Buddhismus is religion, whose establishment on Siddhartha Gautama, which historical Buddha decreases/goes back, in 5. Jh. v. Chr. in north India lived. With world-wide about 450 to 500 million trailers,in particular in China, Bhutan, Japan, Kambodscha, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Thailand, Tibet and Viet Nam, he ranks among the five large world religions.
Table of contents
of the Buddhismus originally developed on the Indian Subkontinent, where Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama; approx. 563 v. Chr. until 483 v.Chr) as a prince in the local king sex of the Shakya into Lumbini, in the northIndian Principality of Kapilavastu, to the world came. At the age of 35 years he attained after the teachingsthe Buddhismus Bodhi („illuminating “, „awaking “) and was called in the consequence „the Buddha “, „illuminated “or „awakenings “.
Since its emergence the Buddhismus developed different variants regarding its Dogmatismus between philosophy and faith teachings with different degrees at more religious Tolerance in relation to other faith systems. Regarding its origins and on permitting of other faith systems of some buddhistischer schools which can be found also today the Buddhismus can not only than religion, but also than world view and/or. Philosophy or wisdom teachings to be understood(S. Karl Jaspers, psychology of the world views, 1919). That applies in particular, where fundamental theories of the Buddhismus to celestial authorities do not appoint yourself (z. B. the Mahasatipatthana Sutta in Dígha Nikaya (DN 22)). Because only Buddhas successors have from that originally philosophical teachings, no God, no soul, no box and no social differences knows and thus as opposite to the Indian Brahmanismus to be seen can, a theory under religious aspects made.
In the course of the time and by mixture with religions and Philosophies in the regions, into which the Buddhismus spread, developed those religious elements of the Buddhismus out, with which it admits today is. As in other religions also the instrumentalization of the Buddhismus carried in for the development of the people-religious elementsthe policy. One today in particular still finds strong reciprocal effects in Bhutan, in addition, in Sri Lanka and Thailand. A visible role plays the Buddhismus, as in the context of the parliamentarism working Kraft, this very day in Japan. Inthe People's Republic of China to make the Buddhismus politically usable and to lead it in the sense of the policy of the party, z is tried. B. 1995 in Tibet by the exchange of the Panchen Lama by a child, whose parents are party members.
A goala Buddhisten is it, itself by ethical behavior, the cultivation of the virtues (five Silas), the practice „of sinking “(Samadhi, see. Meditation) and the development of sympathy and wisdom (Prajna) of the eternal cycle of theTo release suffering (SAM era) and occur the illuminated condition of the Nirvana. For Buddhisten, which proceed from the Wiedergeburt, this is also the release from this. In the Buddhismus one attains the release from Dukkha (wrong, pain, incompleteness, inconsistency,Nullity) due to own effort, by the overcoming of adhering at its „I “.
- „It is to be been a pleasure, a married man? Does it make for fun to be a wife? Thinksover it after. Those, which already fully expenditure-cost, which it is called wife or married man to be, all become their heads to vibrate. Is it pleasing to be female? Is it to be been a pleasure, a man? If itself your eight-SAMness andWisdom step by step developed and increasingly refined, will vibrate themselves all to it your heads. To be female, means to have dukkha a woman. To be male means to suffer dukkha a man. “
- „We are however empty [inSenses of it releases from the illusion that there is „I “or does not hold themselves „mine “], and for something, then we are not neither humans still another sky nature and the appropriate thing dukkha are present. Is it inDivert the sexual driving force of seizing and holding to follow to have? Who recognized the truth, the head will vibrate. “
Apart from self reflection the buddhistische teachings (Pali refer: Dhamma, Sanskrit: Dharma) also on the necessity for an moral-active life,whereby the emphasis setting between the different buddhistischen traditions varies:
- Of suffering (Sanskrit: Dukkha) liberating way is to be committed. Suffer develops by the illusion „I “or „even “and adhering to „I “, because change and life thirst thisPain add. Release exists not in the renunciation of the life thirst, but the dissolution of the illusion, it would give a personal, indivisible „I “.
- A life in accordance with the moral principles (Sanskrit: Silas) is to be led. These principles serve, similarly that Ten requirements of the abrahamitischen religions, as guidelines for the moral behavior.
- The abolition of suffering becomes by Meditation and introspection (eight-SAMness, Sanskrit: smriti, Pali: sati, in relation to the own thoughts, feelings and acts) desired.
To Siddhartha Gautama
see major items: Siddhattha Gotama
Siddhattha Gotama (Pali) and/or. Siddhartha Gautama (Sanskrit) became, in accordance with the excessive quantity, 563 v. Chr. in Lumbini, in today's Nepal, as a son of the ruling family of Shakya born (therefore it the surname Shakyamuni, „being silent from the house Shakya “). At the age of 29 years it became conscious it that wealth and luxury are not a guarantor for luck and it fallow up to explore different religion teachings and philosophies around the true nature of human luck toofind. Six years of the Askese, the study and afterwards the Meditation led him finally on the way of the center and he attained in Bodh Gaya in the today's north India, under a Pappelfeige „illuminating “. Afterwards the Buddha spent the remainder of its lifeup to its death at the age of 80 years with the instruction and passing on of the buddhistischen teachings, the Dharma (Sanskrit) and/or. Dhamma (Pali) to of it justified „quadruple community “, consisting of the monks (bhikkhu) andNuns (bhikkhuni) of the buddhistischen Mönchtums, the Sangha, and of male (Upasaka) and a female (Upasika) layman.
bases of the Buddhismus
Buddha saw itselfneither as God, nor as deliverers of the theory of a God. It got straight that it the teachings, Dhamma (Pali) and/or. Dharma (Sanskrit), not due to göttlicher revealing receive, but rather by own meditative look (meditation) an understanding thatNature of the own spirit and the nature of all things had recognized. This realization is accessible to everyone, if it follow its teachings and methodology. The teachings pointed out by it are to be obeyed not dogmatisch. On the contrary it warned of blinderAutoritätsgläubigkeit and main header the direct responsibility of humans out. It referred also to the futileness of efforts to seize the world by terms and language and reminded a skepticism in relation to the written word or being certain teachings, inother religions in these Radikalität to hardly find is.
the four noble truths and the eightfold path
core of the theory of the Buddha are of it designated four noble truths (Sacca), from which the eightfold path follows fourth of the truths as way from suffering.
a cause and effect - „Karma “
major item: Karma
Kamma (Pali) and/or. Karma (Sanskrit) means act, working and designates sinnliche desiring, andadhering to the features of the world (greed, hate, I craze), the acts thereby and the effects of actions and thoughts in moral regard develop, in particular the reactions to the participant. It corresponds to the principle of a cause and effect,as it generally knows the western world as basis of classical physics and the natural science. While western thinking knows this principle however only within the material range, Karma refers to all doing and acting as well as the non-material levels of theThinking and feeling. All produced either the good or bad Karma or can be karmisch seen neutral.
Good like bad Karma produces the consequence of the Wiedergeburten, for SAM era. Most ambitious goal of the Buddhismus is it to escape from this cycle byno more Karma is produced - actions leave then no more traces in the world. In the Buddhismus this is called entrance into the Nirvana.
the cycle of suffering - „SAM era “
major item: SAM era
SAM era, „steady moving “, designates the sequential cycle from lives, death and Wiedergeburt; And passing. The goal of buddhistischen practice is to leave this cycle. SAM era covers all levels of the existence, both those, which we and humans know, like alsoall different, of the hell natures (Asuras) up to the Gods (Devas). All natures are imprisoned, bound to it in the cycle of the life by Karma: their acts, thoughts and emotions, by desires and longings. Only recognizing andOvercome these karmischen forces makes possible a leaving of the cycle.
major item: Reinkarnation
Reinkarnation (Pali: Punabbhava) and Karma were terms, which already admits in Indian philosophy before appearance of the Buddha was. Like the western Rezeption usually, contradicted the Buddha escapes these vedischen concepts fundamentally and replaced it according to its experience:
Indian philosophy knew Atman (Sanskrit) and/or. Atta (Pali), „even “, comparably with the personal soul of the western thought world. Buddha answered their existence in the negative as individual andconstant unit to be also again-born could. In contrast to it he spoke of Anatman (Sanskrit) and/or. Anatta (Pali), „non--even “. The conception of Atman is therefore part of the deception over the condition of the world. In accordance with the teachings Buddhas develops thosePersonality, with all their experiences and perceptions in the world, only from the five groups of acquiring, the Skandhas (Sanskrit) and/or. Khanda (Pali): Body, feelings, perceptions, spirit moving and consciousness. Which was called in the vedischen tradition Atman, therefore is from buddhistischer viewno constant unit, but in steady, change and offenses understood. It cannot be again-born thus also as such.
Reinkarnation is understood in the Buddhismus thus not as „soul migration “(Transmigration), but as a continuity of the spirit processes. It is Consequence of the mental forces extinct yet when dying an individual, which manifest themselves again again in or several existences going into action. A well-known Allegorie compares this process with the flame of a candle, which anzündet further candles. Neitherthe candle, still the flame, are the same, but without the original candle flame there also the following would not be it.
The cause of the Wiedergeburt is appropriate for implementation, the Karma in desiring after after sense satisfaction, in the impulse its and.
- If youto know it wants who you were, then look, who you are.
- If you want to know, who you will be, then look, what you do.
- (Padmasambhava, 8. - 9. Century)
major item: Conditioned developing
Wiedergeburten carry out themselves,as long as causing impulse forces pushing after realization are present. This „caused emergence “, also „developing in dependence “, (Pali:Paticcasamuppada, Sanskrit: Pratityasamutpada) is one of the central concepts of the Buddhismus. It describes its way of all phenomena in its dynamic development and mutualLimitation.
the teachings - „Dharma “
major item: Dharma
- The teachings Buddhas (limited the Theravada to Buddha, in the Mahayana and Vajrayana closesalso the theories of the Bodhisattvas and large carried out master also). Basis of the Dharma are the four noble truths. It forms one of the three jewels, „the refuge objects in such a way specified “, consisting of the teacher, the teachings and the communitythe monks - Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. It is also part of the 10 views (Anussati).
- The whole of all lay phenomena, nature, actually and it to reason which are appropriate the regularities (see above conditioned developing).
illuminating - „Bodhi “
Bodhi is the procedure„awaking “, „illuminating “. Conditions are complete understanding „of the four noble truths “, the overcoming of all needs and deceptions binding to the existence and thus the passing of all karmischen forces. By Bodhi the cycle of the life, will leave SAM eraand Nirvana attains.
The buddhistische tradition calls three kinds of Bodhi:
- Pacceka Bodhi becomes by own efforts, without which assistance of teachers reaches. In such a manner an illuminating is called Pratyeka Buddha.
- Savaka Bodhi designates „illuminating “those, those by teachers Bodhiattain. In such a way an awakening is called Arhat.
- Samma Sambodhi is attained from a Samma Sambuddha („perfectly awakenings “). Such „perfectly awakenings “is considered as the perfect, most along-feeling and all-knowing form of a Buddha.Der historical Buddha Shakyamuni (from the sex of Shakya) was insuch Samma Sambuddha.
Nirvana - „sore “
major item: Nirvana
Nirvana (Sanskrit) and/or. Nibbana (Pali) designates a leaving from SAM era, the cycle from lives, death and Wiedergeburt. Nirvana can in the long runwith words to be described, cannot be only experienced and experienced as consequence of intensive meditativer exercise and realization. It is also no place, not comparable to conceptions of other religions with Paradies -. It is not sky and no seizable blessedness ina the other world. Nirvana is not a conclusion, new beginning in another sphere. Thus it is a condition of the Zustandslosigkeit, in which all conceptions and desire things - all karmischen forces - are overcome and satisfied. Also Nirvana does not only step alsodeath. Buddha lived and informed still 45 years, after he had reached Nirvana. Final coming up or „sore “in the Nirvana after death is called Parinirvana.
religion and/or philosophy and/or. World view
during thatBuddhismus among the world religions is ranked, gives it Buddhisten, which itself not when trailers of a religion regard, but the Buddhismus as wisdom teachings or philosophy and/or. World view regard, which does not exclude the faith in a religion. The newer discovery playsthe Buddhismus in the west a large role, since the contact of the west with the Buddhismus happened at a time, as clearing-up, secularization and atheism an opposite standpoint to Christian - monotheistischen formed.
Often it is stated that the Buddhismus no Godsknow, which seems to contradict the lived the people religion, which connects the Gods of the asiatic mythology with faith in spirit and forms of the Animismus, in Asia. This shows however rather that the Buddhismus, which sets up behavior and life rules with othersReligions does not compete. Who keeps the buddhistischen rules, is not prevented to practice and nevertheless than Buddhist call themselves another religion. Many Buddhisten in Asia are at the same time members of other, also Christian religious communities. There the Buddhismus human behavior rules andnot he puts, does not missioniert the faith in a certain God close also, but leaves it to individual humans its way to the truth to find.
Apart from the God question the Buddhismus a great many characteristics of a religion, their forms possesses itself howeverdepending upon tradition strongly differentiate:Ritual, community, Liturgie, Askese and Mönchtum, Mystik and Dogmatismus - and a centuries-old tradition in Asia, which resembles the church history of the Christian denominations in vielem, particularly in their position betweenPower, ethics and faith.
However it remains a question of the religion definition, whether this asiatic wisdom teachings can be translated now finally with that European word „religion “, or not, since it possesses certain cultural peculiarities.
spreading of the Buddhismus
three months after the death of the Buddha its pupils in Rajagarha ( today Rajgir ) met for the first council to discuss over the Dhamma (the teachings) and the Vinaya (the monk rules) and in accordance with the instructions of the Buddhato hold. The further excessive quantity took place verbally. About 100 years later the second council took place in Vesali. Now above all the rules of the monk community were discussed, there it up to then already for the education of different groupings with different designs of the originalRules had come. During the second council and the following meetings came it to the formation of up to 18 different schools (Nikaya - schools), which appointed themselves to different way to the original theories of the Buddha. Besides also those developed Mahasanghika, which occurred for adjustments of the rules to the changed circumstances and can as in former times forerunners of the Mahayana be regarded.
in the 3. Century v. Chr. stepped into Pataliputra (today Patna), under the patronage of theKing Ashoka and the presidency of the monk Moggaliputta Tissa, the 3. Council together. A goal of the meeting was it to agree uniform buddhistische teachings. In particular Häretiker should from the community be excluded and wrong teachings be disproved. InProcess of the council was written for this purpose the book Kathavatthu, which summarized the philosophical and scholastischen papers. This text became the principal item of the Abhidhammapitaka, a philosophical collection of texts. Together with the Suttapitaka, the written down training speeches of the Buddha, andit forms the Tipitaka written in Pali (Sanskrit for the Vinayapitaka, the collection of the medal rules: Tripitaka, German: „Three-basket “, also „Pali canons “), the oldest large summary of buddhistischen record.
Only these writings became of the council as authentic basesthe buddhistischen teachings recognition, what sealed splitting the monk community. During the Theravada, which theory of the older ones agreed , on the unchanged assumption of the original teachings and rules, the Mahasanghika specified to no fixed canons of writings and took alsoWritings up, whose origin could not be proven by Buddha clearly.
In the following centuries the theory in south and Eastern Asia spread. During the reign of the king Ashoka (3. Century v. Chr.) spread the Buddhismus over completely Indiaand far beyond that. Also parts of Afghanistan belonged to its realm. In the border area to Pakistan, there affected by Greek sculptors, who had come with Alexander the large one into the country, in Gandhara the graeco buddhistische culture, a mixture of Indian developedand brightistic influences. In their tradition among other things the Buddha-Statuen of Bamiyan developed.
Ashoka sent envoys into many realms that time. Thus the teachings spread gradually over the borders of that region, in the Buddha livedand had taught, outside. In the west Ashokas envoys into the Near East, traveled Egypt, to the Greek islands and to Macedonia. Over Sri Lanka Buddhas teachings arrived in the following centuries at the malayischen archipelago (Indonesia, Borobudur) and to Southeast Asia, thus Kambodscha (Funan, Angkor), Thailand, Myanmar (Pegu) and Laos. In the north and northeast the Buddhismus in the high country of the Himalaya (Tibet) became, as well as in China and Japan admits.
While the Buddhismus found so further spreading, he became in India starting from that 10. Century gradually back-pushed. On the one hand many humans turned to the Hinduismus, and on the other hand it was relatively easy, the Dharma trailers by killingto weaken and then obligatorily islamize the monks crucially. Therefore the last centers of the Buddhismus on the Indian Subkontinent (are, Bengalen ) belonged also fast to the islamized areas. Also on the malayischen archipelago (Malaysia, Indonesia)today - with exception Balis - ruins are to be only seen, which show that once buddhistische cultures had flowered here.
A various advancement of the teachings was pre-determined by the words Buddhas: As teachings, which are pulled expressly in doubtsmay, the Buddhismus has natural-proves mixed with other religions, which know also conceptions of divinities or who handhabten the requirements of the abstention SAMness less strictly or not at all.
„The small vehicle “(Hinayana) adheres to the teachings Buddhas,like it on the council by Patna, it was specified in Sri Lanka and in Thailand, Kambodscha, Burma and Laos is obeyed. „The large vehicle “(Mahayana) mixed itself more with the original religions and philosophies of the cultures, inthose the Buddhismus drew in. Thus z came. B. in China elements of the Daoismus in addition, whereby finally the development of the Chan - Buddhismus and in Japan Zen developed later.
Today world-wide about 450 million Buddhisten live. This number is not obligatory however, since there are strong fluctuations between individual statistics. The countries with the strongest spreading of the Buddhismus are China, Bhutan, Japan, Kambodscha, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, South Korea, Thailand, Tibet and Viet Nam. In India its portion of the population amounts to today less than a per cent. Recently however intellectual interest in the buddhistischen teachings awakes inthe formed layer. Also under the Dalit („untouchable ones “) there is „ the father of the Indian condition “initiated by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, to escape since 1956 a movement, those in conversion to the Buddhismus a way, the suppression by the box system,sees.
In particular the colonialism 19. Century paradoxically in many countries of Asia to one Renaissance of the Buddhismus led. The creation of an international Buddhisti flag 1885 is for it a symbolic expression. Particularly the initiatives from Thailand and Sri Lanka is to owe the 1950 taken place establishment of the World Fellowship OF Buddhists (WFB). Since that 19. and in particular since that 20. Century grows also in the industrialized States of the USA, Europe, Australia the tendency to turn to the Buddhismus.
In contrast to thatasiatic countries, there is the situation in the west that numerous and often very different developments of all three vehicles go next to each other into action.
Organizations, like the 1975 created EBU (European Buddhisti union), set themselves to the goal, theseTo network groups and to include it into a discourse with, which is to favour a long-term process for the Inkulturation and thus development one „European Buddhismus “. A further goal is the integration into the European society, thereby the buddhistischenCombinations their mirror-image-ritual, humanitarian, cultural and social commitment without obstacles to exercise can.
In many countries of Europe it is toward end 20. Century come to a public and national acknowledgment of the Buddhismus. During the Buddhismus in Austria already 1983 thosefull national acknowledgment received, still stands it for Germany and Switzerland.
See also: Time board of the Buddhismus
major items: Buddhismus - schools and systems
gives three main directions of the Buddhismus: Hinayana („small vehicle “), outits tradition today only the form of the Theravada („theory of the older ones “) exists, to Mahayana („large vehicle “) and Vajrayana (in the west usually as of Tibetan Buddhismus admits or to misleading way as Lamaism designation). In all three “vehicles” the monastischen medals are keelsthe teachings and responsible for their passing on to the next generations.
major item: Theravada
Theravada means literally theory of the older ones.The Theravada Buddhismus is the only survivor school of the different directions of the original Buddhismus(Hinayana). The Theravada tradition refers in its practice and teachings exclusive to the original statements of the Buddha. The oldest received writings of the buddhistischen excessive quantity, those are in the Tipitaka ( Pali ), also Tripitaka ( Sanskrit ) or Pali canon, summarized basis for itare. This „three-basket “(Pitaka: Basket) consists of the following parts:
- The rules for the community (Sangha) of the buddhistischen monks and nuns - Vinaya, see also: Vinayapitaka
- the training speeches of the Buddha - Sutta, see also: Suttapitaka
- a philosophicalSystematization of the teachings Buddhas - Abhidhamma, see also: Abhidhammapitaka
the stress is appropriate for individual from own Kraft after the Arhat - ideal in the Theravada on the release way. Theravada is particularly in the countries of south and Southeast Asia common: Sri Lanka,Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Kambodscha.
major item: Mahayana Buddhismus
of the Mahayana - Buddhismus („large vehicle “) decreases itself/goes back central to the Mahasanghika („large municipality “), a tradition, in the consequence of the second buddhistischen council (about100 years after death Buddhas) had developed. The Mahayana uses, beside the Tripitaka, also a row originally in Sanskrit of drawn up writings („Sutren “), which form together „the Sanskrit canon “. To the most important texts belong the diamond Sutra, the heart Sutra and the Lotos Sutra. A part of these writings is today only in Chinese or Tibetan translations received.
In contrast to the Theravada tradition, in which reaching „illuminating stands “by own effort in the foreground, the Bodhisattva takes - ideal in the Mahayanaa central role. Bodhisattvas are natures, which already experienced Bodhi as humans, however on entering into the Parinirvana did without to likewise reach in order to help instead of its all other humans, in the long run all natures, this goal.
major item: Vajrayana
Vajrayana, in the west usually as Tibetan Buddhismus or also false way as Lamaism admits, is a collective term for different schools. It is basedon the philosophical bases of the Mahayana, this supplements however around tantrische techniques, which are to accelerate the path clearly for illuminating. To these techniques belong beside the Meditation among other things visualization (mental projection), the Rezitieren of Mantras and further tantrische exercises,to those rituals, inaugurations and Guruyoga (with the spirit of the teacher) belong. The Tibetan Buddhismus attaches particular importance to direct transmission of instructions from teacher to pupil. An important authority of the Tibetan Buddhismus is the Dalai Lama, thatoften as head of the Gelug - school and as political head of the Exiltibeter is seen.
The four hauptschule of the Tibetan Buddhismus are:
- Nyingmapa („the old persons “): The oldest Tibetan school, decreasing/going back on Padmasambhava (8. Century).
- Kagyüpa („line of the verbal excessive quantity “):Based of Marpa and its pupil Milarepa (11. Century).
- Sakyapa („grey earth “): After the monastery created by Khön Könchog Gyalpo designated (11. Century).
- Gelugpa („the virtue clinging “): Based of Tsongkhapa (14. Century).
Tibetan Buddhismus is today inTibet, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Ladakh, Sikkim, who spreads Mongolia, Burjatien and Kalmükien.
After the introduction of the Vajrayana to Tibet has itself in 9. Century this kind of the Buddhismus in China as
- Mi-tsung or also Chen yen (esoterischer Buddhismus) mentioned and established.
Itstill in the same century to Japan one transferred. There Vajrayana in
- the Shingon - school is taught.
- W. Rahula (1963) whichthe Buddha teaches ISBN 3282000383
- Heinz Bechert: The Buddhismus I: The Indian Buddhismus and its bypasses. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3170153331
- Heinz Bechert, R. Gombrich: The Buddhismus: History and present. 2. Edition. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3406421385
- Edward Conze: ThatBuddhismus: Nature and development. 10. Edition. Kohl hammer, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3170135058
- Hansjörg Pfister: Philosophical introduction in the early Buddhismus. Publishing house Reith & Pfister, Bötzingen 2004, ISBN 3980562999
- Verena Reichle: The basic ideas of the Buddhismus. 11. Edition. Fischer, Frankfurt 2003, ISBN 3596121469
- Lambert Schmithausen: Buddhismus and faith wars, in: Peter Herrmann (Hrsg.): Faith wars of the past and present. Goettingen, 1997
- Hans's W. Schumann: Manual Buddhismus: The central teachings - origin and present. Diederichs, Munich 2000, ISBN 3720521532
- Gerhard Szczesny: The one message andthe many erring ways. 2004, ISBN of 3826027078 (critical argument with the Buddhismus)
- peoples Zotz: History of buddhistischen philosophy. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-499-55537-9
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