambuddha or likewise a Savakabuddha and fully carried out. He is again in a the position to teach the Dhamma/Dharma other humans andto lead it to release.
- ” Who overcame a desiring after formful existence, desiring after informal existence, self-darkness, absentmindedness and glare completely: one calls this humans “perfectly holy one (arahát).“(Pug. 50)
Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama)
The exact life data Siddhartha Gautamas are disputed. Its birth becomes traditional on May 563 v. Chr. and its death, the entrance into the Parinirvana, alsoMay/April 483 v. Chr. indicated. It lived newer research to consequence on approx. 450 to approx. 370 v. Chr. It lived in north India. Its father was head of one of the governing families in the small aristocracy republic of the Shakyas, in the today'sIndian nepalischen border area. Referring to the king conditions Suddhodanas, Buddhas of father, as well as the splendor and the ceremonies at its yard, how one particularly meets them in later texts, are most likely exaggerations. Its nut/mother was called Maya. They called their son (in Pali) Siddhattha (Sanskrit: Siddhartha), which achieved „that its goal “meant. The surname Shakyamuni refers to its origin and means „the way from the sex of Shakya “. After the birth Siddhartas was forecast that he eitherWorld ruler would become or however, if he recognizes the wrong of the world, someone, which brings illuminated wisdom into the world. It lived in a palace where it everything that belonged to the well-being life, for the order and where it after thatExcessive quantity of all lay wrong became shielded. His father, the prince Suddhodana, saw the ideal successor in his son and wanted to prevent that prince Siddharta turned away from his realm. Therefore it one permitted only rarely, the royal palace tooabandoned and if, the roads became cleaned by old persons, patients and dying before. Siddharta of the Indian divinity Bharma drauf referred to which it in its last life promised its next life to use around mankind from the wrong torelease. A daily saw himself he however nevertheless to the reality of the life and suffering mankind confronted and recognized a Sinnlosigkeit in its past life, the legend reported of meetings with a Greis, a fever patient, a decaying body andfinally a monk, whereupon he decided for a way from the general wrong to look. (However it is very difficult with the “biography” of the Buddha to separate legends from facts to). 534 v. Chr. with 29 years, soon after the birthits only son Rahula (“chain”), it left his child, his Mrs. Yasodhara and its homeland and became, on the search for this release, a Asket. Six years long the Asket Gotama moved by the valley of the course, met, their systems and methods and submitted strict asketischen exercises studied and followed famous religious teachers. Since it all this did not bring to its goals more near, he gave the delivered religions and their methods up, looked for his own way andpracticed thereby particularly in the Meditation. It called this „the middle way “, because it avoids the extremes of other religious teachings.
in this effort around release reached Gotama 528 v Chr. in its 35. Lebensjahr thoseperfect illuminating (Bodhi), after which it as the Buddha - that illuminated, admits became. That happened on the bank of the Neranjara river with Gaya (close Bodhgaya in the today's Bihar) under a Pappelfeige, those today as a Bodhi tree, “tree thatWisdom is admired ". Quotation: “My skin may shrink and my hand dry up, may not my Gebeine dissolve - so long I found not the last realization, I not from the place will agitate myself” thereupon he falls under the treelying into a ekstatische faint.
A folder evenly that fig tree was implanted on Ceylon, while the Indian tree dried up. From there later again a folder was taken and to the original place in India (close 1931 of the excavated temple district ofSarnath) planted.
After its illuminating Gotama, held the Buddha, in the game park with Isipatana (the today's Sarnath) close Benares before a group of five Asketen, for its former companion, its first training speech. These five became thereby the first monks of the buddhistischenMonk community (Sangha). Of that day on and spoke he taught 45 years long before men and women of all people layers, before kings and farmers, Brahmanen and discharging, money lenders and beggars, holy ones and robbers. To today in India existingHe recognized distinctions by the box order and the differences of the social groupings not on. The way, which he taught, stood for all men and women openly if it for it were ready it to understand and go.
Its pointingnesses became approx. 200-300 years after its death passed on by its June gladly verbally and thennoted why none, separate it Bible only, Sutren (Buddhas theories on scrolls) give, which is summarized however nowadays into books.
When Siddhartha Gotama lay in dying, he said the funeral of his corpse to the monks was the laymen to be left. Thus the monks scattered themselves also immediately after the Dahinscheiden.However it was first a problem to together-get enough wood for the Einäscherung of the corpse since too little layman trailer was in the area. After short time different delegations arrived, which had heard of death Siddhattha Gotamas. Under this are inflamedthen the controversy over the legal possession at ash and the bones. One became united, as ash and bones were divided. In accordance with the legend ash was finally buried under eight earth hills.
Under the regency of the Maurya - king Ashoka (governed approx. 268 v. Chr. - 232 v. Chr..) sieve this grave hill again opened and distributed the Reliquien in 84.000 Stupas - hügelförmigen buildings of symbols from loam or stone - in the entire realm of the Ashoka. Manage around thatto be able, the remnants parts were probably added. Besides the numbers point 8 and 84,000, which have symbolic meaning in the Buddhismus, whereupon that these data are to be understood not literally. From the Stupas of this early time are today onlystill few receive. Among these those rank in Piprawah (close Lumbini, the place of birth Gotamas) and with Vaishali (where that 2. buddhistische council took place). In both cases in the Innerern chambers were found for the keeping of Reliquien, however alreadylong ago geplündert were. The most well-known and most important Stupa from the time king Ashokas is „the large Stupa “from Sanchi.
Today there is a multiplicity of buddhistischer Heiligtümer, those in south, east and Southeast Asia for itself in requirementtake remnants (e.g. to accommodate a tooth or a bone) of the Buddha Shakyamuni. To it belong the golden rock and the Shwedagon Pagode in Myanmar or „the tooth temple “from Kandy on Sri Lanka.
training traditions of the Buddhismus
the large, today still received Lehrtraditonenthe Buddhismus are
- the portal Buddhismus offers quotations an overview of the articles to Buddhismus in Wikipedia.
- Figures with the designation Buddha in different faith directions are in that List of Buddhas collected.
- Andreas Gruschke: The life Buddhas. Freiburg 2002, ISBN 3451269341
- Hans's Wolfgang Schumann: The historical Buddha. Cologne, 1982, ISBN of 3424007277
- peoples Zotz: Buddha. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 2001 (6. Edition), ISBN 3499504774
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