the Bukowina (German beech country; Ukrainian: Буковина; Romanian: Bucovina) is a historical landscape in South-east Europe. The northern half belonged to the Ukraine and is part of the Oblast Czernowitz. The southern half overthe city Suceava belonged to Romania and is part of the Judeţul Suceava and the Judeţul Botoşani. Here also the monasteries archipelago of the Moldauklöster lies in the Unesco - world inheritance are taken up. East the Bukowina lies the historical landscape Bessarabien, whose main part the State of Moldavia forms, northwest of it Galizien.
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the landscape borders in the southwest on the Karpaten, the transition after filter defiency guarantees forms from the Dracula - novel well-known borrowing OI ASS. Into the Karpaten the rivers Siret and Moldova rise, after the latterlandscape and Principality of Moldau are designated. Into the north the country changes into the level and is enough to at the Dnestr. Also the Pruth, the eastern border river of Romania, flows by the Bukowina.
historical capitalis Czernowitz. The duchy Bukowina extended in the year 1900 to 10.041 km ² and had 730,000 inhabitants. The population was very strongly mixed, whereby beside Ukrainern and Romanian the portion of the Jews particularly in the area around Czernowitz very muchwas important. The portion of the German settlers (beech land or Bukowinadeut) amounted to 1910 approx. 21%.
in the Middle Ages was the duchy Bukowina part of the Principality of Moldau. 1776 followed itthe peace of Küçük Kaynarca at Austria, which could be recompenced in such a way for its „mediator services “ between the Osmani realm and Russia. Originally it was administered as part of Galiziens and only 1849 to the independent crowning country.
German settlers and German and/or.jiddischsprachige Jews, who immigrated already soon after the seizure of power of Austria, carried for the economic and cultural development of the country in 19. Century. After 1776 and in the course entire 19. Century flowed in many Ukrainer from Galizien. Those remained neverthelessRomanians the largest subpopulation of the Bukowina to it only 1880 were proportionately crossed by the Ukrainer 5:4.
1939 closed Germanywith the Soviet Union before outbreak of the Second World War the Hitler Stalin pact. In a secret supplementary protocol the territorial spheres of interest of the two countries were specified in north, east and south Europe. In this supplementary protocol was only the speech of Bessarabien, but thoseSoviet Union occupied to 28. June 1940 beside the territory Bessarabiens also the northern part of the Bukowina. To 5. September 1940 became in Moscow between a German commission and the assigned one of the Aussenkommissariat of the USSR „the agreement over the resettlement thatethnic German population from the areas Bessarabiens and the northern Bukowina into the German Reich “signs. For the resettlement became the time of 15. September to 15. November agrees. Bukowinadeut became into the German Reich or into occupied areas in Poland resettled. Ten thousands Romanians were killed or deportiert to central Asia. The fixing of the boundaries of 1940 did not completely follow the ethnical settlement areas, so that numerous Romanians and Ukrainer on that remain to different side in each case. 1941 conquered Romanian troops Soviet occupied areaback. Many Jews were murdered in the 40's (see Transnistria) or driven out. 1944 were again divided the Bukowina by the Muscovite contract after the borders from 1940. The northern part belongs since then to the Ukraine, the southern partto Romania.
culture bloom and fall
for geographical and historical reasons developed into the Bukowina a multi-cultural, German-language literature. Czernowitzbecame a center of intensive handels and culture exchange between the neighbouring countries. The center formed the 1875 in Czernowitz created Franz Josephs university. The most famous author of the Bukowina of the late nineteenth century was Karl Emil Franzos (1848-1904), the first publisher that Collected works George Büchners (1813-1837). After the First World War, when the Bukowina became part of the Romanian kingdom, the German-language should culture a second, last bloom under Alfred Margul Sperber (1898-1967), rose foreigner (1901-1988), Alfred Kittner (1906-1991) as well as Paul Celan (1920-1970) to experience,in order to call only some few, sounding name from poets the Bukowina of GermanJewish origin. Also Ninon Hessian, geb. Foreigner, the third wife Hermann Hesses was born 1895 in Czernowitz. The increasing nationalism set for the process of these Jewish Akkulturationhowever a sudden end. During the Second World War most were deportiert in extermination camps. Today one speaks for this ground of the sunk literature landscape of the Bukowina.
of cities in the Nordbukowina (Ukraine)
- Berehomet (Berhomet)
- Tchernivtsi (Cernăuţi)
- Hertsa (Herţa)
- Hlyboka (Hliboca)
- Khotyn (Hotin)
- Kitsman' (Kotzman, Coţmani)
- Luzhany (Lujeni)
- Storozhynets' (Storojineţ)
- Vashkivtsi (Waschkautz, Văscăuţi)
- Vyzhnytsia (Wischnitza, Wiznitz)
of cities in the Südbukowina (Romania)
- portal: Romania
- German-language minorities
- Schtetl - (jiddisch for by the majority Jewish town or such a borough)
- list of German designations of Ukrainian places
- of pictorials leaders by the Bukowina of Hermann central man, ISBN 3854760485 
- blue owl wrong. Bukowina 1940-1944 hrsg. by Bernhard Albers, ISBN 3-89086-806-1
Web on the left of
- the monasteries of the Bukowina
- Czernowitz/Bukowina - where humans and books lived
- extensive link sideto Bukowina
- Bukowina.info: Pictures and documents
- number of texts from the Bukowina, Rimbaud publishing house
- Bukovina Jews World union
- Bukowina institute and dock DL archives
- the symbols of the Ukraine, the Bukowina and the symbols of Czernowitz
- Ukrainer in the Bukowina (map)