Byzantine realm

of these articles is concerned with the empire in the eastern Mediterranean area, for the city sees to Konstantinopel

the Byzantine realm (also only Byzanz shortens) designation, after the original name of its capital Byzanz (actually Konstantinopel), out Greek and/or. brightistic culture, the Roman commonwealth and the Christian religion developed empire in the eastern Mediterranean area. The designation as “Byzantine realm” is modern. The realm developed from the eastern part of the Roman realm (eastRoman realm, east Rome). Duringthe west realm in the year 476 and/or. 480 finally, existed the Byzantine realm up to the conquest of its capital Konstantinopel went down by the Osmanen regarding the year 1453, lost however after Arab conquests in 7. Century to a large extent its lateantique character. ThatByzantine realm saw itself time of its existence as direct and only legitimate, continuing Roman empire. In this sense the Byzantine emperor stressed the Supremat over all Christian states of the Middle Ages. This requirement could however at the latest since approximately 600n.Chr. no more not to be interspersed.

Table of contents

the nature of Byzanz

the Byzantiner - and the Greeks to in 19. Century inside - and called themselves as Romans ( Ῥωμαίοι Rhōmaioi ), Greeks (Ἕλληνες Hellēnes regarded the word) one used nearly only for the pre-Christian, heidnischen Greek cultures and states. The today usual designations Byzantiner and Byzantine realm are modern origin. Contemporaries always spoke of Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn (realm of the Romans) or Ῥωμαική Αὐτοκρατία Rhōmaikē Autokratia (Roman empire). After their self understanding they were not the successors of the Roman realm - they were actually the Roman realm. This was state-legally also the case, particularly since Byzanz in an intact condition reminding of late ancient times existed(it had no as solid break as given in the west), which changed only gradually and led to a Gräzisierung of the state under Herakleios. However was already before the generally prevailing national identity of the eastRoman realm outweighingGreek.Not only the office language (since Herakleios, before it was latin) was Greek, but also the language of the church, the literature and all commercial transactions.

The Byzantine realm was a polyethnischer State of, that except Greek also Armenian, Illyrer and Slawen as well as in earlyByzantine time also Syrian and Egyptian included, but most areas, over which he extended, were hellenisiert for centuries, thus the Greek culture area attached. Here important centers of the brightism lay such as Konstantinopel, Antiochia, Ephesus, Thessalonike and Alexandria, and developed also the Greek-orthodox form of the Christianity here .

The area of the today's Greece played in the Byzantine realm for a long time no particularly meaning role, there beside the capital economicallyand militarily most important areas the eastern provinces of the realm were. When these were lost, small Asia played an important role, only since the high Middle Ages also again above all the Balkans. As small Asia after 1071 partly and in 14. Century finallyat invaders, finally began the descent from the large fell to regional power and to the small state.

The Byzantine realm possessed - contrary to most other realms of the Middle Ages - also after the idea of the Arabs still for a long time one quitetautly organized bureaucracy, whose center was Konstantinopel. The realm continued to have over an efficient administrative machinery and organized financing as well as a standing army. No realm west the Empire of China could have approximately as large amounts as Byzanz. Thoseeconomic Kraft and Ausstrahlung von Byzanz it was so large that the golden Solidus between that 4. and 11. Century the key currency in the Mediterranean area was (see also Byzantine currency). The emperor again prevailed in fact nearly without reservation over realm andChurch, and was downward given to the aristocracy nevertheless in no other State of a as large permeability as in Byzanz, which a mixture from Roman commonwealth, Greek culture and Christian faith (Lit.: G. Ostrogorsky) always presented itself andstill the thought of antique universal power felt obligated. Only Byzanz, so the contemporary conception, was the cradle of the true faith and the civilization. Indeed the cultural level was at least higher in the high Middle Ages inside in Byzanz than inall other realms of the Middle Ages, apart perhaps from the Islamic range. Also the circumstance played a role that in Byzanz substantially more was retained by the antique inheritance than in Western Europe; likewise the education standard long time was higher than in the west.

In far parts we know only few about „new Rome “. Relatively few documents are delivered to us, and in parts also the Byzantine historiography, those is silent in late ancient times with Prokopios of Caesarea began and in the Middle Ages Michael Psellos, Johannes Skylitzes, Anna Komnena and Niketas Choniates over some completely protruding representatives ordered. If therefore for some periods only “church” sources are to us at the disposal, then this may tempt not to the acceptance, Byzanz a theokratischer state was.The religion probably often was determining, but the source situation is particularly in parts and for the period of 7. to 9. Century too poorly, in order to receive a clear picture. Turned around the research today also from the conceptiona byzantischen Cäsaropapismus, in which the emperor prevailed nearly absolutely over the church, discharges.

The older research opinion saw a dekadente, halfeastern “despotism” (so for instance Edward Gibbon) in Byzanz often only. This picture was long rejected (see. JohnB. Bury, Cyril Mango, Ralph Johannes lily and other one). One in the meantime always points out that Byzanz carried out as the mediators of cultural values and the knowledge the antique inestimable. It was besides „the shield of “Europe over many centuriesaway, only opposite the Persern and steppe peoples, later in relation to the Islam. Only after the devastating plundering Konstantinopels by the cross drivers in the year 1204 could not notice the Byzantine realm this function any longer.

sketch of Byzantine history

Byzanz in late ancient times: The eastRoman realm

the roots of the Byzantine realm lie in Roman late ancient times (284 up to the beginning 7. Century). The Roman emperor Konstantin the large one built the up to then old-Greek city Probably Byzanz in the year 330 generously out and made it as new facts Roma (new Rome) in the conscious contrast to Rome (that at the latest since the short rule emperor Maxentius any longer constant Residenzstadt was not) the “capital” for the eastern half of the Roman realmand/or. to the emperor residence. The official name was replaced however fast by the designation Konstantinopel common in the colloquial language (today she is called İstanbul), and also the name “Byzanz” still held itself over centuries. Konstantinopel remained also among the following emperorsAdministrative centre, even if straight time there longer in the early period not all emperors were. Thus Valens and Julian Apostata spent also longer time in the east of the realm (Antiochia). After the death emperor Theodosius I. 395 becamethe realm into an eastern and a western half among its two sons Honorius and Arcadius divided. It had already in former times given such handing hurrying, but this time it proved as final: Arcadius, which resided in Konstantinopel, often applies therefore asfirst emperor of the eastRoman and/or earlyByzantine realm. Nevertheless all laws in both realm halves (they were usually issued in the name of both emperors) applied, and the consul in each case of the different part were recognized. Other researchers count by the way already Konstantin or only Herakleios as the first Byzantine rulers.

In late 4. Century, at present the people migration beginning, was first the eastern realm half a goal of Germanic trunks, like the west and the Ostgoten. In the battle of Adrianopel the eastRoman sufferedArmy 378 a heavy defeat against the Goten, which got south the Danube country a little later assigned. Since beginning 5. Century arranged themselves the Germanic and hunnischen attacks then however increasingly on the militarily weaker west realm. Isolated hadeast Rome of the attacks of the Sassaniden erwehren themselves, the only of equal standing competitor of Rome, with which however between 387 and 502 nearly constantly peace prevailed. 410 the city Rome was conquered for the first time by the Westgoten, while the eastern realm half (apartby the Balkans area) remained to a large extent undisturbed. East Rome however every now and then quite tried to support the west realm (the unsuccessful fleet expedition against the Vandalen was carried 467/68 from east Rome). However the realm among emperors Leo I. had.heavily with the problem of the Germanic auxiliary troopsto fight. It mostly acted to end 5. Century with the acting Magister militum around a Teuton.

But the problem could be solved then around 480 by consulting the Isaurier into the military service, the one counterweight toothe Teuton educated. In the eastRoman army fought from now on again predominantly realm member. The emperors could stabilize their position in the east also relating to domestic affairs. While the last westRoman emperor Romulus Augustulus was set off in the year 476 from the Germanic army leader Odoaker (the latterfrom east Rome recognized emperors was however Julius Nepos, which deceased to 480 in Dalmatien) erstarkte the east realm appreciably. Since that time the Teuton realms recognized the eastRoman emperor on as their nominal upper gentlemen. Emperor Anastasios I.strengthened besides the financial power of the realm, whichlater the policy of expansion under Justinian I. benefitted.

Justinian I., mosaic picture from pc. Vital one in Ravenna

in 6. Justinian I. conquered century among emperors. (527-565) the two eastRoman field gentlemen Belisar and Narses large parts of the westRoman provinces - Italy, North Africa (Africa) and parts of Spain (Baetica) - back and re-established thereby the Imperium Romanum for short time nearly in its old size. But the wars in west and east (against that Sassanidenreich under Chosrau I., that the east Romans several defeats to cause should) as well as the Justiniani plague in such a way specified, which afflicted the Mediterranean world starting from 541, weakened the realm substantially. During the reign Justinians, into the 530er years, became also those Hagia Sophia delighted, for long time the largest church of the Christianity and the last large building of the antiquity. It was an important transition period from the lateantique to the centralByzantine state, even if one Justinian, the “last Roman Imperator” (G. Ostrogorsky), surely stillamong the antique one to rank has. Among its successors then also the meaning and spreading of latin language in the realm continued to decrease always, and emperor Maurikios gave the lateantique principle of the separation Karthago and Ravenna with the mechanism of the Exarchateof civilian and military authority up.

The restoration work Justinians I.

Justinian left however empty cashes to its successors, and they were not capable of becoming finished with the new aggressors those starting from the second half 6. Century at the bordersarose. The Langobarden occupied Italy, the Slawen ran over since approximately 580 large parts of the Balkans. With the death by force of the emperor Maurikios, had been able to close a favourable peace with the Sassaniden and energetically against the Slawenhad proceeded, escalated the military crisis. Since 602 the sassanidischen Perser under Chosrau attained II. temporarily the rule over most eastern provinces. To 619 they had even Egypt and Syria, and thus the richest eastRoman provinces, conquers. Thisby emperors Herakleios (610-641) were back-conquered, who finally struck the Sassanidenreich 627 crucially. After this effort the forces of the realm were however exhausted, and also the senate aristocracy, which had been a substantial carrier of the antique traditions, was strongly weakened.

Herakleios had to oppose propelled Arab no longer much to the sudden expansion of its new, Muslim faith. In the battle at the Jarmuk to 20. August 636 unterlagen die Römer einem Heer des zweiten Kalifen Omar, und der ganzeSoutheast of the realm, including Syria and Palestine was lost (see also Islamic expansion).

Contrary to its rival of many years, the Perserreich of the Sassaniden, itself the eastRoman could and/or. Byzantine realm however nevertheless successfully against a complete Islamic conquestdefend; it had to withdraw itself however to small Asia. The military crisis led and the final loss of the richest provinces to a substantial change in the realm, in which now Greek displaced finally latin. The lateantique structures of state andDisappeared to society in this time to large parts. From now on it is appropriate, instead of speaking of east Rome from Byzanz to.

Which lost the realm at areas, it won at regularity. The antique civilization was for centuries of the existencenumerous larger and smaller cities (pole ice) been coined/shaped; this time ended now. Most cities were given up or shrank on the size of (often fastened) villages. Only Konstantinopel flowered and resisted within one century three heavy FE storages (626, 674-678 and 717-718).

The southern and/or. eastern provinces differed culturally not insignificant from the north and belonged since that to 5. Century by the majority the eastern-orthodox, monophysitischen churches on, those with the Greek-orthodox church of the northern provinces inWere appropriate for controversy. This controversy was perhaps one of the reasons for the imminent acceptance of the new Muslim gentlemen in Syria and Egypt. The north arrived so however at larger unanimity and higher combat readiness.

However the famous system of military provinces became -the topics in such a way specified - probably only after the reign of the Herakleios production, in order to meet the constant attacks and the purge of the urban life outside of the capital. Tendencies, which were present already for a long time, came to 636 into many, At the same time numerous tradition strands ended to ranges from state and society fully for carrying - late ancient times phase of the eastRoman Imperiums arrived at its end, and the Byzantine realm of the Middle Ages developed.

the centralByzantine epoch - betweenDefense and hegemony

Byzanz lost due to the Arab expansion also the naval supremacy and could only with trouble small Asia hold, where to Arab it would attack it again and again (raids) came, while on the Balkans Slawen and Bulgaren pressed the realm, so that theseTime was to a large extent coined/shaped by defense fights, in which the initiative lay almost exclusively with the enemies of Byzanz. Emperor Konstans II. (641 - 668) its residence of 661-668 shifted in the Sicilian Syrakus, around from there from thoseNaval supremacy against the Arabs to secure, but its successors returned again to the east. Meanwhile Konstantinopel of the far largest city of the western world remained. Repeated attempts to conquer Konstantinopel - among other things by the Arabs and later by thoseRus - all failed in view of the superior Byzantine fleet and their monopoly, the geheimnisumwitterten fire pin ends weapon, the Greek fire. The realm remained limited in the future to the Balkans and small Asia, in addition came still areas inItaly as well as to 698 in North Africa.

Justinian II.(685-695 and 705-711), into whose reign Byzanz went at least partly again into the offensive, was the last emperor the herakleischen dynasty. In a late often repeated practice Slawen of the Balkans became afterSmall Asia deportiert and there settled. A goal was a stabilization of the Byzantine border defense, it came in the future in addition, again and again to Desertationen; likewise subpopulations were partly transferred by small Asia on the Balkans. Justinian fell 695 however a conspiracy toVictim, was mutilated and sent into the exile, where he married a Chasarenprinzessin. It arrived finally with Bulgarian support power, before it was killed 711.

Solidus with the portrait of Leo III. and its son Konstantin V.

Thoseprobably most threatening FE storage Konstantinopels by the Arabs took place 717-18 ; only owing to the abilities of emperor Leos III., the successful fleet operations (whereby the Byzantiner again the so-called. Greek fires began) and an extremely hard winter, that the Arabs with difficulty toocreate made, could the capital hold itself. On the Balkans Byzanz was likewise in the defensive, could recover Greece however gradually from the Slawen, since that the 7. Century into this area (Sklaviniai) had drawn in.But a new opponent, i.e. in shape of the Bulgaren, arose for the realm which successfully aimed at their own state formation.

The militarily successful emperor Leo III. kindled however also, probably by serious personal conviction, 730 the picture controversy, over 110Years to persist should flicker and several times civil wars left, last the war lasting from 843 to 872 against the Paulikianer. However the writings of the picture-hostile authors (Ikonoklasten) were destroyed after the victory of the Bilderverehrer (Ikonodulen), so that the sources forthis time almost exclusively from the perspective of the winner were written and are accordingly problematic. Leo proceeded in small Asia offensively against the Arabs, whereby its son Konstantin showed itself as a capable commander. As Konstantin its father finally 741 asKonstantin V. on the throne, set he, after he had struck down a rebellion of its brother-in-law Artabasdos , followed the picture-hostile policy Leos away (see council of Hiereia 754). Although militarily successful, it described in most sources as cruel rulers- probably to injustice.Leo IV., Constant in son, operated a picture-hostile policy rather moderated, had however several revolution attempts to erwehren itself and died after only five-year rule 780. For its son under age Konstantin VI. its nut/mother Irene took over the regency;soon however it showed up to deliver that it this not intended. Konstantin was dazzled later, died however at the consequences of the glare. Irene operated again a picture-friendly policy and tried to prevent the emperor coronation/culmination of Karl of the large one without success (two-emperor problem). 802 she, with which also by Leo III. was fallen. justified Syrian dynasty ended. Only Michael II. should succeed to justify again a dynasty (Amori dynasty).

With regard to foreign policy for the time being little was on the Balkans against the Bulgarento align. 811 a Byzantine army under guidance even became emperor Nikephoros' I. by the Bulgarenkhagan Krum destroyed, Nikephoros fell in the fight. In 9. and particularly in 10. Century some important successes with regard to foreign policy were obtained nevertheless, even if under that Amori dynasty (starting from Michael II.) Byzanz first area losses to accept had (Crete and Sicily). Under Michaels son and successor, Theophilos, came it finally to last flickering of the Ikonoklasmus, which however under Michael III., the latterEmperor of the amorischen dynasty was finally overcome. In Michaels reign carried out itself the acceptance of the Christianity by the Bulgaren - in its eastern form, with which the Byzantine culture should become also the guidance culture for the Bulgarian realm. Michaelif 866 Basileios raised year to the Mitkaiser, but let Basileios Michael in the following murder, even and justified thereby the Macedonian dynasty mounted the throne. Michaels memory was strongly reviled - to injustice, as the newer research stresses. Culturally Byzanz experiencedhowever again a new bloom (so-called.Macedonian Renaissance), as for instance at present constant in VII., that of Romanos I. Lakapenos first excluded from the Regierungsgeschäften was. With regard to foreign policy the realm gained besides gradually ground: Under NikephorosII. Phokas was back-conquered Crete by the Arabs. Johannes I. Tzimiskes, like Nikephoros II. only as a regent for the sons Romanos' II. governing, until Syria and Palestine expanded the Byzantine influence, while the Bulgaren was down held.Byzanz seemed to be the way to the hegemonial power.

Byzanz and Europe around the year 1000

the realm reached 10 among the Macedonian emperors . and early 11. Century also its high point. By in the year 987 the carried outMarriage of the sister of emperors Basileios II. with the Russian large prince Vladimir spread the orthodox faith gradually in Russia. The Russian church was subordinate to the Patriarchen of Konstantinopel. Basileos II. conquered in fights for many years the Danube-Bulgarian realm, which itthe surname Bulgaroktonos (“Bulgarentöter”) brought in. In the year 1018 Danube Bulgaria became Byzantine province, which represented a further high point in the history of the Byzantine realm, and also in the east Basileios became expansively active.

Like Rome before, the Byzantine realm fell neverthelesssoon into one period of difficulties, which were caused to a high degree by the growth country of the aristocracy, which undermined the topic system. A problem thereby was that the standing army was replaced by partly unreliable mercenary federations and/or. to be replaced had(which should itself 1071 in the battle against Turks already bitterly throats). Perhaps only with its old enemies, which confronted holy Roman realm and the Kalifat of the Abbasiden, it could itself have recovered, but at the same time new appearedIntruders - who Normannen, which conquered Italy, and which Seldschuken, which were interested in Egypt mainly, in addition, raids to small Asia, which undertook most important recruiting area for the Byzantine army. After the defeat of emperors Romanos IV. in the year 1071 with Mantzikert against Alp Arslan, the seldschukischen Sultan, went the majority of small Asia lost, among other things also therefore, since internal fights for the emperor throne broke out and no common defense was established against the Seldschuken. The most importantProvince of the Byzantine realm was not lost however immediately after the defeat, on the contrary the idea of the Seldschuken began only 3 years after, when the new emperor did not adhere to the agreements, those between Romanos VI. and the Sultan metbecame. This supplied with to the Seldschuken a pretext to the invasion.

the time of the Komnenenkaiser - renewed rearing up

Alexios I. Komnenos

the last centuries of Byzantine history became by an usurper, Alexios I. Komnenos, coined/shaped, the 1081at power arrived and began to restore the army on basis of a Feudalsystems (Pronoia). Important progress arrives to it against the Seldschuken and on the Balkans against the Petschenegen. Its call around western assistance brought inadvertently thatfirst crusade out, which helped it to conquer Nicäa and the west coast of small Asia back. However the crusade (on that it had already come to tensions between the cross drivers and the Byzantinern) had serious consequences, because the later crusades developedincreasingly hostilely. Alexios granted entrance to many Byzantine ports to venezianischen dealers, but the Republic of Venice - paradoxically once even a Vorposten of Byzantine culture in the west - became a serious threat for the realm.

Under emperors Johannes II. Komnenos (1118-1143),the son of the Alexios I., and its son Manuel I. Komnenos (1143-1180) succeeded it to strengthen the Byzantine position in small Asia and on the Balkans. Manuel I. Komnenos did not only have itself with the attacks of the Normanni kingdom of South Italiesago and the second crusade (1147-1149) to argue, it operated also ambitious west politics, which aimed at territorial profits in Italy and Hungary; it came also into conflict with emperor Friedrich I. Barbarossa. In the east it could against thoseSeldschuken of successes obtain. Its attempt to subject their realm completely ended however in the destroyed defeat in the battle of Myriokephalon 1176. In the consequence the Seldschuken knew its power on the neighbouring Muslim realms in small Asia (Danishmendiden) and alsoexpand against Byzanz to the Mediterranean coast.Andronikos I., the last Komnenenkaiser, established a short, but brutal fright rule (1183-85), consequently in addition, from Alexios I. justified if system of government, which was based particularly on the integration of the military aristocracy, broke down.

ThatRichly among the following emperors from the house Angeloi was shaken by heavy internal crises, which led finally to the fact that itself Alexios IV.to the cross drivers and it turned induced to fight for it and its father the throne.When the hoped for payment was missing, it came to the disaster: Under the influence of Venice the knights of the fourth crusade conquered 1204 Konstantinopel and created short-lived latin empire. Thus they weakened however Byzantine power durably, which fatal consequences haveshould.

the lateByzantine time: Purge and fall

Die Belagerung Konstantinopels durch den türkischen Sultan Mehmed II. im Jahr 1453
the FE storage Konstantinopels by the Turkish Sultan Mehmed II. in the year 1453

after conquest Konstantinopels by the Lateiner developed for three Byzantine succession states: Nicäa, where emperors Theodor I. Laskarisin the exile the Byzantine tradition kept, the Despotat Epirus and the Empire of Trapezunt , which under the descendants of the Komnenen already before conquest Konstantinopels abgespalten themselves had upright. Thedoros I. Laskaris and its successor Johannes III. Dukas Batatzes (1222-1254)it succeeded to develop in west small Asia an economically flowering commonwealth and to stabilize the border to the Seldschuken, which were since their defeat against the Mongols 1243 in the fall. Supported by this power base the Laskariden could successfully also in Europe, Thrakien and Macedonia expand conquer and the competitors around the recuperation Konstantinopels (realm of Epiros, which was strongly weakened after a defeat against the Bulgaren 1230, and which Bulgarenreich, which was strongly impaired also by the Mongol idea 1241) from thatField strike. After the short government of the highly educated Theodoros II. Laskaris (1254-1258) took over the successful field gentleman Michael Palaiologos the regency for the Johannes under age IV. Laskaris, it let which finally dazzle and send into a monastery and justified sothe new dynasty of the Palaiologen, which should govern the realm up to its fall.

Michael VIII. Palaiologos (1259-1282) knew an alliance of its opponents (Epiros, Principality of Achaia, Kingdom of Sicily, Serbia and Bulgaria) 1259 in that Battle with Pelagonia in Macedonia defeat and 1261 by a lucky coincidence Konstantinopel again take. The realm was thus restored, but large parts of the former realm area been subordinate no more control of the realm government, because the rulers, itself after thatIn the year 1204 in these subsections had established, were not not bent collapse to subordinate itself Konstantinopel. Byzanz was not only any more the old great power, but a state under many in the region. Michael VIII. Palaiologos' main concern applied however now for thatSafety device of the European possession conditions and above all the capital against renewed crusade attempts from the west (particularly by Karl I. Anjou, which replaced the Staufer in Unteritalien); therefore Michael VIII. went. 1274 also those most relating to domestic affairs disputed union ofLyon with the west church, in order to hold the Pope from the support from crusades. As a Karl I. Anjou an attack prepared, started the Byzantine diplomacy 1282 a rebellion nevertheless in Sicily (Sicilian Vesper). Besides however neglectedthe Palaiologen the border defense in the east, which the different Turkish states, which were established during the decay of the Seldschukenreiches, which made expansion possible to west small Asia, which was lost to the realm gradually into the 1330er years nearly completely.

During itself in(Menteshe, afforded Aydin, Germiyan, Saruhan, Karasi and the Osmanen in Bithynien ), the realm several civil wars (longest between Andronikos II. established small Asia in the former realm area different Turkish emirates. Palaiologos (1282-1328) and its grandchild Andronikos III. Palaiologos in the years from 1321 to 1328; between Johannes V. Palaiologos and Johannes VI. Kantakuzenos from 1341 to 1347 and 1353/1354); both parties looked for the assistance of the neighbours (Serbs, Bulgaren, in addition, Aydinand Osmanen). This made possible the Serb realm under Stefan Uroš IV. Dušan the ascent for the controlling power of the Balkans and the conquest of Macedonia, Albania and Thessaliens. With his coronation/culmination for the Zaren of the Serbs and self ruler of the Greeks Stefan stressedDušan also the Byzantine emperor throne and the rule over Konstantinopel (slawisch Zargrad). It did not however even succeed to it to conquer the second capital Thessalonike and its realm disintegrated after its death 1355 into several partial states.

During thus the ChristianState world the Balkans zerstritten was, settled since 1352 the Osmanen also in Europe and expanded into the still Byzantine Thrakien, which they conquered into the 1370er years of majority. After a first victory over the Serbs 1371to the Maritza took they gradually also Macedonia; the Byzanz become a small state (Konstantinopel including surrounding countryside, Thessalonike with surrounding countryside, some Ägäisinseln, Despotat of Mistra on the Peloponnes) became the Osmanen tributary. Several times Byzanz in the west asked for assistanceand for it even the church union ( 1439 on the council of Ferrara and Florenz) offered, which failed however because of the resistance of the Byzantine population (“rather the Sultansturban than the cardinal hat”). After the battle on the blackbird field 1389 and the defeat thatwestern cross driver 1396 with Nikopolis the situation of the realm seemed offering no prospects, but granted the defeat of the Osmanen against Timur Leng with Angora 1402 the Byzantinern short breathing space.

After the Osmanenreich had however again stabilized, Konstantinopel became again fastfor the goal of the osmanischen policy of expansion and fell after a first, unsuccessful attack in the year 1422 to 29. May 1453 after scarcely two-month FE storage at Mehmed II. The city was long geplündert three days. The last Byzantine emperor, Konstantin XI.,fell during the fights for the city.

The case of Byzanz is a turning point of history. Stefan branch describes the historical moment in the “great moments of mankind”:

Somewhat completely improbable went. By one of the many breaches thatOutside walls penetrated nearby the actual attack place a few Turks. Against the interior wall they do not dare themselves forwards. But as it so curiously and unmethodically between first and the second Stadtmauer mad, discover them that one of the small gatesthe internal city barrier, the so-called Kerkaporta, by an incomprehensible mistake remained open. It is actually only a small door, in times of peace for the pedestrians certain, during those hours, since the large gates are still closed; straight because itno military meaning possesses, one in the general excitement the last night obviously its existence forgot.

The 29. May also today still applies with the Greeks as a misfortune day, because it began the long Turkish foreign rule, during onlythe religion as binding Kraft remained. At the beginning of and final data of the independence of the capital, 395 and 1453, were considered for a long time also as temporal borders of the Middle Ages. To 1461 also the remaining cities became - like Trapezunt at the easternBlack sea and Misthra on the peninsula Morea (Peloponnes) - likewise conquers. Only Monemvasia on the Peloponnes remained free and took shelter 1464 to the protectorate of Venice. The Byzantine realm, itself as one most long-lived world historyhad proven, thereby had gone down.

the cultural Fortwirken of Byzanz

the Byzantine realm continued the culture and the knowledge of the antique ones in the late Middle Ages and passed it on to the Islamic world. Byzantine refugees broughtthere the old writings of the Greek philosophers into the Italian cities and released - together with the printing invented about at the same time - the Renaissance, whereby numerous Byzantine scholars fled to Italy. Longest the Byzantine culture insisted on thatat that time still venezianischen Crete away, which only 1669 could be conquered by the Osmanen.

Until today the Byzantine culture works away particularly in the rite of the eastern-orthodox churches. By Byzantine mission work the orthodox Christianity spread with many slawischenPeoples and the prevailing denomination is in Eastern Europe and Greece, as also in parts of South-east Europe and Kaukasien, as well as with most Arab Christians into the present. The Byzantine culture and way of thinking have all orthodox peoples deeplycoined/shaped.

The slawischen realms on the Balkans and at the black sea took over beside the orthodox church also everyday Byzantine customs. Above all Russia should continue the inheritance of the Byzantine realm. Already in 9. Century came the Rus with Byzanz intoDeveloped contact, and in consequence - to conquer despite always recurring attempts on the part of the Rus Konstantinopel - intensive economic and diplomatic relations between the Byzantine realm and the Kiewer Rus, the 988 with the crossing of the Rus withorthodox faith led. In the following centuries in ostslawischem area numerous splendourful churches were built after Byzantine model, Byzantine priests and monks brought the cyrillic writing along and made the Russians with rudimentary Greek philosophy trusted. Russian architecture and Art has beside Scandinavian and slawischen above all Byzantine roots.

After the fall of the Byzantine realm then the Russian Moskowiterreich transferred Byzantine ceremony in many parts. The Patriarch of Moscow achieved soon a similarly prominent position within the orthodoxChurch like before times the Patriarch of Konstantinopel. Moscow saw itself soon as the third Rome in the follow-up Konstantinopels. Iwan III., Ruler of the large principality Moscow, married the niece of Konstantin XI., Zoe, and took over the Byzantine double eagle as a coat of arms animal. Iwan IV., mentioned „the terrible one “, was the first moskowitische ruler, who let himself be finally crowned officially to the Zaren (Caesar).

Near the continuously operated panslawistische Hegemonialpolitik Russia knows Roman-Byzantine thought of the universal in this sense as FortwirkenEmpire to be interpreted. The Russian foreign policy was directed particularly against the Osmani realm and had in 20. Century inside back conquest Konstantinopels for the orthodox Christianity to the goal.

In addition, the osmanischen Sultane regarded itself as legitimateInherit the Byzantine realm, although the seldschukischen and osmanischen Turks had been ore enemies of the Rhomäer for many centuries and had in the long run destroyed the Byzantine realm.
Already Sultan Mehmed II.called itself as „Kayser i Rum “(emperor von Rom) - the Sultane placed itselfthus completely consciously into the continuity (east) of the Roman realm, in order to legitimize itself. The Osmani realm, which developed in the argument with Byzanz, had the geographical area together with this more than only. The historian Arnold J. Toynbee designatedthe Osmani realm - however very disputed - as universal state „of the Christian-orthodox society body “. A state-legal continuation did not find the Byzantine realm anyhow.

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see also

literature

sources in selection

  • aid:
    • Johannes Karayannopulos and Günter white: Source customer to the history of Byzanz (324-1453), 2 Bde., Wiesbaden 1982.

secondary literature

concerning current bibliographic information is particularly referred to the Byzantine magazine.

reference books

  • The Oxford Dictionary OF Byzantium, hrsg. from Alexander Kazhdan, 3 volumes, Oxford University press, New York 1991, ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
    (Fundamentally)
  • encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, 9 Bde.
  • Prosopographie of the centralByzantine time. First department of (641-867),hrsg. of the Berlin Brandenburgi Academy of Sciences, after pre-working F. Angle man provides from Ralph Johannes lily, Claudia Ludwig, Thomas Pratsch, Ilse Rochow, Beate Zielke and. A., 7 Bde. (Prolegomena + Bde. 1-6), Berlin-new York 1998-2001.

general representations

  • John Haldon: The Byzantine realm, Duesseldorf 2002. ISBN 3538071403.
    (Detailed study of some aspects of the history and culture of Byzanz.)
  • Joan M. Hussey (Hg.): The Cambridge Medieval History (The Byzantine Empire), Bd. 4 in 2 Teilbde., Cambridge 1966–1967.
    (Notmore current, but still useful and detailed overall display.)
  • Ralph Johannes lily: Byzanz - second Rome, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-886-80693-6.
    (Recent and most extensive representation of the history of Byzanz in German language.)
  • Cyril Mango (Hg.): The Oxford HistoryOF Byzantium, Oxford 2002, ISBN 0-19-814098-3.
    (Knappe, but useful introduction.)
  • John J. Norwich: Byzanz - ascent and case of a world realm, Berlin 2002. ISBN 3-549-07156-6.
    (Property readable popular-scientific Byzanzchronik, however without scientific requirement.)
  • George Ostrogorsky: History of theByzantine State of, manual of the antiquity science XII 1,2, 3. Edition, Munich 1963. ISBN 3-4060-14143.
    (Representation became outdated, nevertheless well readably; as extra charge without scientific apparatus: Byzantine history 324 to 1453, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-39759-X.)
  • Peter carpenter: Byzanz,Oldenbourg sketch of history, 2. Aufl., Munich 1994.ISBN 3-486-530720.
    (Property and knappe introduction with research part.)
  • Ludwig Wamser (Hrsg.): The world of Byzanz - of Europe eastern inheritance: Gloss, crises and Fortleben of a thousand-year old culture, archaeological national collection Munich -Museum for pre and early history Munich of 22. October 2004 to 3. April 2005, series of publications of the archaeological national collection 4, Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3806218498.
  • The new Cambridge Medieval History
    (various essays)

lateRoman/earlyByzantine time

see. above allthe bibliography late ancient times.

  • John Haldon: Byzantium into the Seventh Century. The transformation OF A Culture, Cambridge 1990.
    (Important investigation for „the transformation “of the lateantique culture in 7. Century.)
  • Arnold Hugh Martin Jones: The Later novel Empire 284-602. ASocial, Economic and administrative Survey, 3 volumes continuous nummeriert, Oxford 1964 (reproduction in two volumes, Baltimore 1986).
    (Standard work)
  • John Moorhead: The novel Empire divided, 400-700, Edinburgh 2001.

centralByzantine time

  • Michael Angold: The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204, 2. Aufl., London/New York 1997.
  • Warren Treadgold: The Byzantine Revival, 780-842, Stanford 1988.
  • Mark of Whittow: The Making OF Byzantium, 600-1025, Berkeley 1996.

lateByzantine time

  • Donald M. Nicol: The load Centuries OF Byzantium, 1261-1453,2. Aufl., Cambridge 1993.
  • Steven Runciman: The conquest of Konstantinopel, Munich 1966 (and reproductions), ISBN 3-406-02528-5.
    (The standard work to the topic.)

special investigations

  • John Haldon: Throwing acres, State and Society into the Byzantine World, 1999, ISBN 1-857-28495-X.
    (Extensive and profound study of the Byzantine military.)
  • John Haldon: The Byzantine Wars, 2001, ISBN 0-752-41795-9.
    (Overview of the Byzantine wars.)
  • John Haldon: Byzantium RK was, 2002, ISBN 1-841-76360-8.
    (Popular-scientific introduction to thatByzantine military affairs.)
  • harsh ore hunger: The high-linguistic everyday literature of the Byzantiner, 2 Bde., Munich 1978.
  • Ralph Johannes lily: Byzanz and the crusades, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-17-017033-3.
  • John Lowden: Early Christian and Byzantine kind, London 1997.
  • Dimitri Obolensky: Byzantiumand the Slavs, 1994, ISBN 0-881-41008-X.
    (Study to the Byzantine inheritance with the slawischen peoples.)

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