Calvinismus

of the Calvinismus (also Kalvinismus) is a theological movement, which is based on the reformation and in particular the theories of Jean Calvin. It prepared a substantial basis by its specific work ethics of the Industriellen revolution.

Table of contents

teachings

the basic motive of theology Calvins is the absolute holyness of God. All people work, even the faith decision, and not least the Kultus of the catholic church (Sakramente, Reliquien, drain) were considered to it as attempts to limit the sovereignty of God andto bind to terrestrial. Those partially schroffen courses of Calvins revealing - and grace teachings are to be understood only from this basic request. In the Calvinismus it is predetermined whether the individual is good or bad.

As is the case for all directions, which followed from the reformation, the four belong Solas for the basis of the Calvinismus:

  • sola scriptura - alone the writing is the basis of the Christian faith (not the tradition)
  • solus Christ - alone Christ (not the church) has authority over Gläubige
  • sola gratia - alone by grace of God humans are errettet (not because ofits own quality)
  • sola fide - beyond that alone by the faith humans justified (not by good works

) are often summarized the specific theory of the Calvinismus in five points:

  • Complete spoilingness or complete inability: due to the sin case the sin controls the wholeHumans, its thinking, its feelings and its will. Therefore normal humans are not able to understand the message of the gospel it are religiously completely helpless and lost. Humans can understand God saving message only after he was enabled by the holy spirit for it.(Romans 5.12, Markus 4.11)
  • unconditional choosing: that is Calvins principle of the double Prädestination - God divided humans into two groups. The chosen ones a group are, it include all, which God determined its realization. The remaining ones remain ignorant concerning God andthe gospel. They are condemned and the eternity in hell will spend. God already made this decision before the universe was created, only quite before the birth of individual humans and before any decisions, which humans in its life make. The reasons whyGod chose some, is unknown. It is however clear that due to any good works on the part of the chosen one did not happen. (Romans of 9.15 Romans 9.21)
  • reconciliation limited: That is the faith that Jesus Christ did not die around all humans to save.It died only for those, chose, Sünder, which are saved. (Matte house 26.28, Epheser 5.25)
  • irresistible grace: That is the faith that each humans chose, the God, God will recognize. The chosen ones cannot resist the call of God. (Johannes 6.44, Romans 8.14)
  • persistencethe holy ones: That is the faith that those, which are once saved will remain also saved. It is impossible to lose God grace again. (Romans 8.28, Johannes 6.39)

far one is coined/shaped the Calvinismus by

  • Protestant Askese
  • strict church breed
  • diligence and eagerness for work, whereby economic prosperityin the Protestant ethics every now and then as indications of choosing independence
  • from the State of non-hierarchical
  • church order ( general Priestertum) is interpreted
  • socio-political commitment

Calvinisti work ethics

of the Calvinismus has in the process 18. Century the work moral and - ethics in England considerably affects and legitimizes.It sets a yardstick with the usefulness of human acting, whereby economic success is the center of attention: Waste of time is the worst sin, to which also excessively long sleep or luxury counts. Work is the self purpose of the life prescribed by God.

There the intentions of God humansremain hidden, must everyone in the sense of a virtueful Lebensführung act, thus as if it is chosen by God. Success thereby shows whether the diligence and the economical life were recompenced by God. Thus striving for wealth is required, if it not onecarefree lives to serve is. Who did not obtain an economic success, is in disgrace of God please and for it even responsible.

Beside catholics also the calvinistischen Puritaner was finally excluded by the test document of 1673 from public offices, whereby they were pushed into private-private sectors. In 18. Centuryhalf of the English inventors, buyers and entrepreneurs almost consisted of Calvinisten, although these represented a minority in the British total population.

controversies

the strict theory of the Calvinismus by many Christians is not accepted, whereby there are for it different reasons. In addition belong in particular

The Arminianismus, the theory of the so-called Remonstranten, places an express theological opposite standpoint to the Calvinismus within the calvinistisch coined/shaped areas of northwest Europe.


literature

  • Pettegree, Andrew: Calvinism in Europe, 1540-1620. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 1994, 283 S., ISBN 0-521-43269-3
  • Dieter Schellong: How does it stand around the “thesis” from the connection of Calvinismus and “spirit of capitalism “?. Paderborner university Universities of 47. Univ. - Gesamthochsch., Paderborn 1995
  • Christoph Strohm: Ethics in the early Calvinismus. Humanisti influences, philosophical, legal and theological argumentations as well as mentality-historical aspects by the example of the Calvin pupil Lambertus Danaeus. Work to church history 65. de Gruyter, Berlin and others 1996 ISBN 3-11-015061-1
  • January Rohls: Between picture storm and capitalism. The contribution of the reformedProtest anti-mash for the culture history of Europe. Publications of the Johannes A Lasco library 3. Foedus Verl., Wuppertal 1999 ISBN 3-932735-34-X
  • Ernst Koch: The konfessionelle age - catholicism, Luthertum, Calvinismus (1563 - 1675). Church history in single representations 2/8. Evang. Publishing house, Leipzig 2000 ISBN 3-374-01719-3
  • Philip Benedict: Christ's Churches Purely Reformed. A SocialHistory OF Calvinism. Yale Univ. Press, new Haven, Conn. among other things 2002 ISBN 0-300-08812-4
  • Philip S. Fermenting ski: The Disciplinary revolution. Calvinism and the giant OF the State in Early decaying Europe. Univ. OF Chicago press, Chicago and others 2003 ISBN 0-226-30483-3
  • Dave Hunt, James R.White:Debating Calvinism: Five POINTs, Two Views. Multnomah Publishers 2004, 427 S., ISBN 1590522737
  • Stefan picture home: Calvinisti state theories. Historical case studies for the operational readiness level of monarchomachischer thinking structures in the Central Europe of the early modern times. EHS 3/904. Long, Frankfurt A.M. among other things 2001 ISBN 3-631-37533-6
  • max of webers: The Protestant ethicsand the spirit of capitalism. in: Ders.: 1988 [work on] Web on the left of the five points of the Calvinismus
, detailed articles

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