Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso
Flagge Burkina Fasos
Wappen Burkina Fasos
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Unité, Progrès, Justice
(frz., „unit, progress, justice “)

office language French
capital Ouagadougou
system of government Republic of
president Blaise Compaoré
prime minister Paramanga Ernest Yonli
surface 274,200 km ²
highest collection Ténakourou (749 m)
number of inhabitants 13,925,313 (S 2005)
population density of 51 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 352 US-$ (2004)
independence from France to 5. August 1960
Währung CFA-Franc
Zeitzone UTC
Nationalhymne Une Seule Nuit
Kfz-Kennzeichen BF
Internet-TLD .bf
Vorwahl +226
Lage von Burkina Faso in Afrika
Karte von Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso ([bʊrˌkiːnaˈfaːzo]; German: „Country of the sincere ones “) is a state in west Africa. The country stood until 1960 under French colonial rule and was called with beginning of independence until 1984 the Upper Volta.

The Binnenstaat lying on a high plateauportion of the Sahel lies and borders on Mali, the Niger, Benin , Togo, Ghana and the Ivory Coast in the savannahs of the Sudan , has in the north. Burkina Faso belonged to the poorest countries in the world, drawsitself today however by a certain stability and the cultural variety of the peacefully living together peoples out. Regularly recurring dry periods provide often for large emergency that mainly as a farmer living population.

National holiday is the 11. December.

Table of contents

Etymologie

the name Burkina Faso is bilingual; Burkina Moré is and meant about „incorruptible one, Integrer, sincere “. Faso comes of to the language Dioula and is called „native country “(fà: „Father “, só: „House, Dorf'"). Burkina Faso means accordingly literally „the native country of sincere humans “. The inhabitants of Burkina Faso call themselves Burkinabè, whereby singular/Plural and Maskulinum/Femininum/Neutrum not to be differentiated. The Plural suffix - bè , Fulfulde (the language of the Fulbe ) is taken from the third host language of the country. In the official German linguistic usage the inhabitant designation Burkiner is prescribed;Critics criticize that thereby the use of their self-designation wished by Burkinern also in foreign languages is ignored.Burkinabe finds partially as synonym use in not-official texts.

geography

situation and relief

Burkina Faso lies inWest Africa below the Niger elbow in the west of the large landscape the Sudan and has portion of the Sahel in the north. Northern neighboring country is Mali, in the east borders Burkina Faso on the Niger, in the south on Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo and Benin.

Burkina Faso rests uponan easily waved Hochebene, made of which numerous island mountains stand out. This plateau belongs to the upper Guinea threshold so mentioned. In the southwest is a sandstone massif with the highest collections of the country, the pittoresken spades de Sindou and that partially steeplysloping rock of the Chaîne de Banfora. Highest mountain Burkina Fasos is with 749 meters height of the Ténakourou. Most deeply the river valley of the Pendjari with 125 meters lies.

waters

in Burkina Faso rise the source rivers inthe Atlantic flowing Volta: Black Volta (Mouhoun), white Volta (Nakambé) and red Volta (Nazinon). Also the Pendjari, border river to Benin, belongs to the volume TA basin. A further river is the Comoé. Some rivers in the north and the east (Béli, Goroual, Féléol)belong to the Niger basin and flow to the Niger.

From the lakes Tingrelasee are to call Bamsee and the lake. Some watercourses are accumulated to lakes, e.g. the Bagré and Kompienga artificial lakes small storage reservoirs numerous in the southeast and. The so-called mares in the Sahelrepresent important of water reservoir for humans and cattle. The Mare d'Oursi is a Ramsar - protected area.

climate and vegetation

the climate are tropical alternating-wet with a rain time of May until Septembers and one drying time, in which the hotDesert wind Harmattan dust toward the south blows. The country has portion of the climate zones Sahel, Sudan Sahel and Sudan Guinea.

Mostly the country of Trockensavanne is covered with meager tree stature. At the river bank frequently gallery forests are in this zone.In the southwest the vegetation in the transition becomes clearly more closely, more meager in the Dornstrauchsavannen of the north against it ever the Feuchtsavannen and is missing in the half deserts of the Sahel partially nearly completely.

While the sahelischen savannahs mainly of acacias, in particular Acacia tortilis, are coined/shaped, are Combretaceae the dominating element of the sudanischen savannahs. The Krautschicht consists after kinds and Abundanz to a large part of grasses, whereby the portion of high and persistent kinds increases to the south.

The increasing Desertifikationtry various reforestation programs to advance toward. However in the years 1996 to 2000 for this purpose approximately 23 million trees were planted.

are subject

to settlement Burkini

farmers the large cities of the country to a rapid growth, above all the administrative andcultural capital Ouagadougou can hardly master the inflow of the mostly recent Landbevölkerung. Their population grew in the last years on over one million humans (1.119.775 inhabitants).

In the west of the country the important commercial metropolis Bobo Dioulasso with now 366,383 inhabitants lies. Behind itfollow Koudougou (89,374 inhabitants), Ouahigouya (62,325 inhabitants) and Banfora (61,762 inhabitants). The conditions of the numbers are in each case from January 2006.

See also: List of the cities in Burkina Faso

of national park and protected areas

by the rising population density became thatHabitat that typically the savannahs inhabiting animals strongly reduced. To the protection of elephants and other large game protected areas were proven. Important national park of the country are the Arli national park as well as the W-national park, in which the large game typical for the savannahs observeswill can. These reservations are well opened for tourists contrary to the smaller Kaboré Tambi national park. The Wasserfälle (cascades ) in the southwest Burkina Fasos and the Sanddünen of Oursi, lain in the north, which show the proximity to the seeing era , are delightful.

Besidenational park particularly exist in the southeast and the north further large protected areas, like the réserve partial de la faune you Sahel and réserve de Pama. The mare aux hippopotames is a UNESCO biosphere reservation.

Besides exist numerous forêts classées; smaller national protected areas, which particularly play a role in the southwest, where larger protected areas are missing.

population

of peoples and languages

member of the Bobo

the dominating Ethnie of the state consisting of approximately 60 peoples are thosein 12. Century into the area Mossi immigrated, which constitutes about half of the inhabitants of the country. Their traditional settlement area is the MOS SI plateau lain central around the capital Ouagadougou. While the Mossi a prevailing position in the administrationhold, dominate the second largest Ethnie, the Bobo (Bwa), the trade and the more fruitful west around the restaurant metropolis Bobo Dioulasso. The group of the Fulbe ( Fulani, in Burkina usually Peul mentioned), spread over the whole Sahelzone, populates by the majority the dry north andNortheast of the country. All regions, particularly the cities, are however clearly mixed. The traditional joke relations between the different groups makes here an important contribution for peaceful living together. Further Ethnien is Gourmantché, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bissa, Samo and Tuareg. State language is French, however in rural regions only of a minority is spoken. Apart from the language of the Mossi also Dioula has a great importance as handels and traffic language, particularly in the west of the country.

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many humans often profess themselves to several religions, partly rather loose connections can religion mosque in Bobo Dioulasso reliable one data for the religion of the Burkiner (Burkinabe) be made them with difficulty to be received and the religious communities often change. Many Christians and Muslims still live in agreement with the traditional (or , becoming outdated, animistischen indigenen) faith conceptions of their respective groups of peoples. Burkina Faso only islamized, for instance half of the population are relatively late Muslims. The Christians are with approximately 10% a minority in the country.

demographic development

the total population rose in the last years precipitously. Under the small life expectancy and high birth rates a high portion of young humans of the total number of inhabitants exists.

The extreme povertyis a cause of most problems, from which the largest part of the population has to suffer: Diseases such as AIDS, malaria, Tuberkulose; a high child number of deaths rate and the low life expectancy of 43 years (2005). Dry ones and the Desertifikation force manyHumans to the migration from the land; education and illiteratism lacking often make the clearing-up more difficult of the rural population to different problems.

Burkini Diaspora

the burkinische Diaspora covers about three million humans, those primarily as an immigrant worker in the Ivory Coastlive, partly already since several generations. In the course of the there conflicts since the year 1999 this regularly to the goal ethnical encroachments, about 250,000 humans were begun to have the return to their homeland and meet there multiple problems (z.B. Unemployment and missing accommodations). The violent crime rose clearly as consequence of this situation. Also France, Italy and Canada are goals of burkinischer students and emigrants.

history

major item: History Burkina Fasos

pre and early history

Archaeological finds on burkinischem territory prove a settlement history to approximately back into the time before 14,000 years. The early inhabitants were hunters and collecting tanks before them itself around approximately 3,600 v. Chr. to 2,600 v. Chr. establishedmade.

Präkoloniale era

some today the Ethnien living in Burkina Faso were already for the end of the first millenium n. Chr. in the today's area resident and in autonomous communities organizes. Around 12. Century began the timethe large migrations, which brought gradually the ethnical groups from Ghana or Mali in the country, which constitute to today the burkinische population. The area of the tautly hierarchically organized Mossi , with the Mogho Naaba was dominated astheir emperor, whose kingdoms stood contrary to the small communities of the autonomously administered peoples. Master father of these ruler dynasties of the Mossi is Ouédraogo, approximately in 15. Century over the realm Tenkodogo prevailed. Developed in the further process among other things Ouagadougou and Yatenga. The MOS SI realms kept its power and meaning up to the arrival of the Frenchmen end 19. Century. In the west the Bwa was organized in kingdoms, in the east the Gourmantché and in the north the Fulbe into thatEmirates Liptako and Djelgodji, which were considerably in islamizing the other peoples involved.

French the colonial age

after the conference of Congo 1884/1885 were there French discoverers, adventurers and military, those from the north into the area of the today's BurkinaFaso advanced. By contracts and force of arms France had attained the rule in the year 1898 over the territory and began with the administrative organization of the colony upperall the same and the Niger, part of the territory French west Africa. Sporadically it occurred to resistances,everything of the central not organized peoples. 1919 were created a new colony the Upper Volta with the governor Edouard Hesling and their exploitation was tackled. The French rulers solved this 1932 and divided them under the neighbour colonies the Ivory Coast, the Nigerand the French Sudan up. When after the Second World War the colonial empire was arranged new, burkinische efforts led 1947 to the re-establishment of the Upper Volta. 1956 got it a government advice, became 1958 autonomous republic and reached finally to 5. August 1960 the independence from France.

independence of the Upper Volta

first president of the new Republic of the Upper Volta became Maurice Yaméogo, which ruined the country with its out-curving government style and 1966 were forced from the masses to the resignation. The first republic was finished and also thereby Sangoulé Lamizana followed a military, which changed the systems of government several times until 1980; after four years of the military rule, 1971 the second republic was proclaimed, it followed in short consequence governments of the transition and the national renewal.The third republic existed of1978-1980. In this year the military transferred power by a coup d'etat. President became Saye Zerbo.

revolution

a renewed Putsch led 1982 to a phase of circulations, at their at the end of of 1983 Thomas's sinking era the power of Jean Baptiste Ouédraogo took over. Sinking era was a panafrikanisch socialist revolutionary, which broke with the traditional foreign relationses, at Ghana, Libya and Cuba oriented and the people mobilized itself, in order to concern the fight against the poverty from own Kraft. Hero of the masses, forwardseverything the youth, he designated the country 1984 in Burkina Faso over, brought with its government style however the traditional elite against itself up and 1987 by its close allied Blaise Compaoré was fallen and killed. This réctification the revolution of1984 were justified by Compaoré with the fact that sinking era the goals of even those was in the process too betrayed.

At the end of of 1985 escalated a controversy with the neighbour state Mali over few km ² the large Agacher strip to the open war. This conflict became however alreadyafter ten days adjusted and finally by one of both States of accepted pronouncement of judgement of the international Court of Justice into the Hague finally settled.

democratization

president Blaise Compaoré

with the world-political circulations 1989/1991 found accomodation also Burkina FasoPressure to democratize itself. 1991 were accepted a new condition, which furnished a multiple party system. Selected president is since then Blaise Compaoré, which has the country until today under its control. Political and economic reforms could to today neither the poverty successfullyfight, still genuine liberty create.

past presidents

politics

Political system

Burkina Faso is since the acceptance of the condition 1991 in the fourth republic, which exhibits a präsidialen character after French model. Head of state is the Président you Faso, that after the constitutional amendment of 2000 every five years (beforeevery seven years) one selects and to be once red-elect can.Blaise Compaoré could win 80.4% of the voices with the presidency elections in November 2005, which were for the first time not boycotted by the opposition, and thus first from nowtwo further possible terms of office begin. The prime minister is appointed by the president and is called for the year 2000 Paramanga Ernest Yonli. Every five years the parliament is selected. From that 111 delegates 57 of the government party Congrès belongs at present pour laDémocratie et le Progrès (CDP) on, which had to accept 2002 losses clear with the elections.

home policy

the opposition is welfareless splintered and thus no danger for the president Blaise Compaoré. To call are of Gilbert Ouédraogo led Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Féderation Rassemblement démocratique africain (ADF-RDA), the union national pour la Démocratie et le Développement (UNDD) of Hermann Yaméogo and until recently the portion led from the well-known historian Joseph AI-Zerbo pour laDémocratie et le Progrès/portion socialiste (PDP/PS). Several sinking air tables movements are represented in the parliament; ideological splintering inheriting Sankaras, under it also actual family members (Bénéwendé Stanislas sinking era), could not be overcome in the last years.

The country possessesactive trade unions, which can mobilize several thousand humans to strikes and demonstrations.

The press has certain possibilities of criticizing conditions. Nevertheless unwritten red lines from the Staatsmacht, which can exceed become dangerous, exist, as in the case of the murderedA journalist Norbert Zongo to assume is. The journalists are often badly trained, have few means as the order, and seeming critical articles are launched pretty often even by the state, in order to arouse the appearance of a free press.

foreign policy

In addition, in the foreign policy the relations with former colonial power France since the conflict in the Ivory Coast became, important partner of the burkinischen diplomacy is again more intensively particularly Libya. The country maintains likewise good relations with the Republic of China upTaiwan.Germany is traditionally strongly in development co-operation active. Many contacts and partnerships insist on the level of Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NGOs) between German associations and municipalities and places in Burkina Faso. The German Burkini friendship company (http://www.dbfg.de) is since 1990the network of these partnerships in Germany. Burkina Faso strives in the last years intensively on international level to be noticed and offers itself ever more frequently than aligners of large events, as for example the Frankophoniegipfel 2004 and meeting that African union. The capital Ouagadougou applies for years as safe and stable international center of west Africa.

administrative arrangement

major item: Administrative arrangement Burkina Fasos

Burkina Faso is partitioned in 13 regions (régions), which are administered in each case by a governor. ThisRegions were divided into 45 provinces (provinces), those High Commissioners manage. Among them 350 sections (départements), administered by Präfekten, follow, which mostly form the lowest management level. In the context of the decentralization measures however many municipalities (communes urbaines) were established, gradually are infor the rural sections also land municipalities (communes rurales) develop, in which in the year 2006 in democratic way mayors are to be likewise selected.

regions

regions
region: Capital:
Boucle you Mouhoun Dédougou
Cascades Banfora
Centre Ouagadougou
Centre Est Tenkodogo
cent RH north Kaya
Centre Ouest Koudougou
cent RH south Manga
Est Fada N'Gourma
skin basin Bobo Dioulasso
north Ouahigouya
plateau cent ral Ziniaré
Sahel Dori
south Ouest Gaoua

provinces

Balé, Bam, Banwa, Bazèga, Bougouriba, Boulgou, Boulkiemdé, Comoé, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo, Kénédougou, Komondjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koulpélogo, Kouritenga, Kourwéogo, Léraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala, Noumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passoré, Poni, Sanguié, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro, Zondoma, Zoundwéogo

infrastructure

station in Koudougou

Burkina Fasopossesses a railroad line, which leads into the ivorische restaurant metropolis Abidjan and was up to unrests one of the most important life veins of the Binnenstaates there. At present daily goods and passenger trains operate within the country, the connection after Abidjan are however interrupted.The line was removed during the rule Sankaras to Kaya (bataille you rail), in order to be able to remove the Bodenschätze from the Sahel more easily. After its fall the development was stopped. Over two international airports the country can be attained; EuropeanAirlines, which serve the capital, are air France and the charter company POINT Afrique Voyages. National airline is air Burkina. The road system connects Burkina Faso with all neighboring countries by bitumen distances, whose development is financed partially by the European union.The majority of the net consists of Lateritstrassen; Asphalting work is however generally speaking country under way.

The supplying degree with river and water is generally speaking country very low. With the new artificial lake in close proximity to Ouagadougou should however firstits water requirement to cover its. Shifting voice grade channels was hardly to be paid so far. Accordingly the trade of private Telecenter flowers, in which private individuals make a small number available of telephone apparatuses to the public use. The Mobiltelefonie offers new possibilities; three offerers buhlenover customers and provide even in smaller cities for the necessary net cover. Internet entrances exist for private individuals and small organizations either as dial in binding over the voice grade channel or over in the larger cities boom-end Internet cafes. Larger organizations have alsoDedicated lines to the Internet offerers.

economics

primary sector

cotton loading in Dédougou

the largest part of the population of the Burkina Faso belonging to the poorest countries in the world consists of farmers, the Subsistenzwirtschaft operates and mainly millet, Sorghum, rice and corn cultivate. About 61 per cent of the population must getting along with less than a US Dollar per day. Under the population growth and the climatic conditions the country is dependent on food imported goods. For the export cotton becomescultivated (50% of the export good), whereby the present international trading terms obstacles mean for the Prosperieren of the sector. Burkina exporter of cattle (above all cattle) in neighbour states is traditional.

Only few natural resources are development worthy; Gold becomes for centuries daypromoted and is one of the most important sources of income of the country. The manganese dismantling is to be developed in the future.

industry and services

the industrial sector are limited to food and textile industry, whereby the latter with the competition from Asia has to fight.A privatisation program is under way and recently in Ouagadougou car from Chinese manufacturing under the label name Tenga is installed.

In the handels, building and service sector the Lebanese community is strongly represented, which is to be found since generations in completely west Africa. Also Frenchmenit pulls again and again in the country, above all after the situation in the Ivory Coast created strongly an anti-French climate.

between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for that was appropriate for public expenditures for health, education and

other

Burkina Faso participates in the westAfrican economic and monetary union UEMOA; Currency is the CFA franc. 2005 became in the context of the HIPC initiative of World Bank and IWF the cancellation of its foreign debts agrees.

The feared break-down of the economy in consequence of the conflicts in the Ivory Coast was missing to a large extent; Burkina Faso strengthened in time the connections to other neighboring countries, particularly with Ghana. Load and chance at the same timeare the 250,000 Burkiner, which fled from the Ivory Coast.

culture

traditional culture

traditional huts in the southeast of the country

those about 60 Ethnien in Burkina Faso provide for large variety at culturalTraditions; Dance, music and the use of masks are coining/shaping for the Sudanese Savannenvölker. To many different causes of the community life celebrations and ceremonies take place, with which the cultural repertoire is presented. The Griots is important, for thoseKeeping and passing on of history and traditions are responsible. This happens by verbal excessive quantity of a generation on the next.

Arts and crafts of the numerous Ethnien have its forum with the SIAO taking place in the change to the FESPACO (salon internationally del'artisanat de Ouagadougou).

literature

the Schriftlosigkeit of the sudanischen peoples caused that only with European influence literature could develop, partially on the telling traditions justified. Nazi Boni published 1962 Crépuscule of the Temps Anciens. Further writersare Monique Ilboudo and Jean Pierre Guingane. One of the most important personalities of Africa is Joseph AI-Zerbo, which published numerous works for the history of Africa.

music and film

cinema Sanyon in Bobo Dioulasso

in Burkina Faso have themselves so far noneMusic style develops, which could influence on its neighbours. It did not bring also internationally well-known artists out.Farafina could make attentive abroad on itself some years ago. The local music scene coined/shaped of musicians, those traditional with modernResponding pack, thus z connect for influences and for broad layers. B.Georges Ouédraogo, Amety Meria, Bil Aka Kora, Sami Rama or Idak Bassové. A popular singer in the country is Sonia Carré d'As. For critical textsBlack was well-known and extremely estimated one, who was entangled on the high point of its career into a car accident, at its consequences it some years later died in such a way. Zouk is much likes and a true boom experiences Hiphop with itsStar Smockey and Yeleen as well as Coupé Décalé, the last word from Abidjan.

As a center of the African film work Burkina Faso is considered not least by the panafrikanische Filmfestival FESPACO taking place since 1969 every two years. Internationally became those admitsDirectors Idrissa Ouédraogo, Pierre Yaméogo or gas clay/tone Kaboré. Also Dani Kouyaté and Fanta Régina Nacro are noteworthy film producers. However productions from Hollywood or India are usually presented to the public.

sport

the inhabitants Burkina Fasos are enthusiastic about sport; as in many places football is national sport. To the burkinischen national team occasionally the qualification succeeds to the Africa championship, where it can excite attention however only rarely, thus with the tournament 1998 in the own country, with the place 4 was reached. To the year end 2005it was at place 87 the FIFA Weltrangliste. For the burkinische championship each year 14 associations fight, from which the largest part originates from Ouagadougou. Roof federation is the Fédération Burkinabè de Football (FBF), those with independence 1960based and 1964 member of the world union FIFA became.

With the olympic summer games 2004 in Athens Burkina Faso with five athletes participated; three Leichtathleten, a float and a Judoka.

1965 created national ones the olympic committee Comité national Olympique et of theSport Burkinabè (CNOSB) is responsible as a member of the IOC (since 1972) for the sport in the country; at the youth are basketball and Volleyball like. Each year takes place the Radrennen route you Faso . As a national inheritance African becomes struggle (traditional lutte) maintained, with which above all the Samo out-does .

media

the medium landscape a multiplicity of radio stations became more versatile recruits listeners and private television stations tries recently than competition the national RTB in the last years ,, so z. B.Horizon of FM, Ouaga of FM, Savane of FM or Canal 3. Newspapers are partially very thin and the lack of means and professionalism in each regard become only too clear. L'Observateur Paalga appear daily, Le Pays and Sidwaya, weekly L'Indépendant, Bendré or San Finna.

French media are present in all forms; RFI, TV5, Canal plus and innumerable printer certifications are used by all those, which can afford it.

kitchen

the burkinische kitchen is very simple; Millet - or corn mash (tô) as well as rice are served with various vegetable sauces. Cattle and chicken meat are like, in addition, game meat of Savannentieren. To the basis to the burkinischen kitchen also Maniok belongs, Jamswurzel and sweet potatoes. A sweet food is dégué. In the country many fruits prosper, for example to Mangos. To drinking there are ginger juice, Tamarindensaft or bissap. Of ceremonyal importance zoom shot koom , a kind is millet water. In the cities that becametraditional millet beer (dolo) of Flaschenbier displaces.
Brakina and So.B.Bra. are native beer marks.

Holidays
date name German name notes
1. January Jour de l'an New Year's Day first day in the new year
8. March Journée de la femme day of the woman International day of the woman; only in Burkina Faso official holiday
varying Tabaski Tabaski Muslim victim celebration aid aluminium-adha
varying Lundi de Pâques Ostermontag memory of the Auferstehung Christi
1. May Fête you travail day of the work international day of the work
varying Ascension Christi Ascension Day memory of the Ascension Day Christi
varying Mouloud Mouloud memory of the birthday of the prophet Mohammed
varying Pentecôte Whitsuntide Christian holiday
4. August Anniversaire de la révolution anniversary of the revolution memory of the revolution Sankaras 1983
5. August Fête de l'indépendance independence celebration memory of independence 1960
15. August Assomption Maria Himmelfahrt memory of Marias Ascension Day
15. October Anniversaire de la rectification anniversary of the improvement anniversary of the fall of Thomas's sinking era, officially „the improvement “of the revolution of 1983
1. November Toussaint all-holy memory of all Christian holy ones
11. December Fête national national holiday memory of the events in August; shifted into the cooler season after the harvest
25. December Noël Weihnachtstag memory of the birth Christi

Literature

  • Erika Därr, Thomas Baur, Gerhard Göttler: West Africa, Bd.1: Sahelländer. ISBN 3831714126
  • Raimund hearing citizen, Helmut Nehr, Sabine new way: Burkina Faso. ISBN 3925798498
  • Erich Schmitz: Political rule in Burkina Faso. From independence to the fall Thomas Sankaras, 1960-1987. 1990, ISBN 3-980-19447-7

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coordinates: 12° 16 ' N, 2° 4 ' W

 

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