the Carabinieri (Arma dei Carabinieri, dt.: “Carabinieri troop”) are a police Gendarmerie with nearly 200-jähriger history and since that 1. April 2000 an independent armed service beside army, navy and Air Force in the Italian army. They belong organizational to the Ministry of Defense , that finances also the household of the Carabinieri. Off military and administrative interests they are subordinate however to the ministry of the Interior, which is instruction-authorized in relation to all Italian police units. The Carabinieri is militarily arranged like the Guardia di Finanza. Their desired strength is with approx. 110,000 men and women. The emergency call number is 112.
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the Comando of generals (supreme command) are subordinated six specialist areas:
- I. Training
- officer school: Rome
- NCO schools: Florenz, Velletri, Vicenza
- training centres for crews: Rome, Campobasso, Iglesias, Reggio Calabria, Turin, Fossano, Benevento
- schools for sniper (Rome), foreign languages, psychology, pilot (Pratica di Mare with Rome), ski and mountain leader (cloud stone in Gröden), diver (Genova), dog leader (Florenz), Carabinieri to horses (Rome), computer science (Velletri)
- II. Territorial organization
- III. Of military police
- criminal offences within the military range exclusively by the Carabinieri, just as heavy Disziplinarverfahren is cleared up.
- NATO can request Carabinieri for determination and tasks of protection.
- IV. Mobile federations
- V. Special-purpose forces
- Gruppo d'Intervento Speciale (GIS), anti-terror unit, based 1978 as reaction to on the right of and linking errorism, today above all used in the fight against the mafia, increasingly also with military peace employments abroad.
- Raggruppamento Operativo Speciale (ROS), operational special-purpose force to the fight against the organized criminality with seat in Rome, based at the 3. December 1990, with three ranges: State protection (politically crimes motivated), organizing crime (mafia), center of services (kriminologische research).
- Servizio Carabinieri Investigazioni Scientifice (SCIS), central kriminaltechnisches Institut in Rome, with two regional Unterinstituten (RIS) in Parma and Messina.
- Carabinieri command with the Ministries for exterior (protection of the diplomatic agencies), health (consumer protection), cultural properties (cultural property protection), finances (falsification of money), environment, agriculture, work as well as with the bank of Italy, the parliament, the office of the Prime Minister, the constitutional court and the audit office.
- Flier relays at 15 locations with ever 5 helicopters, command in Pratica di Mare with Rome
- maritime component: Diver, lagoon boats (Venice and Umgebung), fast and patrol boats (being EN/territorial waters).
- Dog leaders
- protection of individuals and object for the seats of the government, the chambers, the Ministries of the highest courts and the seat of the president (Corazzieri)
- VI. Sport care of tradition to the Carabinieri
, support and leisure activities of 5 convalescent homes 23 public swimming pools/beach sections pension funds (also as study scholarships for children of the Carabinieri). With official causes the regiment goes uniform with flashing Harnischen highly to Ross in a representative Kürassier - into action.
the Carabinieri developed as a branch of service of the Italian army, to which they belonged up to the year 2000. Today they are their own armed service, but their tasks hardly changed in the last two centuries. The Carabinieri places the military police of the Italian armed forces and differs in this connection only insignificantly from the military police of the German German Federal Armed Forces, to the field hunters. Beyond that they have the task in the case of defense to participate with own, predominantly infantry federations and other units in the bordering and national defense. In this connection they represent a territorial army in the broadest sense. Besides they provide after instruction of the ministry of the Interior and within special ranges (among other things Consumer protection, health service, environmental protection, cultural property protection) also after instruction of other Ministries general and special police service. Here they hardly differ from the Polizia di Stato and other state and national police of other states. The reason for the existence of two national police body with general tasks lies in the desire, an excessive concentration of power in a hand and/or. to prevent in a Ministry. In Italy, in addition, in France (Gendarmerie national one), Spain (Guardia civil) and other states military and civil police watch out one on the other not only for humans, but also. The loss in efficiency by redundancies, resulting sometimes from it , is counterbalanced in opinion of many by the fact that by the allocation into two different police bodies can be prevented to possible making and office abuse of a only one national police organization. Beyond that improve the competition relationship between the police the motivation of its respective members, relatively minted in Italy. The duality of military Gendarmerie and civilian police developed (also in Germany, see. Land hunter) because of the differences between city and country, minted in former times. For the cities the civil civil police was responsible, the rural coined/shaped country left one to the military and/or. the for this purpose set up military police troops like the Carabinieri. This police organization grown historically is to be recognized today still by the close network of Carabinieri stations on the country.
Regarding Germany these police structures went down because of the many historical breaks. But as in other föderalen states one tries here to prevent by an allocation of the police on federation and (above all) countries a concentration of power in a hand. Sometimes in Italy and other states, which have a binary national police structure, one considers these overcomes seeming organization form already for some time. Reforms (like e.g. a misalignment of the military police troops into the division of the ministries of the Interior as preliminary stage of a fusion) always possession condition thinking and Traditionalismus failed. Austria succeeded it in the year 2005, its civil police with the Bundesgendarmerie and the tariff guard to a only one national police body to seize the federal police together. There were similar fusions also in the Benelux - states. These reforms could become on a long-term basis at least partial central until ( without Guardia di Finanza) the model for Italy and other states.
by decree of the Kingdom of Piemont Sardinien of 13. July 1814 the Carabinieri was brought as branch of service with military and police tasks into being. The designation “Carabinieri” was selected, because one did not want to take reference in the course of the restoration to the napoleonische “Gendarmerie” (see. Koninklijke Marechaussee). Carabiniers gave it in different European armies, where they were considered as an elite troop within the Kavallerie. As in the case of the infantry belonging to the infantry they developed for Kürassierregimentern as special Eskadrons (companies) within different Kavallerieregimenter, in particular with Dragoon - and. The name Carabiniers is derived from the carbines , with which these special companies were equipped and then regiments. In many cases Carabiniers stood representatively of Dragoons (see. e.g. The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards - Carabiniers and Greys or frühre British Dragoon Guards regiments). Dragoons transferred in former times to many states also safety tasks on the inside. Characteristically also one of the forerunner organizations of the Italian Carabinieri a Dragoon federation was, i.e. the Dragoni di Sardegna. Although the Carabinieri for historical-formal reasons was to be assigned at that time rather the Kavallerie, they had however in fact the status of a special hunter troop (also: Hunter to horses and/or. light Dragoons, only few units have today still connections to the heavy Reiterei; see. Corazzieri). The personnel predominantly recruited itself from the line infantry and had special attitude and/or. To fulfill crossing conditions, why the Carabinieri was regarded also as an elite troop and (up to the year 2000) as branch of service militarily and protokollarisch priority opposite all other troops of the army had.
very small Carabinieri troop kept military employments the fire baptism short after its list. When Napoleon returned in March 1815 from his banishing on Elba to France, nearly all European powers explained the war to him. At the conquest of the French fortress Grenoble a small Carabinieri unit was involved to horses, to 6. July 1815 a crucial attack against the Frenchmen rode.
From 1848 to 1870 the Carabinieri was involved in the Italian agreement wars. Particularly they were characterised here with Pastrengo . 1855 was under that nearly 19,000 piemontesischen soldiers, who participated in the Krimkrieg, 70 Carabinieri. Also they were complicated into the heavy fights with Sewastopol. Even with later wars always Carabinieri than military policemen were in the use and pretty often directly in fighting complicated. In the First World War the losses of the Carabinieri amounted to 1.423 pleasures and 5,245 wounded, in times the world war (1940-1945) on 4.618 pleasures and 15,124 wounded. Carabinieri battalions became partially. like infantry used, so in July 1915 on the Podgora (Görz) or 1941 in Culquaber (East Africa). Numerous Carabinieri co-operated starting from 1943 with the Italian resistance (Resistenza) and brought thereby large victims. Particularly is in Italy the case of the NCO admits Salvo D'Acquisto, which gave its life for civilians, who should be shot of the SS.
In view of the long tradition of the direct participation in military operations the Carabinieri maintains also today still own combat forces. During the cold war the Carabinieri had its own mechanized brigade (11.). Today has the 2. mobile brigade in Livorno corresponding tasks. You are subordinate a paratroop regiment (1. “Tuscania”) and two infantry regiments (7. and 13.). These forces specialized in the last years ever more in humanitarian and police tasks abroad.
police ones and humanitarian employments abroad
at police and humanitarian employments abroad take part the Carabinieri since long time. Of special importance e.g. was. their employment on Crete (1897-1906). Because of a rising of the people it came there to the international peace employment, within whose framework the Carabinieri contributed substantially for the setting up the “kretischen Gendarmerie”.
In the international peace missions, which were brought strengthened since 1991 by the UN into being, always also Carabinieri took part. Lately there is the tendency in Italian armed forces to leave peace-receiving employments (peacekeeping) ever to more the Carabinieri (2. mobile brigade and “normal” determination forces), during peace-creative measures (peace enforcing) rather into the field of the other armed services fall. The often quoted “hermaphrodite position” the Carabinieri, thus a military troop the predominantly civilian tasks has, seems in the scenarios of peace-receiving missions one Renaissance to experience. Rather military components are connected with experienced determination forces of the territorial units and co-operate also in relatively dangerous areas in quite fruitful way in a uniform organizational framework.
the Carabinieri wear since their establishment a dark-blue uniform with own collar mirrors and badges of rank. The uniform trousers had with the infantry - units simple, with the Kavallerie - units double red longitudinal strips. This uniform Design kept until today. With special causes it is supplemented by a Dreispitz. In and the 70's 60's the Carabinieri carried a khakifarbenen service uniform, which differed from those of other army troops only insignificantly.
Like some other Gendarmerietruppen the Carabinieri on its head coverages carries representative garnet than emblem. This emblem comes from the infantry, who formed an elite in former times in the context of the infantry. Their emblem became later the registration number for elite troops. Since the Carabinieri had like the piemontesischen infantry within their range likewise a special position, took over her (later also different troops, however with modifications) this emblem. Napoleon called his Carabiniers also gladly “infantry to horses”.
ranks it are differentiated with respect to all armed services and police (also in the civilian administration) three careers: Officers, NCOs m.P., NCOs o.P. and crews (and/or. their equivalent). - Officers become at academies of the armed services or the police and z. T. at the same time at universities trained and receive after 2 years the rank second lieutenant, after 4 and/or. 5 years the rank first lieutenant or equivalent. After conclusion of the five-year university education the normal service begins. With special requirements civilian university Universities of (masters) can be adjusted directly as cadets and received after shorter internal training depending upon field the rank second lieutenant or first lieutenant. The staff officers (starting from Maggiore upward) are trained further, it give no direct entrance to the career, how there are her with the higher service in Germany. To that extent it became now somewhat problematic to employ career comparisons. (The higher service actually begins in Italy with the German salary bracket equivalent A9 and/or. A10). - The group of careers of the NCOs with Portepee (sergeant ranks, it.: “Maresciallo”) was separated into Italy in the middle of the 90's from the lower NCOs. Condition for entrance is now the Abitur. After three years of internal training (inclusive Higher education with “Bachelor” - conclusion) school leaver can enter directly into this group of careers. Alternatively it gives for member of the NCOs o.P. Opportunities for advancement, which are substantially facilitated by the possession of the university-level graduation. The group of careers of the NCOs m.P. is to be compared now rather with the German elevated service. - The equivalent of the German middle service now is in Italy with the crews and NCOs o.P. to search. Only the lowest crew rank (at the army: Contactor, flier, etc. with one year's einjährigfreiwilligen) can apply still as simple service. In the following comparisons are drawn after the old system.
|Carabinieri/Guardia di Finanza||Polizia di Stato||to the comparison: Ranks in the federal police|
|Carabiniere/finance||Agente||(simple service, is void)|
|Carabiniere/finance Scelto||Agente Scelto|
|Appuntato Scelto||Assistente Capo|
|of NCOs o.P.|
|Vice Brigadiere||Vice Sovrintendente||(simple service, is void)|
|(Brigadiere Capo)||(Sovrintendente Capo)|
|of NCOs m.P.|
|Maresciallo||Vice Ispettore||police master|
|Maresciallo Ordinario||Ispettore||police upper master|
|Maresciello Capo||Ispettore Capo||police main master|
|Maresciallo Aiutante||Ispettore Superiore||police main master with extra pay|
|Sottotenente||(Vice Commissario Aggiunto)||Polizeikommissar (z.A.)|
|Tenente||Vice Commissario||police upper commissioner|
|Capitano||Commissario||police main commissioner/first police main commissioner|
|of staff officers|
|Maggiore||Commissario Capo||police advice|
|Tenente Colonnello||Vice Questore Aggiunto||police upper advice/police director|
|Colonnello||Primo Dirigente (Vice Questore)||leading police director|
|Generals di Brigata||Dirigente Superiore (Questore)||department department of (AP)|
|generals di Divisione||Dirigente of generals||director (federal police headquarters)|
|generals di Corpo d'Armata||Dirigente of generals (B)||president (federal police headquarters)|
|Comandante of generals (CC/GdF)||Capo della Polizia (you gene. Pubbl. To Sic)||inspector of the federal police|