Campher

Campher is a colorless solid. It is a bicyclisches mono terpen - Keton and is formally derived from the Camphan . There are two Enantiomere of the Camphers, (+) - Campher and (-) - Campher and/or D and l-Campher. The structure was cleared up by Julius Bredt. The name comes from thatArab names come for for the connection off.

Structural formula
general
name Campher
other names
  • fighter,
  • 1,7,7-Trimethyl-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-on
sum formula C 10 H 16 O
CAS number 76-22-2
short description colorless solid
characteristics
mol mass 152,24 g mol
state of aggregation firmly
density 0.96 kg/m ³
melting point 177 °C
boiling point 207 °C
steam pressure 20 Pa (20 °C)
solubility badly solubly in water, well in ethanol, Petrolether, acetone and chloroform
of safety references
of Gefahrensymbole
Xn
injurious to health
F
inflammatory
R and S-sentences

of R: 11-22-36
S: 2-24/25-26-36

MAK 13 mg/m ³
as far as possible and common, are used SI-UNITs. If not differently notes, those applyindicated data with standard conditions.

Table of contents

occurrences

Campher is mainly in the ethereal oils of laurel plants, basket bloom plants and lip-blood-learns. Particularly in the crust and/or in Resin of the Campherbaums, an evergreen tree, which grows mainly in Asia, is to be found it. It can be manufactured synthetically , in addition, by Wasserdampfdestillation and crystallization from cut up plant parts to be won. Natural extracted Campher is always clockwise rotating ((+) - Campher). The naturally won Campher became in former timesalso as Japan fighters designates.

characteristics

Campher is a colorless or white, usually krümeliges and brockig tough powder from wax-soft crystals. With ethanol rhomboedrische crystals can be produced. With deterring melted Camphers forms cubic crystals. It has a characteristic, a strong, a probably-smelling,aromatic getting goats, eukalyptusartigen smell. The taste is sharply and bitterly, also easily refreshing as with the Menthol. It melts with 177 °C and simmers with 207 °C. In water the powder is hardly soluble (1.2 g per litre water); in ethanol however it separates well.In addition it is very easily solubly in Petrolether, easily solubly in Ether, acetone, chloroform and soluble in fat oils and very with difficulty in Glycerol. It forms colorless solutions with ethanol, from which, if water is in addition-given, the Campher separates again. The density amounts to0,96 g/cm ³. Campher is easily volatile and sublimated already at room temperature. Campher burns flame with Russian that. The flash point is with 74 °C, the ignition temperature with 466 °C. Between an air volume portion of 0,6 and 3,5 per cent it forms explosive mixtures. With the Campher the phenomenon that steps molecular melting point degradation up: The freezing point degradation amounts to 39.7 °C·(kg mol). Thus Campher already liquefies, if it comes into contact with Menthol , Naphthol or Chloralhydrat. The specific angle of rotation amounts to + 44°.

affects safety references center the nervous system and the kidney, in higher doses also on the breath center. Campher is blood circulation-promoting and schleimlösend. In addition, it leads to nausea, fear, difficulty in breathing and excitedness. In higher dose taken it leads to confusion conditions, epileptischen accumulations and acute disturbances of the short time memory. The deadly dose for an adultlies with about 20 G. The Metabolismus goes first over from the Campher to derived alcohols like that 2 - and/or 3 Borneol, which become in the liver the Glucosiduronsäure of the fount oil, the metabolites finally over the urine separated. Campher is weak water-endangering (WGK 1).

use

of the Campherbaum

Campher is used in fire works and moth defense means. In the chemical industry it is used for the production of the Cymols. In addition it is used for the Celluloidproduktion and as softener for cellulose esters. In small quantities it becomes in Kosmetik and medicine preparationsused, for example with muscle pulling, rheumatism or Neuralgien, in the dental medicine for the disinfection of infected root channels; in former times it also used as Analeptikum, today however more rarely because of the effects on the heart and the cycle. Rare cases of the use of Campher as Rauschmittel are admits. The effects with the Inhalieren of Campher show up in laughter accumulations, despite pain in the breath ways. Campher finds still use in Schnupftabak from England, whereby however in Germany according to German food act Campher ranks among the materials forbidden in tobacco and may not not be added. Alsoin storm glass barometers it finds to use.

production and representation

Campher can be manufactured synthetically, in addition, by Wasserdampfdestillation and crystallization from cut up plant parts to be won. Natural extracted Campher is always clockwise rotating ((+) - Campher). The naturally won Campher was called in former times also Japan fighter. NowadaysCampher is synthesized technically from α Pinen. Here can depending upon desire (+) - Campher or (-) - Campher be won, according to whether one with the synthesis (+) - α-Pinen or (-) - α-Pinen begins, during with which distillation from the Campherbaum can be won only (+) - Campher.

α-Pinen wird protoniert, durch Wagner-Meerwein-Umlagerung wird es zum Carboniumion umgelagert. Dieses reagiert mit Natriumacetat zu Isobornylacetat, dieses wird zum Isoborneol umgewandelt, dies wird mit Oxidationsmittel zum Campher oxidiert.
α Pinen becomes per tonus ore,it is relocated by daring he sea wine relocation to the Carboniumion. This reacted with Natriumacetat to Isobornylacetat, this is converted to the Isoborneol, this with oxidizing agent to the Campher oxidizes.

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