Callao

Lage von Callao in Peru

Callao is a port in Peru with 824.329 inhabitants (conditions 1. January 2005) and a surface of 146,98 km ². The self-designation of the inhabitants reads “Chalacos”.

Table of contents

administrative arrangement of the region Callao

although for Callao with Lima a urbane unit, is it forms nevertheless political a separate region of Peru.

urban districts

the 6 districts (Distritos) of the region Callao:

  • Bellavista
  • Callao
  • Carmen dela Legua
  • La Perla
  • La Punta
  • Ventanilla

economics

to be produced in the city among other things petrochemical products, fertilizer, textiles and leather goods.

Call AOS port is one of the most important fishery and commercial ports of South America and masters 75% of in andExports of Peru. In addition it possesses expanded cold-storage depot capacities and several dry docks.

Most important export goods of the port are oil, copper, iron, silver, zinc, lead, cotton, sugar and coffee.

geography

before the coastlie several islands, La Isla San Lorenzo, Isla El Frontón, which Islas Cavinzas and the Islas Palomino, of which latter important Seelöwen - and sea-bird colony in an almost intact ecological system saves.

history

historical one Map (over 1888)

Callao was created 1537 by Francisco Pizarro at the Callao bay and became fast the most important port for the Spanish trade at the Pacific. During the time of the Vizekönigtums many goods became from the areas of Peru, Bolivia and Argentina by Muli over the Anden brought and over the port from Callao to Panama ships, where they came over the Landweg to the Atlantic and to Spain was continued to ship.

In 16. Century was the port starting point of manySpanish expeditions into the Pacific area, by different English and Netherlands Freibeutern, among other things Francis Drake, Tom Cavendish, Jorg Spitberg and Jacob Clerk was attacked however also several times. To 28. Octobers 1746 devastated a heavy earthquake andthus caused Tsunami port and city and killed roughly 5000 humans, only 200 inhabitants survived the natural catastrophe.

The viceroy José Manso de Velasco started the city to rebuild and a fortress (Castello de material Felipe) to establish at the same time,over the port for the protection of the same stands for the coast.

While the South American wars of liberation against Spain Callao was strongly contests. 1823 landed Simón Bolívar in Callao and three years later in the year 1826, than Peru was already an independent country,tried the Spaniards their former colony again to conquer, by attacking the port. This had however no success, there it did not succeed the port fortress, among other things the fortress material Felipe to conquer.

1851 became the first railroad line at allinSüdamerika zwischen Callao und Lima errichtet.

Vor dem Spanisch-Südamerikanische Krieg (1865-71) hatte die spanische Flotte den Hafen von Callao ab dem 14. April 1864 blocks, which the Peruvian Guano - export for succumbing brought. Peru closed to 5. December 1865 Chile on, which had already explained before some months to Spain the war. To 2. May 1866 decided the Spanish admiral Mendez Núñez to the bombardment of Callao, which was city however equipped with 96 cannons well, thus that thoseSpaniards many dead ones and damaged ships with the bombardment to deplore had. With the bombardment also the Peruvian Secretary of Defense died. After the bombardment of Callao the active war actions, the Spanish fleet ended withdrew themselves to the Philippines .

In the saltpeter war those blockedChilean navy starting from that 10. April 1880 the port of the city. The city became to 17. January 1881 of Chilean troops occupies.

To 24. May 1940 was afflicted the city by a further heavy earthquake.

To 28. April 1947 started Thor Heyerdahl of Callao from to its first expedition with the Kon Tiki.

The Colegio military Leoncio Prado, the Peruvian military university, also the basic role is been to Perros because of the coast in the novel La Ciudad y loosely (1962, German the city and the dogs) of the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa played.

Today Callao accommodates a military prison, in which among other things the leader of the group of rebels condemned Sendero Luminoso Abimael Guzmán and because of corruptionformer boss of the security agency under president Alberto Fujimori Vladimiro Montesinos are arrested.

1966 were created the technical national university by Callao.

Web on the left of



coordinates: 12° 04 ′ 03 ′ ′ S, 77° 08 ′ 55 ′ ′ W

 

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