CB-radio

Ein Handfunkgerät für den CB-Funk
a hand radio for the CB-radio

the CB-radio is a public, free of charge usable speech and radio data transmission, a frequency band is assigned to which around 27 MHz (11-meter-bound). In Germany 80 channels with frequencies from 26.565 MHz to 27.405 MHz are located for speaking and 10 channels toData communication for the order.

The abbreviation CB stands for „Citizens' volume “and means as much as „citizen frequency range “.

To table of contents

characteristics

CB-radio becomes more private for all kinds,not-commercial radio communication uses. It is meant more than all other kinds of play of the everyone radio to the personal information and exchange of views. The chances to be able to hold a conversation with unknown quantities are here largest. Due to the valid technical regulations a self's building of radios hardly is by private peoplepossible, since extensive technical regulations and testing methods are to be kept. For the CB-radio in the relevant specialized trade certified and examined standard sets are offered.

With adequate station antennas (their mechanical length mostly between 2,65 m and 6.50 m, according to 1/4< math> \ lambda< /math> to 5/8< math> \ lambda< /math> Wavelength <math> \ lambda< /math> (Lambda),) are variedDiscussions in the periphery from approximately 20 km to 80 km around the own location possible. The range depends on different conditions, like z. B. the surrounding land development, vegetation and antenna height. The weather possesses generally only a small influence on the range, at the most reducedit by in in it genes humidity the efficiency of the antenna or provides for additional losses in badly manufactured plugs.

In addition the range depends, because of the different kinds of antenna normally used thereby, also on the used kind of radio. Best for as large a range as possible is it, at leastto be able to use an adequate station antenna. With their length between approximately 5 to 7 meters these can be used however neither portably nor mobilely.

Hand radios order usually over strongly shortened antennas. Because of the very bad efficiency of these antennas are the ranges of 0,5, attainable therebyto 5 km clearly smaller.

Station devices are technically, with the exception of the inserted power supply unit, identical to the offered mobile devices. A difference of the range results therefore by the use of different antennas and to conditions of the environment at the respective location. With long car antennas (of approx. 1.50 m to2.65 m) can - dependent on the location, more exactly: its height and environment - sometimes nearly as high ranges as with station antennas to be reached. The location possesses thus as with each other radio communication a very large influence on the attainable range. Hereunder applies: The more highly thatLocation, the more highly also the possible range. The range normally is when using mobile antennas with approximately 10-30 km.

In detail attainable range sits down however in each case from the equipment and the conditions of all at a radio link took part together.

Ionospheric phenomena (z.B.Sporadic e) affect the propagation of the radio waves, so that to times of the sunspot maximum the character of a pure close range radio is particularly lost: Transmissions from all European countries and partly even from overseas are to be heard and made local communication difficult. Some CB-radio operators lead insuch times international radio traffic through.

The CB-radio enjoys federal net agency (BNetzA, new designation since 13 according to frequency dispatching of the supervisory authority. July 2005, before it: RegTP) no protection from disturbances by other frequency users (z. B. Baby hair dryers, remote controls for models). Not CB-funktypischen applications callsone ISM services and is often to be found on the intermediate channels in such a way specified (alpha channels). Thus the CB-radio is not a reliable communication medium.

By arising mobile telephones and Internet the CB-radio lost for the 80's at popularity. Until today it becomes regularly still from truck driversbenutzt, z. B.To set off traffic jam informations. During the security of meetings, z. B. Engine - or cycle racing meetings, he plays still an important role.

technical

the CB-radio is an application of radio in the mobile rural broadcasting service. May do only particularly certified and forthe CB-radio certified devices to be used, to which the manufacturer must attach a conformity explanation, in which the equipment one describes exactly. Furthermore the operating instructions must contain clear instruction for the equipment enterprise. All devices must besides by the CE - indication be marked. The devices may of the user neitherwaited to be still changed. The federal net agency assumes today by measurements the devices keep certain technical limit values. In it the achievement of the devices as well as the kind of the sending (type of modulation, range , channel spacing) are strictly limited.

That the CB-radio assigned frequency range lies toupper end of the short wave and hands in Germany from 26.560 MHz to 27.410 MHz (80 channels), European-wide from 26.960 MHz to 27.410 MHz (40 channels).

On all 80 channels released in Germany speech transmission is in the type of modulation FM (F3E) / PM (G3E) with an effective Radiating power of 4 W (ERP) permits. On the channels 1 to 40 are since 18. 05. 2005 also the types of modulation TO (A3E) with 1 W (unmodulierter Trägerleistung) and SSB (J3E) with 4 W PEP certified. Results in the case of the use of directional antennas radiating power of morewhen, then the CB-Funkstation may do 10 W EIRP in enterprise is only taken if the BNetzA assigned a liable to pay the costs certificate of location after the regulation over the proof procedure for the delimitation of electromagnetic fields.

For the speech transmission in Germany frequency modulation is used predominantly. Amplitude modulation predominantly becomes of Truck - Drivers uses, who often use the channel 9 for historical reasons. However the channel 9 is also an emergency call channel. The employment of single-sideband modulation (SSB) on the channels 1 to 40 is to be found the sphere of interest of technically interested radio friends and in practice still rather rarely,experienced however for some time an upswing.

Beyond that ten channels are approved to the data communication. The first five data channels (6, 7, 24, 25 and 40) may be used for all usual modes of operation for the data communication, on the remaining five (41, 52, 53, 76 and 77) onlysuch, on frequency and/or. Phase modulation are based. In practice predominantly those the amateur radio taken mode of operation pack radio used. In addition, in some other, and likewise from the amateur radio range coming modes of operation admitted such as z. B. RTTY, PSK31, MT63, MFSK 16, SSTV and FAX are manufactured radio communications.

CB-radio is European as also world-wide not uniformly regulated. In the USA and Canada 40 channels are available for the CB-radio, whose frequencies also with those the CEPT - channels agree. As types of modulation is there however only amplitude modulation also, However no frequency modulation permits 4 W and SSB with 12 W (PEP). In certain states only frequency modulation is certified (z. B. Austria), in other one only amplitude modulation (z. B. Turkey). In Great Britain still (running out) special frequencies (27.601 - 27.991 MHz) are certified.There are deviating regulations in South Africa and New Zealand and other countries.

For years world-wide „more amateur radio-similarly a “radio traffic on the CB-radio certified frequencies between 26 and 28 MHz, not for, is to be observed. An active use of these frequencies places an irregularity in Germany, alsosensitive fines to be punished knows. Same applies to the use of transmitting power amplifiers, in order to adjust as too small felt range, which often results from disturbances from the close and Fernbereich or because of radio discipline lacking. For determinations and the punishment of offences that is responsibleTest and measuring service of the federal net agency (BNetzA). To win will felt the legal situation of specialists as complex, procedures because of offences against the relevant radio regulations can aufwändig and time-consuming become and are difficult without expert legal assistance.

CEPT conformal channels

on the CEPT conformalThe types of modulation of FM are permitted to channels 1 to 40, TO and SSB.

In the following the frequencies of the CEPT are listed - conformal channels, which may be used in the CB-radio:

Channel frequency characteristic
01 26.965 MHz recommended call channel (FM)
02 26.975 MHz
03 26.985 MHz
04 27.005 MHz empfohlener Anrufkanal (AM)
05 27,015 MHz
06 27,025 MHz Datenkanal
07 27,035 MHz Datenkanal
08 27,055 MHz
09 27,065 MHz Fernfahrerkanal (AM) / Notrufkanal
10 27,075 MHz
11 27,085 MHz
12 27,105 MHz
13 27,115 MHz
14 27,125 MHz
15 27,135 MHz inoffizieller Anrufkanal SSB(USB)
16 27.155 MHz radio traffic as and indicated between
vessels 17 27.165
MHz 18 27.175
MHz 19 27.185 MHz recommended remote driver channel (FM)/often used by milling IE valley gravel/partly also than emergency call channel/also used by Babyphonen
20 27.205 MHz
21 27.215 MHz
22 27.225 MHz often by milling IE valley gravel used/also by Babyphonen used
23 27.255 MHz
24 27.235 MHz data channel
25 27.245 MHz data channel
26 27.265 MHz
27 27.275 MHz
28 27.285 MHz
29 27.295 MHz
30 27.305 MHz
of 31 27.315 MHz unofficial DX - channel (FM)
32 27.325 MHz
33 27.335 MHz
34 27.345 MHz
35 27.355 MHz
36 27.365 MHz
37 27.375 MHz
38 27.385 MHz
39 27.395 MHz
40 27.405 MHz data channel (in addition, FM call channel in Switzerland!)

national auxiliary channels

on the national auxiliary channels 41 toonly the type of modulation of FM is permitted to 80.

Because the frequencies of the channels 41 to 80 are not European harmonized, exist along the borders to the foreign country (exception: Border to the Czech Republic of) protected zones so mentioned. Within the protected zones the national auxiliary channels with stationary CB-radio stations may not and/or. only with a single frequency dispatching of the BNetzA (before times: RegTP) to be used. Portable and mobile stations may use the national auxiliary channels also in the protected zones, as long as no disturbances arise. A list of the districts, cities and regions, which are within the protected zones, is with the BNetzA as Pdf - File observably.

In the following the frequencies of the national auxiliary channels, which may be used in the CB-radio, are listed:

Channel frequency characteristic
41 26.565 MHz data channel
42 26.575 MHz
43 26.585 MHz
44 26.595 MHz
45 26.605 MHz
46 26.615 MHz
47 26.625 MHz
48 26.635 MHz
49 26.645 MHz
50 26.655 MHz
51 26.665 MHz
52 26.675 MHz data channel
53 26.685 MHz data channel
54 26.695 MHz
55 26.705 MHz
56 26.715 MHz
57 26.725 MHz
58 26.735 MHz
59 26.745 MHz
60 26.755 MHz
61 26.765 MHz
62 26.775 MHz
63 26.785 MHz
64 26.795 MHz
65 26.805 MHz
66 26.815 MHz
67 26.825 MHz
68 26.835 MHz
69 26.845 MHz
70 26.855 MHz
71 26.865 MHz
72 26.875 MHz
73 26.885 MHz
74 26.895 MHz
75 26.905 MHz
76 26.915 MHz data channel
77 26.925 MHz Data channel
78 26.935 MHz
79 26.945 MHz
80 26.955 MHz

gateways

since newest is possible it to bridge over HF-gateways so mentioned (automatically operated stations, are coupled with the Internet) far distances. Here a program (z becomes. B. Team peak or eQSO) assigned, that the received audio signals of CB, PMR446, freenet or LPD/SRD radios in Internet transfers and at another place over a CB, a PMR446, a freenet or a LPD/SRD radio again sends. (see also: To VoIP)

newsgroup

see also

Web on the left of

  • http://www.bundesnetzagentur.de/media/archive/1533.pdf - to the legal bases of the CB-radio
  • http://www.hobbyfunk.de - the last remaining magazine,
  • http://www.funkmagazin.de dedicates itself interesting basis information to the hobby
  • radio http://www.funkbasis.de - German forum for amateur and hobby radio http://www.cb-kurier.de - to the topic
  • CB-radio - interesting ones current independent source of informationapproximately around the CB-radio with current messages
  • http://www.dakfcbnf.org - German working group for CB and emergency radio registered association. Partner of the federal net agency (BNetzA) in things everyone-radio-based 1982, fulfills the defaults of the Bundestag print to 9/2274 point 7 (the CB-radio operators may unite in a working group….) of the 15.Dezember 1982, infull extent
  • http://www.akcb-hessen.org - working group CB-radio Hessen, based 1986, member in the German working group for CB and emergency radio registered association. represent the interests of the CB-radio in the governmental districts Kassel, Darmstadt, pouring and Lower Franconia. On these sides they experience more over the work, structure and the goals thisFederation, as well as information approximately around the radio hobby
  • http://www.deutsche-funk-allianz.de - on the basis of the Bundestag print 9/2274 v. 15. December 1982 existing combination, which calls itself as “CB-radio operator-parliament of Germany”. In the lobby list of the President of the Bundestag registers. Based 1995
  • http://www.dcbo.net - the German CB-radio organization. Informs its members free of chargeand up-to-date.
  • http://www.pmr446-info.de - international eQSO HF-gateway project via VoIP (CB, LPD, PMR446 and freenet)
  • http://www.funkzone.tk - information to the CB-radio, AFU radio and bad radio
  • http://www.ts-funk.de - first international HF-gateway the project via a language radio net work (CB, LPD, PMR446 and freenet)
  • http://www.pmr446-cbfunk.de/ - fast growing eQSO HF-project. Usesthe VoIP technology of the Internets, in order to connect CB-radio, PMR446, LPD and freenet among themselves and with one another.
  • http://www.runde56.de - information, Tipps and technology for the CB-radio
  • http://www.hobby-funk.net - frequencies, voice transmission, radio data transmission, technology
  • http://www.funkstudio-coschuetz.de.vu - large CB-radios collection from old days into the modern times.
  • http://www.cb-funk.at - Internet platform toRe+revive the CB of radio in Austria
 

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