Carl Humann

Adolf Brütt: Carl Humann (1901)
Adolf Brütt: Carl Humann (1901)
Carl Humann (first name also Karl; * 4. January 1839 in Steele, today quarter of meals; † 12. April 1896 in Smyrna, today İzmir) was a German engineer, architect and an archaeologist. He is the discoverer of the Pergamonaltars.

Humann, a learned railway engineer and student beginning of architecture, cooperated first in the building of the Bergisch Märki railway and visited afterwards the building academy in Berlin. Due to a Tuberkulose - illness looked for it the healthier climate in the Osmani realm at that time and established myself 1861 in Konstantinopel . He took part among other things in excavations on Samos, built palace plants and bereiste on behalf that Osmani realm|Osmani]] government 1864 Palestine, in order to level the country and to make an exact map of the country. Likewise he investigated the eastern Balkans later and took up a map.

In small Asia Humann from 1867 to 1873 led the building of roads. In the preparation it visited the antique Pergamon in the winter 1864/65 also. At the well-known historical, but yet not excavated place used it first its influence, in order to prevent the destruction of the partly open-lying marmornen ruins in lime kilns as far as possible. But for a complete excavation above all the support from Berlin was missing.

Only 1878 possessed Humann both financial support by the director citizens of Berlin of the sculpture museum and official excavation permission from osmanischer side, and to 9. Septembers began those first one year continuing excavations. Large parts of the artistically extraordinarily valuable Frieses of the altar and numerous sculptures were found unexpected. Second and a third excavation campaign took place in the years 1880-1881 and 1883-1886. The finds, which were entitled to the German side in accordance with an agreement with the Osmani realm, transported with ox trucks to five hours removed coast, there brought on ships of the German navy shipped and to Berlin.

In the German Reich one recognized soon the sensational meaning of the find, Humann became a celebrity. Straight ones before the background of the nationalistic attitude of mind of that epoch one was proud, z. B. the Parthenon - to be able to oppose Fries of the Londoner British museum somewhat.

On behalf the citizens of Berlin Academy of Sciences took archaeological photographs of the antique place of Angora , at the upper Euphrates as well as in north Syria to Humann. Starting from 1882 he dug for the German Orient society into Zincirli (Sam'al). 1884 he was appointed the director of department of the royal museums in Berlin, kept however his domicile in Smyrna, in order to notice the interests of the royal museums in the Orient. He worked and researched further and received in his far away well-known house numerous guests. 1888 it led the excavation of Sendschirli in north Syria and an attempt excavation in Tralles. Between 1891 and 1893 Humann excavated magnesia at the Mäander .

Carl Humann died to 12. April 1896 and was bestattet on the cemetery by Smyrna. Since it is appropriate for 1967 on the castle mountain buried by Pergamon.

Of Adolf the Brütt 1901 created haven-guesses/advises Humann developed to the opening to first citizen of Berlin of the Pergamon museum connected with the completion of the victory avenue.


  • Carl Humann: Journeys in small Asia and north Syria. Hrsg. together with O. Puchstein (with Atlas). Reimer, Berlin 1890.
  • Carl Humann: Magnesia at the Mäander. Reimer, Berlin 1904.


  • Friedrich Karl and Eleonore Dörner: From Pergamon to the Nemrud Trade Union of German Employees. The archaeological discoveries Carl Humanns. (= culture history of the antique world, 40). PH. v. Zabern, Mainz 1989 (2. Aufl. 1991) ISBN 3-8053-0998-8

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| | * Literature of and over Carl Humann in the catalog of the DDB



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