Burschenschaft

of these articles is concerned with a kind of student combination. Further meanings of the word find you under Burschenschaft (term clarifying).

A Burschenschaft is a certain form of the union of students and former students. Burschenschaften are a special form of a student connection. About 10-15% (150-200 of 1500-2200)all student connections are Burschenschaften. Nearly all Burschenschaften accepts only male members.

The Burschenschafts movement developed in Germany since 1815, seized then however the far beyond German linguistic area to Central Europe and pulled establishments tight of similar student communities in Poland, Russia, Hungary and in the Balticitself. All today's German Burschenschaftsverbände, particularly the German Burschenschaft, sees itself feeling in the tradition of the Urburschenschaft and itself to the native country principle obligated.

In the correspondence „Burschenschaft becomes “often also “B!” shortened.

Table of contents

history

see also: History of the student connections

emergence and program

Ausschnitt aus dem "Stamm-Buch" der Urburschenschaft in Jena, hier mit dem Eintrag von Heinrich von Gagern, dem späteren Präsidenten der Frankfurter Nationalversammlung
cutout from the “album” the Urburschenschaft in Jena, here with the entry of Heinrich of Gagern, the later president thatDeveloped for Frankfurt

national assembly the Burschenschaften after the wars of liberation against Napoleon. Many students had and others in the Lützow free corps along. They sat down thereafter in the time of the Vormärz the abolishment of the German Kleinstaaterei, the penetration of a democratic condition in the context of the monarchy andthe creation of a largeGerman realm to the goal.

To 12. June 1815 in Jena created Urburschenschaft consisted of groups with national, Christian and liberal ideas. To their mental Wegbereitern belonged among other things Ernst Moritz Arndt, “turn father” Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and philosopher such as Johann God-dear spruce.

It called civic responsibility , ethnical solidarity and individual liberty rights in at the same time with the values “honour liberty native country”. Possible this synthesis of different elements was by the elitären beginning, that primarily the obligation of the particular to occur for the whole stressed.

Excerpt from the constitutional charter JenaiBurschenschaft of 12. June 1815:

To arouse raised from the thought to a common native country, filled from the holy obligation, which is incumbent on each German to work toward stimulation of German kind and German sense thereby German Kraft and Zucht, therefore the previous honour and glory of unsres peopleagain firmly to base and it always against the most terrible of all dangers to protect from strange subjugation and the poet obligation met a part of the studying in Jena and talked themselves over to create a connection under the name of a Burschenschaft.

The patriotic thought was the most important idea, for which a great many students could become enthusiastic. In order to communicate this convicition of the whole world, became to 17. October 1817 on the waiting castle with iron oh a Burschenfest celebrated, in which about 600 Bur Germany participated out completely.

The fixed date was consciously selected,in order to remind with the reformation Martin Luther at the same time of the victory over Napoleon in the people battle with Leipzig. To emotionalisierenden commemorative speeches it came to an unplanned book burn of writings, which were considered as “in an un-German manner”. Were burned among other things Symbols of the French and the prince rule, that Code Napoleon, and the book “Germanomanie” of the Jewish author Saul ashtray. Became “blows three-way over the Jews!” called.

This book burn was copied later under other signs by anti-Semitic groups and parties, particularly by the NSDAP. Representatives from the German Burschenschaft were 1933 to it prominently take part.

The meeting formulated and decided then common principles and goals, in order to give to all German Burschenschaften a common political program:

  • political, religious and economical unit of Germany
  • abolition of the customs barriers
  • development of the military strength
  • development of the constitutional monarchy with patriotic condition
  • equality forwardsto the law,
  • introduction of the principle nulla poene sine put (latin: no punishment without law)
  • protection of liberty and property
  • talking and Pressefreiheit, liberality

the program took up thus substantial liberals ideas of the French revolution, although the Burschenschafter rejected these. They bedded it ina “patriotic” and “militaryful” monarchy .

The civil rights are today in all European conditions, also to the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, while the monarchies were nearly everywhere abolished.

In the following year came it at many universities to the establishment of Burschenschaften, these principlesrepresented. These understood themselves at the beginning of not as multiplicity independent Burschenschaften, but as part of a only one large Burschenschaft, which should cover all studentses and replace all student connections existing so far: the “general one German Burschenschaft “.

The combination was not reached in the long run, there some connections theirold traditions held. The Corps and homeland associations of old type existed further.

from the waiting castle celebration to the Paulskirchenversammlung

of the Burschenschafter Hoffmann von Fallersleben in old-German Tracht, painting of 1819

1819 the Burschenschafter Karl Ludwig sand murdered the writer and alleged Russian agent Augustof Kotzebue, whose work “history of the German Reich” had been also burned with the waiting castle celebration. Thereupon the governments met in the German federation issued strict prohibitions of each student organizing at universities and elsewhere. These - designated after the meeting place of the federal daily - Carlsbad resolutions went considerablyon the influence of the Austrian state State of Fürst Metternich back. Ihretwegen were exposed many Burschenschafter in the next years to national observation and pursuit.

On the Hambacher celebration 1832 the Burschenschaftsfarben was used for the first time black-red-golden (Couleur). They became the symbol of the democracy movement in Germany andtherefore later to the state flag of the Weimar Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany and also the GDR.

After this meeting the state prohibitions were completed: All political associations and meetings, flags and badges, celebrations and speeches were forbidden. Informer system provided for monitoring of all student activities.

After the July revolution in Paris the German democracy movement increased again. Gradually the prohibitions were again loosened. Many Burschenschafter were a driving Kraft of the revolution of 1848. Due to the mechanism of a national assembly in the Frankfurter_Paulskirche those were finally waived Carlsbad prohibitions.

1859it came with 100. Birthday of Friedrich Schiller to first official establishments of Burschenschaften in the area of Austria Hungary. Before Metternich had been able to implement a coalition prohibition there with efficient suppression methods.

Burschenschaften in the empire

after the agreement of the realm 1871 saw thoseBurschenschaften its most important goal, the union of the German countries and states, as if reached on and withdrew themselves gradually from the political life. From the revolutionary movement a state-basic organization became, the political spectrum remained however very broad and was enough from radical-democratic groups tonationalconservative.

Burschenschaften in the Weimar Republic

in the time of the Weimar Republic was the largest and most important roof federation of Burschenschaften - the German Burschenschaft - predominantly in the camp of the republic opponents. Also the Antisemitismus increased with the German Burschenschaft and ledincreased to resolutions to exclude the Jewish members. On the other side Burschenschafter were active in many important positions. The most well-known Burschschafter was the realm chancellor and minister of foreign affairs Gustav Stresemann (B! Suevia Leipzig), one the Wegbereiter of the French-German friendship. (see also: German Burschenschaft)

the history of othersBurschenschaften, in particular those the konfessionellen Burschenschaften, must be still entered afterwards.

Burschenschaften in the third realm

Adolf Hitler seizure of power was welcomed enthusiastically by some Burschenschaften. Soon thereafter some its leader as well as the Hitler Youth and the SA initiated a public book burn.

Since 1934 setit it in the context of synchronising ever more strongly under pressure, in order to integrate it as all remaining student federations the LV student federation (NSDStB). Many Burschenschaften extracted themselves from that, by dissolving before. Others led their traditions covered within LV comrade shanks away.

Burschenschaften today

after 1945 came it to reestablishments. The largest part of the Burschenschaften is today in the Korporationsverbänden German Burschenschaft (railways, based 1881/wiedergegründet 1948) and new one German Burschenschaft (new railways, based 1996) organizes. Many Burschenschschaften in Austria belong to the roof federations (additionally to the railways or only) Federation of the academic Burschenschaften in Austria (DBÖ, 1907/1952) or Conservativer delegated Convent of the specializedstudent Burschenschaften in Austria (CDC, 1909/1952) on. These are contrary to the railways however obligation-striking.

The German Burschenschaft sees itself in the patriotic tradition line and unites connections from the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Austria and Switzerland; Burschenschaften from Chile have an association relationship with it.

Still (supra-national) a “native country”, which covers the German speaking and culture area (German culture nation), in this sense a “German nationality” and other positions are discussed. That wantMitgliedsburschenschaften of the railways agree oppose, contradict however the total line of the federation.

The Burschenschaftliche today 46 Burschenschaften from the railways, from the DBÖ and from the CDC belong to community (BG ) . It became 1961 on the house of the Burschenschaft Danubia Munich ofunite connections based, in order to be able to take up also Austrian federations, after the railways had up to then rejected an admission of Austrian Burschenschaften before. These held sometimes also several times the presidency in the railways.

The BG can over the three substantial prominent organs of the railways influencetake on the entire organization. Since partially two-thirds majorities to be needed (e.g. with retakes) it has a kind veto function and thus quite large influence. The BG occurs for the fact that all federations should be obligation-striking. Since they used up themselves also history, refermany critical political discussions also on past events, like the driving out from the former east areas of the former German one of Reich and on the acknowledgment nonacknowledgement of cessions of territory, particularly since the refugees of homeland were not allowed to co-ordinate on it. About 40% of the railways Burschenschaften lean an aggravation in this connection howeverthe Mensurverpflichtungen and politically the nationality term off.[1].

In the same breath „the white” Burschenschaften is to be recognized, which must be considered politically as civil conservative. They form, similarly the BG, a trust within the railways and are all obligation-striking.

The BG-Burschenschaften receives much from political sideCriticism. Bayerns Minister of the Interior Günther Beckstein, even age gentleman of a musischen student connection, criticized 2001: “Right-wing extremists tried to win in academic Burschenschaften and over these at the universities influence. Bavaria sees therefore not away, if right-wing extremists contacts with Burschenschaften maintained or tried, academic connectionsto infiltrate. “

The protection of the constitution of the German Federal Republic supervises at present different Burschenschaften. In Austria against it no Burschenschaft is supervised by the Federal Office for protection of the constitution and counterterrorism (BVT).

Burschenschaften, which belong to other roof federations or are roof federation-free, represent often more liberal political programs: The new German Burschenschaft has itself after internal diversities of opinionabgespalten of the German Burschenschaft. Also the South German trust a union about several obligation-striking former Railway-Burschenschaften, as a federation understand themselves have another adjustment, than most Burschenschaften in the German Burschenschaft.

Outside of the roof federations specified so far further student connections, the Burschenschaft exist themselvescall: e.g. in the black castle federation, which gets in touch only non-striking, Christian, in the ring catholic German Burschenschaften (RKDB), as well as in the federation of German engineer Corporationen (BDIC). Besides there is also roof-federation-free Burschenschaften, which e.g. withdrew from a roof federation. They are often world-descriptive independent and thereforenot to compare with the member federations of the railways or NDB.

considerable Burschenschafter

science and economics

art, literature, music

politics and society

criticism


a frequent Kritikpunk is the elitäre society understanding of the Burschenschaften. With meetings and demonstrations the fascist becomeTraditions of the Burschenschaften and connections denounced. The demonstrations against Burschenschaften have a long tradition. Already in 19. Jh. took place demonstrations and public criticism.

Generally the Burschenschaften a strong purchase is accused to the German national camp. Generally it is to be noticed that Burschenschaften one, in the purchase upthe society relevance, smaller becoming meaning degree reach.

nearly all, except for

a few exceptions, consist the sex picture of Burschenschaften Burschenschaften of connections also purely male members. This points on the fact that in some or nearly all Burschenschaften an outdated sex picture prevails. Women becometherefore mostly as “pretty accessories” invited to certain meetings.

Burschenschaften represent a polarized sex picture, which assigns a certain role to the women and men. Thus it means in the Burschenschaftlichen sheets of 1980: “Our Burschenbrauchtum is always co-ordinated with a certain male group. The human world orderis aligned to the male ". While the public and political sphere belongs to men, the private sphere with the role is assigned to the women as a nut/mother, wife, as a fürsorgliche emotional person. The candidate is educated from view of the critics in the Burschenschaftlichen community “to the maleness”,in order to fulfill its role in the society. In addition the homepage that Hamburg Burschenschaft Germania: “Women, who in-thresh mutually with sharp blade up one that, must have 'ne Meise nevertheless, or?” However it is to be also analyzed then whether men should carry out this ritual.

Some Burschenschaften from thatBurschenschaftlichen community represent the classically patriarchale polarity, with which social production is attributed to the men and the Mrs. the reproduktive work.

dissociation on the part of the SPD

in a letter at Egon Bahr the Jusos Burschenschaften criticized unequally treat humans, women becomeoften because of its sex structurally disadvantages. For many Burschenschaften are rassische criteria, nationality, sexual orientation, religion or the military service wehrdienstverweigerung exclusion criteria for an admission. (...) We do not consider it acceptable, if Social Democrat inside and Social Democrats participate by speeches before Burschenschaften in the fact that Burschenschaften at influence winand their elitäres and undemocratic conception of the world becomes salonable. “(2005)

the Social Democrats work for the moment at an incompatability resolution, in which party members the membership is quit, if they are member of a connection, which the controlling bodies German Burschenschaften, Coburger Convent, new ones German Burschenschaft or Cartellverband of the catholic GermansStudent connections are assigned. Exclusion threatens also members from connections, which do not distinguish themselves “clearly from historicalrevisionistic opinions”, “unequal treatment of man and operate woman” or fringe groups discriminate against (foreigner, homosexual one, Wehrdienstverweigerer etc.).

After protests of different student federations and the Convent of German university graduate federations (CDA) against this request placedthe project group “right-wing extremism”, which had been assigned by the SPD party executive committee the preparation of the resolution “Burschenschaften and SPD”, in November 2005 that the resolution which can be seized is to refer exclusively to Burschenschaften, the member of the roof federation German Burschenschaft (railways) it is clear. The party executive committee of the SPD fälltefinally to 16. January 2006 its decision. It dissociated itself, excluded however a general incompatability.

The party executive committee of the SPD had very seriously considered generally explaining the membership in member federations of the German Burschenschaft for incompatible with the membership in the SPD. On a formalTo incompatability resolution however was done without, because this no examination of the respective individual case would have made possible, besides some the roof federations mentioned out their view effected slandering would have legally resisted. The demarcation resolution of the executive committee gets straight that against the principles of the party and against the resolutionsthe party organization acts, who dissociates itself engaged in a Mitgliedsburschenschaft of the roof federation German Burschenschaft (railways) and not expressly personally from right activities. As far as from this party member and its membership heavy political damage results to the party, the arbitration commissions are as result of a right-national party order procedure alsoExclusions from the SPD to impose can. Other student connections and/or. their roof federations are not affected by this resolution.

To 27. Presidency and decided executive committee of the SPD concretized March 2006 their in relation to attitude the German Burschenschaft and that the membership in a Burschenschaft of the Burschenschaftlichen community (parliamentary group something similarCommunity of interests within the railways) with a membership in the SPD is not compatible. The party advice must however this resolution still to 24. April agree.

In earlier decades it had already given a similar incompatability resolution at the SPD, however after discussions with the student federationsinto the 1960er years one gave up, since SPD wanted to open more in the context of its Godesberger of program the political center. An exclusion of the Korporierten would have concerned at that time, likewise for example the Prime Ministers Hinrich William head and George Diederichs the later Minister Dieter Haack.

Heinrich Heine as a time witness

Heine studied 1819 and 1825 law in Bonn , Goettingen and Berlin between. In its Göttinger study time it was member of a student connection, which was formed later to the Corps Hildeso Guestphalia. 1820 he already expressed himself very critically overthe waiting castle celebration and its Göttinger experiences (works volume 4, expenditure island publishing house, S. 415f)

On the waiting castle however prevailed that unrestricted Teutomanismus, which much of love and faith greinte, whose love was however nothing else as hate of the stranger and its faith only in the senselessnessexisted, and which did not know to invent anything better in its ignorance to burn than books! … That was plays only, where one burns books, burns one at the end of humans.
In the beer cellar to Goettingen I had to admire once, with which thoroughness my old-German friendsthe pro script ion lists made, for the day, where they would arrive at the rule. Who only in 7. Member of a Frenchman, a Jew or a Slawen descended, ward condemned to the exile. Who had written only in mindesten the something against Jahn or at all against old-German ridiculousnesses, could itself updeath make calm…

Heine thus already observed few years after the establishment of the Urburschenschaft attitudes, whose mörderische consequences he suspected: among them one by reason did not limit Deutschtums Manie, stranger hate and merciless Antisemitismus, which were directed purposefully against persons, whom one sells later or killswanted.

Heine welcomed the revolutions of 1848 as a convinced democrat. But already soon it recognized its failure. Its disappointment over it expresses the poem „to Michel after March “:

But when the black-red-golden Fahn,
which appeared old-Germanic deadwoods
, on the new, shrank there my illusion
andthe sweet fairy tale miracles.
I knew the colors in this Panier
and their Vorbedeutung:
From German liberty they brought me
the worst Hiobszeitung.
I already saw the Arndt, the father Jahn
the heroes from other times
from their graves again nahn
and for the emperor arguing.
The Burschenschaftler all together
out means young man years,
which inflames itself for the emperor,
if they were drunk (…)


literature

  • Diana Auth, Alexandra Kurth: “Male-oriented Burschenherrlichkeit. Research situation and historical review ", in: Christoph Butterwegge/Gudrun Hentges (Hrsg.), old person and new one of rights at the universities, Agenda publishing house, Münster, 1999, ISBN 3896880608
  • Helma Brunck: “The German Burschenschaft in the Weimar Republic and in the national socialism”, Munich, 2000 ISBN: 3800413809
  • Ludwig Elm, Dietrich heatingago, Gerhard shepherd (Hg.): “Füxe Bur old person, gentlemen - student Korporationen from the waiting castle celebration to today”, Papyrossa publishing house, Cologne, 1993, ISBN 3-89438-050-0
  • George army: “History of the German Burschenschaft. II. Volume: The Demagogenzeit. Of that Carlsbad resolutions up to Frankfurt being awake tower. (1820-1833) “, Heidelberg, 1965 ISBN: 3825313425
  • George army: “History of the German Burschenschaft. III. Volume: The time of progress. From 1833 to 1859 ", Heidelberg, 1965 ISBN: 3825313433
  • George army:“History of the German Burschenschaft. IV. Volume: The Burschenschaft in the time of the preparation of the second realm, in the second realm and in the world war. From 1859 to 1919 ", Heidelberg, 1977 ISBN: 3533013480
  • Dietrich heatingago, Gerhard shepherd: “Student connections between Konservatismus and right-wing extremism”, in: Jens Mecklenburg (Hrsg.), manual of GermansRight-wing extremism, Berlin, 1996, ISBN 3885205858
  • Dietrich heatingago, Michael Gehler, Alexandra Kurth: “Blood and swotting soil”. Fischer (Tb.), Frankfurt, 2001 ISBN 3596133785
  • refuge Grimm/Leo good Walzel: “The Corporationen”. Umschau publishing house Breidenstein GmbH, Frankfurt/Main, 1986.
  • Peter Krause: “O old Burschenherrlichkeit - the students and their customs”, publishing houseStyria, Graz, Vienna, Cologne, 1997 ISBN 3-222-12478-7
  • Paul Wentzcke: “History of the German Burschenschaft. I. Volume: Pre and early period up to that Carlsbad resolutions ", Heidelberg, 1965 ISBN: 3825313387
  • Alfreds Thullen: “The castle cellar to Jena and the Burschenschaft on the castle cellar of 1933-1945”, Heidenheim a.d.B., 2002 ISBN:393389249X

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