Carl von Linné
Carl Linnaeus, actually to Carl Nilsson Linnaeus, after his collection into the nobility 1762 Carl von Linné, in works also Carolus Linnaeus written on latin (* 23. May 1707 in Råshult with Stenbrohult, South Sweden; † 10. January 1778 in Uppsala) was a Swedish scientist, who developed the bases of the modern taxonomy ( binomiale nomenclature), the Linné system. As additive to scientific names of the organisms described of itname with L can be. shortened to be shown.
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Carl von Linné became inthe small place Råshult in the municipality Stenbrohult in Småland, at this time a province in South Sweden, as Carl Linnaeus, son of the Protestant minister of Nile Ingemarsson and his Mrs. Christina, geb. Broderson, born. She was the daughter of the ministerthe municipality and as this, took over Carl's father died its obligations. Thereupon, Carl was about 18 months old, moved the family after Stenbrohult. Carl's father of Nile much there he was already interested like many in plants and given,Sweden an official surname did not have, even the name Linnaeus, a Latinisierung of the smålandischen dialect word linn (dt. Lime tree), after a dreistämmigen lime tree tree near the yard Jonsboda, its birth house. For Carl a life was intended in the service of the church, like forwardsit for its father and grandfather mütterlicherseits. It showed however little interest in this career. Its interest applied the Botanik, which caused the local physician and natural history teacher Johann Rothman to it, Carl's father umzustimmen and in such a way became it the medicine studyskillfully to the university by Lund. Such a study was at that time equivalent to the study of the natural sciences. In the following it changed year to Uppsala.
basis of the classification
during this time arrived to Linné at the conviction,that itself the blooms, which were suitable reproduction organs of the plants, their petals , Staubblätter and stamps, well as basis of the classification. It wrote over it a short paper, Preludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum („weddings of the plants “), which it still as a student thosePosition deputy lecturers and demonstrator at the Botani garden owed.1732 financed the Academy of Sciences in Uppsala its expedition to honing-lapping country, which was up to then practically unknown. The result was a book concerning the lappländische plant world, Flora Laponica, which was published 1737. Besides it brought rules and Spielbrett of the Wikingerspiels Tablut for the first time from this journey along and made it accessible thereby for a broader public.
17. Century with its stormy scientific discoveries straight also of microscopic organismsto an accumulation of countless planting and animal species had led. A clear order had become already overdue. From the manifold earlier attempts to the systematization exercised in particular those of John Ray and Joseph pit clay/tone de Tournefort influence on Linné. Ray haditself with the introduction of double designations for kind and kind already the binominalen nomenclature approximate. Its project of a reformation led Linné to a clearly defined hierarchical arrangement of all well-known organisms. For the classification it used from the medieval Scholastik admittedTerms „differentia “for kind differences and „proprium “for kind peculiarnesses. While it assumed that, for kinds and kinds with „natural “characteristics to work to be able (natural system), it regarded all higher Taxa for artificially, thus after arbitraryCategorizes rules (artificial system). Such a procedure appeared to it for reasons of the practical applicability however required:
„It is not a hope to find in our time a natural system will be able to do hardly our latest grandchildren it. But in the meantimeone wants to know the plants, therefore we must accept artificial classes as emergency aids.“
In the zoo-logical systematization Linné deviated strictly from the aristotelisch affected order to habitats and pulled instead morphologic and physiological characteristics near.
The systemLinnés differed from older beginnings by simpler handling and in particular by larger openness in relation to the integration of new Taxa. By no means however it represented phylogenetische systematics in the today's sense, but tried - completely in correspondence to Linnés of deep convictionfrom the unchangeableness of the kinds - of illustrating the alleged statics in the order of the alive one. Regardless of its Linné is considered as the founders of today's systematics, which are called after him Linné system.
in the year 1735 pulled Linné for three years to Holland, to the country leading at that time in the natural sciences, and attained a doctorate there in medicine. Here it met the Botaniker January Frederik Gronovius and showed itan early draft of its work over taxonomy, the Systema Naturae. The first edition appeared still in the same year, it covered 10 Folioseiten, while the 13. from 1770 of more than 3000 sides consisted. In this “system of nature” classifiedit in the course of the time three realms for the plants, animals and minerals. Here it seized also the earlier thought to use the bloom characteristics than basis for the classification of the Pflanzenreiches. As for the plantsalready 1753 in its Species Plantarum, he replaced also in the Systema Naturae the up to then usual, often pedantic designations of kinds as for example physalis amno ramosissime ramis angulosis glabris foliis dentoserratis consistently by systematic, today still commonDouble name (Binomina), in this case Physalis angulata. This principle for the designation of kinds is called “binary “or” binominale nomenclature “. The first part is thereby the name of the kind, the second part, that Epitheton, characterizes the kind together with first. For the Zoologie it led the binary nomenclature only with the 10. Edition of 1758 , so that now all organisms were designated binominal. A nomenclature of the superordinate Taxa (groups) thatOrganism produced Linné in simple and arranged way.
During the naming familiar Linné on the healthy human understanding. Thus it designated humans as Homo sapiens, knowing humans, treated it thus - incorporated under the Primaten - already as it wereas zoo-logical object. In addition, it described a second human kind, Homo of troglodytes and/or. Homo NOC rotation, the cave human being and/or. Night human being, with whom he probably meant briefly before the described Schimpansen. It called the mammals after the milk glands Mammalia,because it wanted to encourage women, to satisfy their babies.
Linné Sara Morea, the daughter of a physician married life stations. It kept a chair for medicine in Uppsala, which it soon against the chair for two years laterBotanik exchanged. It continued its work on the classification and expanded it on the animal realm as well as on minerals. Even if the classification of minerals seems today strangely, then this was nevertheless approximately 100 years before the evolution theory through Charles Darwin for Linné a comfortable way to categorize entire nature. 1762 were struck Carl von Linné to the knight. Linné suffered 1774 an impact accumulation, from which he recovered only little and died at its consequences he 1778.
House in Uppsala
Linnés botanischer garden in Uppsala
summer countryseat in Hammarby with Uppsala
- Carl von Linné leftto the 180 scientific works.
- The Lappländi journey. From the Swedish one of manufacturing costs. Kind man. Berlin 2004
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|| * Literature of and over Carl von Linné in the catalog of the DDB
- “Linné on LINE” project of the University of Uppsala (English)
- biography Carl von Linné
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Carl von Linné|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Swedish scientists, that the bases of the modern taxonomy developed|
|DATE OF BIRTH||23. May 1707|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Råshult|
|DYING DATE||10. January 1778|