Land of the Federal Republic (Germany)

Land of the Federal Republic is the colloquial name for a member state of the Federal Republic of Germany.

However „Land of the Federal Republic is “actually a misleading designation, because it suggests a subordination of the countries to the federation and does not show their autonomy, because the German countries are states in the sense of the public law. The correct and also designation used by the Basic Law is therefore „countries “of the Federal Republic.

This distinction is not completely insignificant, because after the Second World War in the west of the occupied German one of Reich first new countries developed as national administrative units(see history of the German countries starting from 1945) and of them the federation (the Federal Republic of Germany) was formed as a succession state (konstitutives element). In contrast to it the development of occupied Austria stands. There first the federation was revived and afterwards as its partial states the there Lands of the Federal Republic.

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Karte Deutschlands mit eingezeichneten Grenzen der Länder

Country Prime Minister Regierungskoalition surface [km ²] inhabitant inhabitant density (Einw. for each km ²) voices in
the Upper House of Parliament
portal capital
(1) Baden-Wuerttemberg Günther Oettinger (CDU) CDU/FDP 35,752 10.717.419 299 6 (portal) Stuttgart
(2) Bavaria Dr. Edmund Stoiber (CSU) CSU - however government 70,549 12.444.000 176 6 (portal) Munich
(3) Berlin Klaus Wowereit (SPD) SPD/the left Party of Democratic Socialism 892 3.390.444 3,800 4 (portal) Berlin
(4) Brandenburg Matthias place-hit a corner (SPD) SPD/CDU 29,477 2.567.704 87 4 (portal) potsdam
(5) Bremen Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) SPD/CDU 404 662,990 1,641 3 (portal) Bremen
(6) Hamburg oils of Beust (CDU) CDU - however government 755 1.737.000 2,300 3 (portal) Hamburg
(7) Hessen Roland cook (CDU) CDU - however government 21,115 6.097.800 288 5 (portal) Wiesbaden
(8) Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Harald Ringstorff (SPD) SPD/the left Party of Democratic Socialism 23,174 1.726.000 74 3 (portal) Schwerin
(9) Lower Saxony Christian Wulff (CDU) CDU/FDP 47,618 8.000.909 168 6 (portal) Hanover
(10) North Rhine-Westphalia Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) CDU/FDP 34,084 18.075.352 530 6 (portal) Duesseldorf
(11) Rhineland-Palatinate briefly Beck (SPD) SPD - however government 19,847 4.059.000 204 4 (portal) Mainz
(12) Saarland Peter Müller (CDU) CDU - however government 2,569 1.057.502 411 3 (portal) Saarbruecken
(13) Saxonia George Milbradt (CDU) CDU/SPD 18,415 4.288.796 232 4 (portal) Dresden
(14) Saxonia-Anhalt Wolfgang Böhmer (CDU) CDU/SPD 20,445 2.523.000 123 4 (portal) Magdeburg
(15) Schleswig-Holstein Peter Harry Carstensen (CDU) CDU/SPD 15,763 2.823.000 179 4 (portal) Kiel
(16) Thuringia Dieter existing building (CDU) CDU - however government 16,172 2.355.280 145 4 (portal) Erfurt
entire (Germany) Dr. Angela Merkel CDU/SPD 357,026 82.501.000 231 69 (portal) Berlin

the data to the number of inhabitants is as follows dated:

further arrangement

Vertikale Verwaltungsstruktur Deutschlands

vertical administrative structure of Germany

the city states Berlin and Hamburg are legally seen at the same time in each case a country and a city and are not further in municipalities subdivided (the districts of these cities to have another meaning). The country Bremen consists of the municipality Bremen and the city Bremerhaven. In the remaining German countries there are following further administrative and autonomy units:

  • Governmental districts: The large countries Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Hessen, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxonia are divided into governmental districts. The districts are decentralized units of the Landesverwaltung. The partitioning of the countries Lower Saxony (to 31. December 2004), Rhineland-Palatinate (to 31. December 1999) and Saxonia-Anhalt (to 31. December 2003) was waived in the past years. Into Rhineland-Palatinate stepped funktionsteilig to the place of the three district administrations two structure and permission managements as well as a supervision and a service management. Besides there is in the region Pfalz at the beginning 19. Century developed district federation Pfalz.
  • Districts: Each surface state is partitioned into districts (called in some Lands of the Federal Republic also circles). Altogether there are at present 323 districts in Germany. In addition the 117 circle-free cities ( inclusive the two urban areas in Bremen) come, which do not belong to a district, but the tasks of the districts notice, if form an own circle and therefore also urban areas are called. The districts are regional administrative bodies, which have directly selected organs.
  • Municipalities: Municipalities are the smallest independent territorial units. In Germany there are at present 12,320 municipalities and 248 municipality-free areas (conditions: 1. March 2006). Cities are usually municipalities, which may lead only the designation city (municipal law compares). This is authentic either historically and was usually connected with numerous privileges in the Middle Ages (z. B. own taxes), or however this concerns larger municipalities, to which due to its current meaning and setting of tasks the designation city is again lent (depending upon country this is handled very different). The municipalities are regional administrative bodies, which have directly selected organs.

history of the German countries starting from 1945

the countries are the result of the territorial reorganisation of Germany after 1945. Within the four zones of occupation there was at the beginning of 16 countries, which were essentially formed from the following areas:

  • American zone of occupation:
    • Bavaria: Main part of the country Bavaria, whereby Lindau belonged to Bremen to French
    • zone of occupation: Country Bremen
    • Hessen: Main part of the country Hessen, main part of the Prussian province Hessen Nassau
    • Württemberg bathing: Northern part of the country Württemberg, northern part of the country bathing
  • French zone of occupation:
    • Württemberg Hohenzollern: South part of the country Württemberg, Prussian Exklave Hohenzollern
    • Rhineland-Palatinate: South part of the Prussian Rhine province, western part of the Prussian province Hessen Nassau, southwest part of the country Hessen (Rhinehesse), Bavarian Pfalz
    • bathing: South part of the country bathing
  • Soviet zone of occupation:
    • Saxonia: Country Saxonia, westernmost part of the Prussian province Niederschlesien
    • Saxonia-Anhalt: Main part of the Prussian province Saxonia, country notion
    • Thuringia: Country Thuringia, south part of the Prussian province Saxonia
    • Brandenburg: Main part of the Prussian province Brandenburg (without new Mark)
    • Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Country Mecklenburg, western part of the Prussian province Pommern

To 23. Result to August 1946 from the regulation No. 46 of the British military government „concerning the dissolution of the provinces of the former country Prussia in the British zone and their new formation as independent countries “ the countries Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein. Hamburg remained independent country. The country Rhineland-Palatinate was likewise created 1946 by regulation of the French military government.

The hessian condition became of the condition-advisory state meeting in Wiesbaden to 29. October 1946 decided, stepped at the 1. December 1946 by popular vote into force and was thus the first postwar condition of Germany.

The condition of the Free State of Bavaria became at the 1. December 1946 in a popular vote accepted.

To 25. February 1947 decided the allied control council the dissolution of Prussia. Up to then Prussia with its provinces beside the again-created countries existed away.

To 8. May 1949 is adopted the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia and Hamburg become Lands of the Federal Republic. Also Schleswig-Holstein becomes with the 1949 of the first selected Schleswig Holsteini federal state parliament adopted national statute, to 12. January 1950 into force stepped, Land of the Federal Republic. Berlin (west) had always a special status.

To 25. April 1952 bathing, Württemberg bathing and Württemberg Hohenzollern to the country Baden-Wuerttemberg were combined.

In the same year the countries in the GDR were not relieved formally dissolved, however of their management functions, which equaled a de-facto-dissolution; to their place stepped 14 districts and east Berlin, which were called officially „Berlin - capital of the GDR “.

1957 became the Saarland as 10. Country taken up to the Federal Republic of Germany, remained however economically until 1959 with France.

1990 was abolished the districts in the area of the GDR and the five former countries were again established (the former Mecklenburg received the name Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), partly with changed borders. They became just like Berlin - Berlin (west) was to date no adequate Land of the Federal Republic - countries of the Federal Republic of Germany.

A reorganisation of the federal territory due to article 29 GG is brought again and again into the political discussion. However a fusion of Berlin and Brandenburg failed last because of the will of the brandenburgischen population. The combination of two Lands of the Federal Republic (or the separation) is the only case, in which the Basic Law plans a popular vote. Apart from fusions partly also divisions are discussed. Thus for example the Frankish federation demands a splitting off of Franconia from the Free State of Bavaria. Up-to-date however no splitting off movement has chance for success.

flags of the German countries

Landesflagge von Baden-Württemberg Staatsflagge des Freistaates Bayern Landesflagge des Landes Berlin Landesflagge Brandenburgs
Country Baden-Wuerttemberg Free State of Bavaria Land Berlin country Brandenburg
Landesflagge von Bremen Landesflagge Hamburgs Landesflagge Hessens Landesflagge von Meckenburg-Vorpommern
free Hanseatic city Bremen free one and Hanseatic city Hamburg country Hessen Land Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
Landesflagge Niedersachsens Landesflagge von Nordrhein-Westfalen Landesflagge von Rheinland-Pfalz Landesflagge des Saarlandes
country Lower Saxony country North Rhine-Westphalia country Rhineland-Palatinate Saarland
Landesflagge Sachsens Landesflagge von Sachsen-Anhalt Landesflagge von Schleswig-Holstein Landesflagge Thüringens
Free State Saxonia country Saxonia-Anhalt country Schleswig-Holstein Free State Thuringia

are represented the national flags of the countries here. They may be shown in the public by each citizen. The national service flags however are strongly reduced in the use - they may be used only by the respective Land authorities.

The Free State of Bavaria possesses two state flags on an equal footing: once the white-blue gerautete flag represented here, on the other hand the flag with horizontal strips in the colors white and blue (see z. B. here: Bavaria).

In the following countries there is no difference between national flag and national service flag: Bavaria, Brandenburg, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland. Of Bremen the national flags with coats of arms (in two variants) may be used also by the citizens.

The national service flags of the following countries show additionally Landeswappen: Baden-Wuerttemberg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxonia, Saxonia-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia. The citizens of Berlin service flag shows instead of the bear of the national flag complete Landeswappen.

see also

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