as Carlism (also Karlism) one designates a monarchistic movement in Spain, which favors member of a certain collateral line of the bourbonischen king house since 1833 and since 1952 of the house Bourbon Parma as a pretender to the throne.
The Carlists was refrained from this vordergründigen goal long years the main party in a internal-Spanish culture fight, which from the napoleonischen crew to the Spanish civil war dragged on. In this culture fight the Carlists with their fought absolutist - to catholic convicition against the liberals, later the republican forces in Spain.
emergence of the Carlistic movement
the conflict between liberals and absolutists
1808 Spain before Napoleon had capitulated, could it and its rule out however in a cruel guerrilla war with English support drive. This resistance against the French crew did not proceed from the king, on the contrary the people - in the absence of functioning central political institutions - had set even and advice for Juntas for the organization of the defense against the bonapartistische crew into the work. When the Cortes of general met in the year 1810 in Cádiz, in order to decide a condition, they had been called up just as little by the king. These experiences made lasting impression on large parts of the Spanish people.
But already three years after the reacceptance of the condition („the liberal Triennium “or, how the absolutists called it, that „three so-called years “) this condition was again taken by by Ferdinand themselves called for a French invasion „the hundredthousand of sons holy Ludwig “. Louis XVIII. from France Ferdinand VII. did not want to repair the absolutism with its intervention however, but had. the promise removed, its people charter, thus a moderate Basic Law to grant. When Ferdinand did not adhere to it, Louis insisted, in order to be able to protect its face, on it that at least the Inquisition could not be furnished again, and arranged Ferdinand to dismiss its church Minister Víctor Saez.
In the further fight for a condition than contractors the liberal, very strongly freimaurerisch coined/shaped and the ideas of the French revolution favoring army and those essentially faced each other the absolutism course-bent conservative church . The positions of both parties were incompatible.
The trailers of the absolutism were convinced of the brought picture of the king, which kept and by this Belehnung over the mortal ones was emphasized its office direct from God grace. Its office was it to affect as God sign and sword ground connection. As the monarch was sovereign, God was the sovereign: Monarchism and religion were inseparably into one another for the absolutists - and particularly for the Spanish -. Therefore a contractual agreement, which undertook to regulate the relationship of the monarch to its people, was after their feeling at the same time a majesty offense and a Gotteslästerung. The king swore an oath with his coronation/culmination, and likewise it or rather its representative swore to respect in case of for instance the Basque country under the oak of Guernica, the old privileges of the nichtkastilischen regions. The absolutists saw accordingly no advantage therein, a condition, which people work was and could with a feather/spring line be changed, swears the unalterable and before God oath to prefer. The Spanish monarchische ideal stood here less after the bourbonischen absolutism of French model according to kind of a government nostre bon plaisir, but - Salvador de according to Madariaga - far rather in the government way of the having citizens, who consisted of it to see political ideas and like above all the Spanish king in a way in persons it embodies institutions that all admiration, all any religious attributes came not to the person, but the office. The office of the king reverence was owed, as far as and as long as he filled out it obligation in accordance with and thus as a Christian king to be regarded was.
Even apart from this religious component meant a condition of the kind the establishment of a central state after French model, planned, by the liberals forces, which the absolutists rejected. Spain had been more similar since more jeher rather a confederation of states than a state. Common institutions of all regions had been essentially only the king in Kastilien and the catholic church, while the regions had maintained their own institutions and their traditional special right.
The liberals against it felt the mental climate in Spain, which opposed the free thought and free word, as oppressive and poor. They saw with regret that their country was isolated from Europe already for a long time and was inferior after their feeling in its mental development other nations. For this reason they stood for the ideals of the French revolution in and wished that also in their country to the break-through should be help to these. Already since that 18. Organized, they had created century in freebricklayer-lied 1810 when meeting the constituent Cortes the liberal a party. Liberal the Triennium had been above all the work of the Spanish free bricklaying. In these three years the Logen spread in a measure that they became the prominent Kraft of the middle class. From then on the Logen of the liberals (after Brenan ) represented „the international one of the revolutionary middle class in their fight against feudale and religious institutions “. In the military the liberals exerted a particularly strong influence, and many pronuniciamientos the following decades were to be due to the activity of members of the military-lied. After the conceptions of the liberals Spain should, like other European countries it had already done, its relationship to the king according to kind of articles of association to regulate and for the advantage of all the powers of the monarch, who specifies Cortes and other constitutional bodies clearly. To the state-legal construction of the country unclear after liberal view overdue reform of the Spanish commonwealth belonged the order and rationalisation.
the pragmatic sanction and the follow-up Isabellas II.specified with the trailers of the absolutism under guidance, which demanded the re-establishment of the Inquisition, formed for its further absolutist rule. The Apostólicos was glowing trailers Don Carlos', the brother Ferdinands. Infante Carlo María Isidro had out-done by special Frömmigkeit and strict anti-liberalism. This group can be regarded as a forerunner of the Carlism. In the years between the abolition of the condition and the later reapproximation around 1830 this circle held Ferdinands to the liberals around Carlo's substantial power. So could Apostólicos dismissal several Ministers to intersperse, although also not the re-establishment of the Inquisition, since the conversion of such a measure did not let the French occupation troops in the country, which remain in the year 1828 in Spain, appear advisable meanwhile.
Also the liberals radicalized themselves ever more and became approximately antiklerikal with a special dislike medal clergyman. For religious interests they had little understanding and wanted also none to apply. Rather they understood the religion and the Klerus as serious and - in the measure, in which they became more radical - as obstacle for the establishment of a modern and free Spain, which can be eliminated.
The location of fracture of the future conflict of the two parts of the Spanish society appeared 1830 already. Don Carlo, the brother Ferdinands, whose health itself under its out-curving Lebensführung always far worsened and which violently from the charge suffered, stressed the follow-up of the king, to who in his four marriages no son had been given. At the same time the Apostólicos gave itself in anmassender way all too victory-certainly and saw all too open into the Carlo's future king. Already in the course of a rebellion, which seized 1827 Katalonien and which by a further radical-absolutist group, which called itself Agreugats (“insulting”), Carlo to the king was proclaimed. Ferdinand proceeded however me determination against this movement, and Carlo had to decline, in order not to risk the reproach of the high treason.
Ferdinand had however its only daughter Isabella II. 1830 in the context of a pragmatic sanction (Pragmatica Sanción) under abolishment of the Sali succession and return to the old Spanish succession as a heiress to the throne determine. This happened, by Ferdinand 1789 a request for production of the old succession to the throne regulation, that, brought in by the Cortes, the king at that time of Carlo IV. not when law had let announce and since then rested, over 40 years later later approved.
In order this pragmatic sanction, which prepared the succession to the throne Isabellas under break with the Sali law to be able to convert in the own country made the liberal of concessions for Ferdinand, about by replacing the government and appointed an moderate-absolutist cabinet. The liberals, who expected to a succession to the throne Carlos' with frights, were gladly ready under these circumstances to recognize Isabella as a princess von Asturien. Carlo saw the danger, and after a notice of its trailers had remained unsuccessful on the life of the king, one squeezed that 1832 off heavily got sick to Ferdinand the revocation of the pragmatic sanction, which he took back after his recovery however immediately.
Ferdinand should keep right, when he drew the following strange comparison in the year 1832: “Spain is a Bierflasche, and I am the plug. If I jump out, all contents will pour in God white which direction “. Already immediately after Ferdinands death in the year 1833 caught fire the incessant conflict between liberal and absolutist, who already bordered for many years on a civil war, at the question of the follow-up Ferdinands. Don Carlo regarded Isabellas succession to the throne as robbery of its requirements for throne, for which he was expelled by Ferdinand to Portugal. It was supported by the church and regional autonomousists of the north and northeast. After the Cortes of the three-year Isabella huldigten and the queen nut/mother María Cristina the regency took over, the call of the bishop von León led and the Jesuiten to seize to the weapons for the collection of the absolutists under the banner Don Carlos', to the legal king explained itself, and thus as the emergence of the Carlistenbewegung and immediately as open state of war in Spain.
all three Carlistic wars began as guerrilla wars, and regular army units were never from the beginning on Carlistic side. In all cases the rural areas coined/shaped by independent Kleinbauern and the cities gesinnten to a large extent liberally with few exceptions faced each other also in the Carlistic centers. Only the third Carlistenkrieg was a collection introduced by planerischer hand, which others began than rebellions. Soon more or less in each case coherent and developed themselves fighting Carlistic and government-faithful territories with a front line and armies. Here the territorial basis of the Carlists (in particular Navarra , the Rioja , the Basque country , Katalonien and the northern part of the province Valencia ) trained soon in each case own national structures - with exception of the second Carlistenkrieges, into which that the case was not. Interestingly enough also the Spanish civil war ran later to a large extent after this sample.
the first Carlistenkriegcivil war and together with the further Carlistenkriegen the last larger European conflict with the goal of the Inthronisierung of a Prätendenten, broke to 5. October 1833, only six days after Ferdinands death, with a rebellion in the three baskischen provinces out. From here it spread over Navarra, the Rioja, Aragon, Katalonien, Valencia and even parts of the Extremadura and Andalusiens . The Carlists could put their own rule up in north Spain (apart from the fortresses of the area) temporarily, and the fighting dragged on over full seven years until 1840 .
goals of the first Carlistenkriegs
the first Carlistenkrieg has many facets and from both sides from many motives one led. The future writingness of the country concerned and a war of secession of those Spanish peripheral areas with this war around a war around the defense of the religion and the Klerus, a war around power in Spain and, which stood on Carlistic side - above all however it concerned a culture fight between state and church.
The Spanish liberals, when “Cristinos “also designates or” Isabelinos “, worked on a separation from church and state and a decided forcing centralistic structure of the state. They fought for the requirement Kastiliens on the rule over the whole iberische peninsula - and thus also against the special rights of the peripheral areas. The Regentin María Cristina of Sicilies and its daughter Isabella did not have other choice to rely than completely on these groupings heterogeneous in itself, which one could summarize under the designation of the constitutional monarchists, if they wanted to survive politically. The price of the support by the liberals, the elaboration and announcing of a condition for Spain, was certain from the beginning, although this did not correspond to María Cristinas conviction. The even absolutist gesinnte queen nut/mother was prevented only by Carlos' attack in the north to drive the liberals out immediately the center of power. Since the absolutists themselves stood themselves in the way, the liberals triumphierten. 1834 ordered the Regentin Maria Cristina a royal charter: Spain had become practical thereby a constitutional monarchy. 1836 forced the rebellion of an army regiment, which pulled after the king palace, María Cristina finally to the acknowledgment of the condition of 1812.
This fueros existed for instance in the Basque country, where they had been most extensive since more jeher, in an own parliament (in Guernica), an own coinage as well as in an own administrative, tariff and a jurisdiction in tax matters and in release from the Spanish military service. Without baskische permission the troops of the king were not allowed to pass their country.
The areas, which placed themselves on Carlos' side, were therefore in particular Navarra, Aragon, Katalonien, the rural areas of the Basque country - and even parts of Altkastiliens. After Carlistic feeling even still the state-legal condition caused by the Bourbonen was to be overcome already too centralistic and therefore: thus Katalonien required, which had hardly still own fueros, its old rights back, which to him by the first Bourbonenkönig after the Spanish succession war were taken were, since it had placed itself under the protection of France.
A condition however threatened due to the centralistic and uniformistic efforts of the liberals to convert Spain irrevocablly to a central state. And indeed the liberals in material the Decreto decided de 30 de noviembre 1833 after French model the allocation of Spain in provinces, with which the old member states of the Spanish state of the map should disappear.
About question the future writingness however led inevitably to a culture fight of the state against the church. The old system was not to be separated from the church and not be even thought without it, since from the office of the king the church had been apart in the past the only totalSpanish institution. It was the cement between the half dozen otherwise independent states, of which Spain consisted and which under the rule of the having citizens all together its own administrations, its own Cortes and own laws had had. Hieran had not changed also under the Bourbonen anything fundamental, also although these had taken with start of their rule to the member states with exception of the Basque country to a large extent fueros. This national writingness stood and fell with the position and the power of the church. Therefore it can be said that the Carlists seized the weapons for the self statement of the church inside head of the Spanish state.
expiration of the first Carlistenkriegs
at the point of the Carlistic troops, the Requetés in such a way specified, stood Toma Zumalacárregui from Ormaisteguy in Guipúzcoa, which had already struck itself 1820 on the side of the opponents of the liberal Trienniums. It formed a regular army out of first the badly trained and armed Carlistic fighters. For this it was first to a large extent dependent on material captured by the government troops, since the government blocked the Spanish ports and thus the supply routes of the Carlists. At the beginning of the first Carlistenkriegs the Carlists could obtain considerable successes despite this disadvantage, and during most time the government troops saw themselves - which consisted mostly of unmotivated and drawing in scarcely held under the guidance of an often little capable officer staff - in the defensive. Zumalacárregui controlled soon completely Navarra and the whole Basque country with exception of the fortresses. Thus it tightened itself however to suspicions of the Prätendenten, which the enormous shifted reputation, which enjoyed Zumalacárregui with the soldiers, in concern.Durango corresponded to that “, according to which all taken up foreign Kombattanten of the opposite side was to be shot easily. Since the Carlists could not fall back to the national infrastructure, but from the country to supply itself, were directed with the time acts of violence of Carlistic partisans down-sunk to gangs had also against the Spanish population, and many military actions were accomplished mainly for the purpose to press money from the population.
The Cristinos however, those as battle call trágala, perro, do que NO of quieres una constitución (eat that, you from dog, which would not like you a condition) led, took the outbreak of the Cholera during the war to the cause to spread the “monks” the wells would have poisoned. When the mobilization inspires the enemy picture took up and the monasteries stormed, died over one hundred catholic medal people. After outbreak of war, in July 1835, the Regentin the society Jesu let in addition two years forbid and closed in the October of the same yearly on operation of the banker Álvarez Mendizábal by it ley desamortizado a number of conventions. Which an act of the appeasement of the church-hostile urban masses should be, became on the contrary an up to then unparalleled monastery tower. Hundreds of monasteries were down-burned and numerous medal member and cleric lost their life. The force outbreaks against the Klerus contributed and became much to the Bitterkeit between the Spanish Parteiungen a guidance motive of the Spanish fight of the liberals against the conservative ones, which should still often again be produced over the Semana Trágica up to the Spanish civil war.
1835 seemed to be lost the thing of the Cristinos. Zumalacárregui controlled nearly completely Spain north the Ebro, and his army covered 30,000 men, whose combat capability and moral were far better than those of the government troops. Into Andalusien the Carlistic general Gomez penetrated. Zumalacárregui planned now to pull its forces together and march directly on Madrid - a plan, which, if it had been converted, would have had good prospects provide for the Prätendenten control of the capital. Carlo (V.) however first control of a sea port wished to attain for the solution of the supply question, and so Zumalacárregui was instructed to besiege Bilbao. Zumalacárregui pulled itself here to 14. June 1835 an actually harmless wound at its calf too, when it was met of a ball erred. It required for its English body physician, who would have known but sent this wound probably easily couriers, him Carlo's its own physicians, under their treatment Zumalacárregui to 24. June 1835 died. Under the Carlists therefore rumors became loud that Zumalacárregui had been poisoned.
1837 finally still appeared the Carlists under the guidance Carlos' (V.) before Madrid. However the hoped for rebellion in the city was missing, and the capital could not be taken. In this year succeeded (to 14. October) the christinischen general Baldomero Espartero the victory in the decisive battle of Huerta del Rey, according to which it began to bring step by step the northern provinces back under government control. Disagreement in the Carlistic camp began itself at the same time to spread. The Carlistic general Maroto, which only years was pushed to the Carlists after outbreak of the first Carlistenkriegs, came to its because of its moderate attitude with the Apostólicos into conflict - which ended with shooting of the apostolischen generals arranged by it.
The first Carlistenkrieg was terminated, when fatigue symptoms pointed themselves to both sides. The commanders facing of the sides - on side of the Carlists general Rafael Maroto, which was afraid the revenge of the Apostólico, and on that side of the Cristinos general Baldomero Espartero - were ago well-known with one another and friendly from their earlier activity in South America. Both generals agreed to 31. August 1839 in a friendly discussion, abrazo de in such a way specified Vergara (fraternization of Vergara), over the heads of the Regentin and the Prätendenten away on an attitude of the fighting, whereupon a number of Carlistic regiments stopped the fighting. Although abrazo and his secret armistice agreements of numerous other Carlists than betrayal one regarded, Don Carlo went on pressure Marotos to 15. September 1839 in the exile on the lock Bourges in France, where it lived still for many years in half shank, until it did to 1845 without its requirement for throne. The fights erstarben gradually, and as the last resistance of the general Cabrera by its verb driving to France to 15. July 1840 to be suffocated could keep, had the liberals the upper hand.
After the first Carlistenkrieg an important part of their was taken to the Basque fueros. They kept however the tax and jurisdiction in customs matters, and one excluded them further from the military service.
The victory of the liberals side was not completely complete however - refrained from the fact that the conflict between absolutists and liberals not finally decided and by no means eliminated was -, since further the old privileges were assured to the insurgent provinces and the crossing was permitted to the meuternden Carlistic officers into the numbers of the Spanish army under keeping of their rank and their full purchases. This solution put however for a full century the reason for the glaring officer overhang in the Spanish army - and thus for its Prätorianismus and the numerous pronuniciamientos, by which Spain up to the Spanish civil war was troubled.
From the first Carlistenkrieg last end the general Espartero followed as more laughing the third and as a winner. It drove 1841 (after endured danger itself immediately again the reactionary forces zuneigende) the queen nut/mother temporarily likewise in the exile and became until 1843 (and again starting from 1854) the “strong man” of Spain.
the war of the Matiners (second Carlistenkrieg)
The counting of the Carlistenkriege is non-uniform. Occasionally the war of the Matiners is counted not as own Carlistenkrieg in the row and the war is designated of 1872 as the second Carlistenkrieg.
The war of the Matiners (on Catalan guerra dels matiners, about: War of the Frühaufsteher) refers its name of a group of Carlists, which loose-struck in Katalonien in expectation that as in the first Carlistenkrieg the Carlistic centers them would follow, when these were not yet ready actually however for it. The conflict took place therefore mainly in Katalonien. At the point of the troops stood general Ramón Cabrera y Griño, which under the Carlists reputation enjoyed, since it had not laid down de Vergara the weapons during the first Carlistenkriegs also after abrazo and therefore 1840 had been driven out by the Cristinos including its troops to France. In the battle of Pastoral of 1849 Cabrera was carried wounded by the battleground and fled in April this yearly to France, while the government troops set still in the May following on it an end for the rebellion.
A limited rebellion of the Carlists took place furthermore 1855 , when the Prätendent Carlo (VI.) called to the weapons, but only locally limited unrests to release could.
the invasion of Tortosa
in April 1860, when the bulk of the Spanish army was bound in the Spanish-Moroccan war, sought to use Carlo's (VI.) the alleged favour of the hour and landed together with its jüngten brother Ferdinand and the commander of the Balearen named Ortega in San Carlos de la Rápita close Tortosa. However its plans were soon destroyed made, since hardly a trailer showed up and its soldiers refused themselves to his instructions. While its companion Ortega was shot after the arrest Carlos', he could save its life only by formal renouncement of its throne rights in favor of Isabellas.
This circumstance and the consequence of its resignation - which was given to Prätendentenrolle his liberal brother Juan (of IIITH) Carlo, who faced the Carlistic ideals critically - led to a threatening crisis of the Carlism, particularly since Carlo's (VITH) its renouncement recalled after leaving Spain, since he had been obtained under obligation. Thus the Carlistic movement up to Carlos' (VITH) had death two Prätendenten. This crisis became only owing to the employment of the stepmother both Prätendenten, which von Beria got over princess; it ended only, as Juan 1868 in favor of Carlo (VII.) to the resignation was forced.
the third Carlistenkrieg1868 became Isabella by a coup d'etat of the liberals general prime and admiral Topete outgoing from Cádiz - the so-called Revolución gloriosa - the throne relieved, because she had given allegedly hearing too much to her Carlistic Beichtvater. The question of their follow-up led indirectly to the French-German war of 1870, because Otto von Bismarck 1870 the unjustified demand of France that William I. Leopold from Hohenzollern Sigmaringen to the renouncement of it offered the Spanish throne to induce is, with the Emser telegram rejected. Thus the prince of Aosta instead of their ( Amadeus I. finally became.) to the Spanish king proclaimed, that under of Spain conservative ones as freimaurerisch and atheistisch verschrienen house the Savoyen (on Spanish: Saboya) belonged.
The Carlists, of them self-confident its itself after the case Isabellas and due to the support by Pope Pius IX. very much it had lifted, placed as a regular political party into the Cortes 1871 about 90 delegates with which they were by far strongest conservative Kraft. 1872 took place elections; they ended with the fact that the Carlists had to accept substantial being correct losses. The Prätendent Carlo (VII.) arrived at the conviction to be able to mount the throne only by force of arms and addressed to 15. April a communist manifesto at its trailers. Thus it provoked the third Carlistenkrieg, which dragged on into the year 1876.
To 14. April 1872 called Carlo to the general rebellion. In Navarra and in the Basque country the Carlists rose, and from France the Prätendent pushed in addition. To 4. May 1872 - straight two days after arrival of the Prätendenten in Spain - came it into Navarra to the first larger battle, than government troops under the guidance of the general Domingo Moriones struck a much larger number of Carlists in Oroquieta, whereby the Carlo's however over Roncesvalles escape succeeded to France. The baskischen Carlists laid down temporarily the weapons. Now however Katalonien rose, of where from the rebellion spread again to Navarra and the Basque country. A Carlistic army, whose crew strength amounted to 50,000 men, was placed until 1873 on the legs.the 11. February 1873 of the throne renounced, the first republic was proclaimed, which continued the fight against the Carlists. Only now, to 15. June, dared itself Carlo's itself from Bayonne coming Spanish soil, over to 2. To swear August in Gernika on the baskischen Fueros and to select the city Estella as seat of its headquarters.
The Carlists fought at many fronts, in particular in Navarra and Katalonien, quite victoriously, but again with large cruelty, to which the Füsilieren of its prisoners of war belonged. Although they could win many, also war-experienced Freiwillige for itself, it lacked equipment and knowledge of the art of the FE storage of cities. Thus the Carlists failed again before the fortress Bilbao, which was frightened by the republican troops after six months of the FE storage. With this success of the republic the sheet began to turn, and which republican troops could actually tear the initiative. Also Pamplona remained 1875 the Carlists despite FE storage locked. In addition it came that in the numbers of the Carlists autonomously acting army leader was a row, that did not add itself the instructions of main power.
Already in the year 1875 however the republic found, under which the anarchy in Spain - which was third Carlistenkrieg only one of several collections in Spain - had constantly increased, after occupation and dissolution of the Cortes an end, taking place at the same time. After the experiences also from the foreign country imported prince and the republic one wanted to try it again with a native prince. There the progressive generals as may be understood not for Carlo (VII.) to become enthusiastic could do, came it to the Inthronisierung of the oldest son Isabellas, Alfons XII.. Under the rule Alfons' placed the army in February 1876 under the commanders Jovellar and Martinez Campos by its victories against the Carlists in Trevino (7. July 1875) and Montejurra (17. February 1876) the unit of the state again ago. After the lost battle of Montejurra and the income of his headquarters in Estella two days later the been subject of Carlo (VII.) fled, who a decisive battle avoided and instead its of its oath relieved trailers, again over Roncesvalles to France. The third Carlistenkrieg ended by surrender of the Carlistic regiments to 25. February 1876.
Montejurra, where the Carlists had to let last hope drive, became a kind place of pilgrimage of the Carlistic movement, where traditionally to today its meetings takes place.
To the Basque country after end of the third Carlistenkriegs fueros were finally taken. It only some tax benefits remained according to the regulations with Madrid agreed concierto económico („restaurant economics “), which granted the Basque the collection of regional taxes and the payment of a lump sum to the Spanish treasury.
balance of the Carlistenkriege
Although the Carlistic movement in all military conflicts was subject, it could prevent the complete Obsiegen of liberal ideas nevertheless with its powerful opposition (and alone already with its option of military procedure never given up) in some respect. Also although liberal expropriated the center of Spain 1836 the medals and 1841 the church, it happened nevertheless against the concession that the state for the maintenance of the church and the religiousness arose and it to its special protection subordinated. In the concordat of 1851 the situation continued to relax, than the church kept finally to the expropriated possession done without and the crown the patronage right of the bishop appointment, on the other hand however the catholic denomination than “religion of the Spanish nation” was recognized and the state had to provide for religious education in the schools. Even if the Carlists was to that extent underlaid in the course of the negotiations over the condition of 1869, when they could not prevent a faith liberty article contained in it, then after the third Carlistenkrieg in the condition of 1876 the catholicism was explained like already 1812 again as the state religion and the church was again inserted gradually into its old rights. In one - like everywhere in Europe - this led itself changing society however also to the fact that the catholic church in the eyes of the workers' movement was noticed as allied one of the dominant classes and thus as a class enemy.
Therefore the third Carlistenkrieg had been already a less powerful collection than the first Carlistenkrieg. And the regulations of the concordat it led the expropriations during the first Carlistenkriegs to the fact that the church lost its own economical basis either or from the state to receive had. Thus it - differently than in former times, than it had participated to make Spain one of the egalitärsten states of Europe in which visitor over it were frightened, like even poor Schlucker aristocrat on the road without each respect met - took for the first time to consideration for the Oberschicht, in order to place itself well with it, while it had behaved in reverse in past centuries rather. In the eyes of the lower layers however the church had turned away from them and had become have greedy.
This new view became generally accepted less in the Basque country, which was a landscape of independent small and large farmers, as particularly in the Tagelöhnerwirtschaft of the south, which differed from a body own system not substantially. Because the long-term consequences of the church expropriation of 1835 were still in other regard extensive. The church possession was offered to too so enticing prices that the upper central layer forgot its church loyalty and secured themselves the expanded properties. From now on the possessing social classes stood on liberals side, since they had to be afraid now a return of the church to their old rights and above all its old possession. Thus developed a new class, which established its Latifundien and particularly in the alfonsinischen era in the years after 1874 by their patronage nature, which caciquismo, on , the poverty-stricken Tagelöhner working on their fields it exerted particularly in Andalusien a political and social pressure that these became sensitive to the radical ideas of the Anarcho syndicalism.
None the Carlistenkriege could thus the conflict, which tore the Spanish society up into two parts, finally settles - on the contrary the parties involved everything did to intensify him further. The conflict was resumed less intensively, but - not least due to the leaving connections to the catholic church - on a broader level including newer political ideas like socialism , anarchy mash and fascism in the form of pronunciamientos and collections like the Semana trágica from 1909. Spain remained up to the end of the Spanish of civil war one of the politically most unstable countries in Europe. Anywhere the conflict between the traditional and the new political ideas as inexorably and pityless, with such hate and such cruelty did not become expenditure-fenced as here. The term “both Spain” (DOS Españas read) for this divorce into two irreconcilable camps was coined/shaped in this time. The Spanish poet Antonio Machado seized this into the following verses:
Españolito que vienes
Small Spaniard, who comes you into
The Spanish civil war was in the long run only one final, on which the political development of Spain zusteuerte since very long time almost inevitably and was for the last time tried in that to settle the old calculations and to finally cause a decision for one of the two directions.
the Carlists from 1875 to 1975
the Carlists in the time of the alfonsinischen Königtums
in the jerky decades, those the Inthronisierung of the king Alfons XII. in the year 1874 and the acceptance the condition of 1875 , had the Carlists far existence followed, engaged themselves however contrary to the first decades of its existence predominantly peacefully, by predominantly dedicating themselves now to the operating fields of the mental argument and propaganda.
So far the Carlism had been able itself to hold primarily as a kind of the women and priests alive romantic tradition held within certain families of northern Spain. Now the Marquis of Cerralba formed up to then largely the Carlistic movement consisting of loosely organized Freiwilligen into a modern party over, which carried the name Comunión Tradicionalista (CT), on German “Traditionalisti religious community”. The CT became the storage tank of the Carlistic movement. The Marquis arranged after 1888 - when „the communist manifesto was published of Burgos “as basis by program of the Carlism - also the association life and the social commitment of the Carlists again. 1936 gave it in completely Spain of hundred meeting houses of the Carlists, “círculos” - the local's groups in such a way specified,” at [of them] point… usually a erlesen polite Aristokrat with the pistol in the bag [stood] “(Hugh Thomas). The Carlistic movement developed an extensive press in this time. Their central executive body was those already 1841 created newspaper „La Esperanza “(hope).
Not least due to their disagreement, from which numerous splitting witnessed the movement, the Carlistic movement remained after the third Carlistenkrieg however parliamentary without special meaning (1891: 4 seats in the Cortes, 1896: 10 seats; 1901: 7 seats; 1907: 4 seats).
During the First World War the Prätendent Don Jaime without possibility for the establishment of contact with the Comunión Tradicionalista, in its host country Austria stood for the political arm of the Carlistic movement under house arrest. When communication was again possible after end of war, it came immediately to the break: if Don Jaime was per French (evenly therefore one had it in Austria determined), then the political line of the Carlists had been strictly per German during the war because of the liberals objectives of France and England. Over it it came to the conflict, in which the movement agreed on a neutral line, while the per-German - simultaneous also in view to the Carlistic program reform-bent - trailers of the movement (the Mellisten in such a way specified, after its leader Juan Vazquez de Mella) were excluded from the party.
After the third Carlistenkrieg the master area of the Carlists was limited increasingly on Navarra. In the Basque country and in Katalonien the economic upswing brought employers out, which aimed at a western, free market life-style and the pertinent economic and political liberties. The Carlists played however during the Semana Trágica of katalonischen rebellion mentioned of 1909 still another role, when they intervened in Barcelona in the road fights.
Into Katalonien it was added that the traditional clientele of the Carlists, which felt increasingly less konfessionell bound workers and farmers. They made themselves mostly also the dislike of the liberals own against the Klerus and the church institutions too and turned to communism and Anarcho syndicalism .
The inhabitants of the rural Basque country (with exception if necessary the province Álava, which remained longer Carlistic coined/shaped than the two coastal provinces) against it followed predominantly the nationalbaskischen movement justified by Sabino Arana Goiri. This wished, simplified expressed, to a large extent to maintain to entire Spain referred the Carlistic thought to retain the authority of the king and the church but to the Basque country alone to limit.
Only in Navarra further a free peasantry prevailed forwards, which was strictly catholic, distrusted the liberals in Madrid in principle and in all interests and rejected due to their religious convictions the modern world to a large extent. Characteristically this province rejected later also it offered autonomy statute of the second republic, which was accepted in the Basque country and in Katalonien with large majority. For Navarra were one of a Republic of granted autonomy and them from age being entitled fueros not the same. It remains noting that even this very day the navarresischen Regionalhymne the following lines can be inferred in part:
The attitude of the Carlists to the dictatorship Miguel Primo de Riveras, who of 1923 - 1930 lasted, was non-uniform. During its dictatorship the Comunión Tradicionalista behaved like most parties to a large extent passively.
the Carlists and the second republic (1931-1936)
after 1931 the king Alfons XIII. driven out, found the royalist Legitimisti party and the Comunión Tradicionalista, which exhibited different positions in condition questions hardly, was to each other and closed a pact, which they called TYRE (Tradicionalistas y Renovación Española). The fallen king and the Carlistic Prätendent Don Jaime met in Paris together and here allegedly out söhnten itself that Alfons the Prätendenten as family head of the Spanish Bourbonen recognized, may however a rumor be. Don Jaime, which had protested sharply against proclaiming the republic, died however already soon thereafter, and its uncle Don Alfonso Carlo, in the eyes of the Carlists now the legal Prätendent, let the pact quit again. It came on that to a splitting of the Carlists. The more important part turned away from the legitimatists and maintained like once its community nature in navarresischen local circles. Here they trained most political camps from 1933 at troops, like it however, including which Falangists, Anarchisten and the communist and socialist youth federations in expectation of a large argument at the same time did. The training of the Carlistic quantities, which were called as once “Requetés”, was entrusted to the highest José Varela decorated highly during its employments in Morocco and financed by Benito Mussolini with 1.5 million pesetas.the second republic (1931-1936) came to meet the edge provinces with the grant of large autonomies far. Nevertheless the Carlists faced the chaos and the outbreaks of all-round political force in Madrid as well as the measures, which the second republic due to their laizistischen self understanding from 1931 to 1936 in enrich number met, with largest resentment, dictated on one side church-hostile after their view, ideologically and. In addition, apart from these actions (like the introduction of the civil marriage and the divorce, the abolition of the medal schools and the renewed prohibition of the society Jesu) the Carlists regarded faithfully to its brought state-legal conceptions the republic actually, which had made itself with the Himno de Riego the combat song of the constitutional the insurgent yearly 1820 too own as national anthem, anyhow as illegitim and was already therefore not not ready alone to resign itself to it.
In addition already numerous violent attacks against the Klerus and arson attacks came against Spanish churches usually from anarchist side in the apron of the Spanish of civil war, which were acknowledged to shoulder-twitch by the political line of the republic often only with one. One to 10. May 1931 in Madrid had monarchistic slap for a republican Taxifahrer about swung itself in the same month to by Spain pulling an arson wave at churches and monasteries up. On that the war Minister Manuel Azaña with the saying let itself be heard, rather should all churches burn, a republican a hair is curved. These and other incidents continued to polarize the Spanish society and contributed to provoke also the not-Carlistic church-faithful Spaniards to the resistance which gave the Carlists between 1931 and 1936 large inlet. Furthermore the Mellisten found the way back to the Carlists.
Several high-ranking leaders of the Comunión Tradicionalista already supported 1932 against “the church-hostile dictatorship the Azañas “arranged pronunciamiento the general José Sanjurjo Sacanell, and also with outbreak of the Spanish of civil war the Carlists did not only see no cause to raise the hand for the defense of the republic but participated on the contrary when planning pronunciamiento from July 1936 energetically.
the Carlists in the Spanish civil war
the Carlists struck itself on the page Francos, after on basis of a compromise paper general Sanjurjos in time before the collection to 17. July 1936 an agreement between general Emilio Mola Vidal and the leader of the Comunión Tradicionalista, Manuel Fal Conde, over a participation of the Carlists to pronunciamiento manufactured was. Fal Conde had persisted first in its demands that the rebellion under monarchistic flag had to happen and to draw in case of success the dissolution of all parties.
On the page of national Spain the Carlists fought to a Amulett with an illustration “heart of the Jesu”, typical for the Carlists, for the “re-establishment of the old ( world ) with machine gun and measuring book “(Hugh Thomas) with approximately 50 gang-races (companies) against the people front, many from them with the December duck bala (stop the ball) over the heart. With 40.000 Freiwilligen did not serve less as a tenth the navarresischen population than brigada de Navarra under the Carlistic flags. The casualty lists of the Carlists mentioned among other things heavily hurt fifteen-year ones. Brenan holds the opinion that the Carlists - differently than after its view the Falange - which was only really motivated and fighter on the page, who can be inspired for one cruzada, Francos.
Soon however they came into controversy with the military guidance of the nationalSpanish coalition, whereby Manuel Fal Conde was banished after an argument with Francisco Franco to Portugal. The Carlists was over this treatment of their leader hereditary east and manufactured contacts with some leaders of the fascist Falange, who agreed likewise not with Franco. With the Falange could despite the substantial differences between both movements nevertheless regarding the refusal of the liberalism, which is found democracy and the “nineteenth century” a common basis. Thus Fal Conde in Portugal the suggestion was submitted to unite the Carlistic and the falangistische movement. Negotiations were led, however the Carlists arrived at the opinion that the Falange was essentially only out to swallow the carlistisch traditionalistische movement why they finally rejected a fusion.
At this time Franco had however already made friends itself with the thought of a fusion of the Comunión Tradicionalista with the Falange. This happened due to the efforts of the political advisor Francos, Ramón Serrano Súñer to place the state of the nationalSpanish coalition under Franco on a theoretical or even ideological basis. In his opinion none of the parties of the nationalSpanish coalition could offer such a basis for itself taken, neither the Falange nor the Carlists - perhaps however both together. In addition it came that the goals of the individual organizations could more differently not have been: the Carlists wanted in the long run on a Spanish state 16. Century back, then the Falange, which a “national syndicalism” in the sense one fascistically - korporativen system before-floated, held nothing from all that.
Franco decided, national Spain finally only one direction, its own to give. 1937 became the Comunión Tradicionalista with the fascist Falange Española de read JONS the organization “Falange Española Tradicionalista y de read JONS “, which obligation-combines later state party of the Franquismus. Party uniform of the “F. E. T. y de read JONS " became the falangistische blue shirt as well as the Carlistic red Basque cap. Head of this organization became Franco, although it was neither Falangist nor Carlist, with which it brought both organizations under its control and so its position in the nationalSpanish camp strengthened uncommonly. In order to water the internal opposition further, arranged Franco in addition that all occupation and reserve officers were automatically member of this organization. The “F.E.T. y de read JONS " bore soon thereafter the more noncommittal name Movimiento Nacional, starting from 1970 was this also the official name of the state party. Traditionally was entitled to a loyalen Carlists in the franquistischen system of the posts of the Minister of Justice.
The acting regent, Don Javier, protested against this obligation combination, to which one had not even consulted him, and to Portugal was likewise driven out. Although soon thereafter the participation in power away-helped after the victory in the civil war over much, a measurement being correctness still continued both on the part of the Comunión Tradicionalista and on the part of the Falange against this pool by decades: there the party uniform of the “F.E.T. y de read JONS " up from the blue shirt of the Falange and the red Basque cap of the Carlists built themselves, tended the Falangists the cap with each offering opportunity into the bag to put, and many Carlists preferred it to rather appear to official causes of the movement in civilian clothes than in the blue shirt.
the Carlists in the time of the Franquismus
after death Alfonso Carlos' was Alfons XIII. Family head, that to Rome in the exile former king of Spain gone, with which theoretically splitting the Spanish Bourbonen into two attacking lines would have repaired itself to be to be able. However were many Carlists of the opinion that Alfonso XIII. and its son Juan, count of Barcelona, under the criterion of the “legitimacy by acts” as leaders of the movement had this-qualified themselves.
Alfonso Carlo, who last Prätendent of the Carlistic branch of the Bourbonen, had briefly before its death still prince Francisco Javier de Borbón Parma as a regent determined, since this was next relatives the Bourbone, which high-held the Carlistic ideals. Francisco Javier - a brother Zitas, which last Austrian empress - returned during the Second World War to Belgium, in whose army he had served during the First World War. There it was demobilisiert, whereupon it followed the French resistance. Taken by the national socialists imprisoned, it interned in Natzweiler and DAK-strike, where the American troops freed it 1945. After the re-establishment of the monarchy in the year 1947 Francisco Javier announced its requirement on the Spanish throne public in the year 1952 as Javier (I.) and justified thus the second Carlistic dynasty of the Borbón Parma.
This rank became it and its son Carlo Hugo de Borbón Parma von Juan, count of Barcelona and father of the present king of Spain, Juan Carlo I. (Spain), contentiously made, because Francisco Javier had married unstandesgemäss and in addition - just like Carlo Hugo - the Spanish nationality did not possess. Franco did not express itself to the requirements Francisco Javiers and Carlo Hugos, because this came against its efforts to donate disagreement under the Spanish monarchists. In particular Franco was been because of the fact that the Spanish monarchists did not unite behind the count of Barcelona, which had expressed itself expressly for the creation of a parliamentary democracy, while Franco of a future king expected the full identification with the “Movimiento Nacional “.
Although the circumstance that no Spanish nationality came to them, was not by any means undisputed (the contract of Aranjuez of 1801, never dissolved, secured all prince von Borbón the Spanish nationality too), placed Francisco Javier and Carlo Hugo a request for naturalization. Franco did that to the Seine, a decision over this request ever further to out-hesitate (to a naturalization it came in case of Carlo Hugos therefore only to 5. January 1979). From it it did not let an opportunity refrained elapse to out-pass on the different throne candidates against each other. When about Juan Carlo went 1962 to its marriage to Athens, Franco invited the Carlo Hugo in the meantime living in Madrid to a meeting, according to which he let the count of Barcelona know that he had considered himself now another candidate. However Carlo Hugo began to move away in these years from Franco and attacked Juan Carlo as its alleged puppet. He called Juan, the count of Barcelona, as liberal, centralists as well as favourite of capitalism and the establishment. Carlo Hugos trailers saw themselves therefore compelled to throw Juan Carlo with public appearances with putrid vegetable.
1964 married Carlo Hugo princess Irene von Oranien Nassau. In the Flitterwochen Irene in a Bikini could be made a blueprint, an article of clothing, which was regarded at that time in Spain as obszön. Franco used the public indignation, in order to lower Carlo Hugo by the fact that it left the invitation to an audience with “princess Irene of the Netherlands and their man” over titles. Thereupon Carlo Hugo broke both with Franco and with its traditionalistischen father and began to pursue a left course. In the popular vote of 1966, which applied for a constitutional reform (Ley Orgánica del Estado), Francisco Javier called its trailers to be correct with “”. Carlo Hugo placed thereupon its father by the fact only that he denied publicly the “legitimacy to him by acts”. Thus the break was sealed within the Carlistic movement. Francisco Javier did a further and a stated its support for the baskischen and Catalan separatism. Franco, which was the too much, left thereupon all princes von Borbón Parma from Spain to expel. Carlo Hugo and with him its trailers pursued the idea of a individualistic socialism after its break with Franco 1967.
In the long run hopes of the Carlists smashed themselves again, when Franco decided under the many which are applicable Prätendenten for the grandchild Alfons' XIII. , Juan Carlo.
the Carlists after 1975
to 8. April 1975, still before Francos death, resigned Francisco Javier in favor of of Carlo Hugo. This had already brought 1971 a far left-wing oriented Carlistic grouping into being, which bore the name Partido Carlista ( PC) starting from 1971 and hit after a political re-orientation on the Carlisti congress of people of 1972 a föderalistisch autonomistischen socialist course, which both of II. Vatikani council was affected and elements of release theology took up. Central one of elements were operational self-determination and a national federalism with autonomous regions. Contrary to in former times should be interspersed however expressly in the context of a pluralistischen system. At present of Francos death 1975 was the 1977 legalisierte Partido Carlista a far left-wing oriented organization, which took part among other things in the establishment of the Izquierda Unida (combined link).
Everything this led to a irreparable splitting of the Carlistenbewegung conservative-catholic since their origins. The leaders of the Carlistic movement requested Carlo Hugo to express itself for its traditionalistische line. When Carlo Hugo did not react to it, they explained him its right to Führerschaft for merry. Carlo Hugo kept itself however without any right to have done. The movement divided now officially into the “Partido Carlista “Carlo Hugos and different - of its brother Sixto aforementioned - traditionalistische groups, which united 1986 under Sixto to the” Comunión far oriented towards the right Tradicionalista Carlista “(CTC).
Anyhow immediately after Francos death faced itself both Carlistic groupings in such a manner hostilely that traditionalistische Carlists under Don Sixto, which allegedly by them close standing circles - which are speech by a participation of Gladio - were supported, with a bomb attack on a meeting the PC on the Montejurra in the year 1976, which was brought demanded two victims, in connection.
Sixto Enrique de Borbón Parma stressed those leader shank of the Carlistic movement and took up for itself, the legitimate Prätendent to be. Both appointed themselves to their to 7. May the 1977 deceased father. Those background are unclear. In a communist manifesto of 4. March 1977 condemned Francisco Javier (alleged on serious operation Sixtos) the always linkere policy Carlo Hugos, during - after Carlo Hugo had gotten its father from the hospital - three days later a written paper Carlo Hugo than an inheriting also in view to the requirement for throne designated. The nut/mother of both Prätendenten held anyhow to Sixto and went so far excluding Carlo Hugo from their own funeral 1984.
A trailer-strong movement the Carlists still remained into the 60's 20. Century. Already with the first free elections 1977 it showed up however that the Carlists had slipped due to its self paralysis by disagreement in the course only one decade politically into the Bedeutungslosigkeit. The PC remained a fragment organization, which 1977 counted about 8,500 members, and brought it even in the navarresischen regional parliament 1979 only on 4,79% of the voices and only one seat, was starting from 1983 no more to represent there and drives in the meantime than splinter party well under 1% of the voices in 2003 was it 0.34% of the voices.
There are opinions that this fall of the Carlistic movement is also not to be attributed last to the fact that the acting king Juan Carlo I. in the opinion to the overwhelming majority of the Spaniards in far higher measure than each Prätendenten legitimacy comes. This legitimacy acquired Juan Carlo at the latest by its employment for the Transition Spain, the introduction of the parliamentary democracy, its defense against the Putschversuch of 1981 as well as by its co-operation at the federal condition, while the Prätendenten does not end mainly by not majorityable political opinions and to wanting Familienzwist about itself talks made.
1980 withdrew itself Carlo Hugo from the policy and withdrew from the Partido Carlista, without giving however its requirements up on the throne. 1981 took place the divorce from princess Irene, with who Carlo Hugo had four children.
In the year 2000 used a certain revival PC, which could draw into the local elections in the year 2003 in ten Navarreser local councils. In the year 2005 the PC on the Federal congress admitted itself again to Tolosa to the regional self-determination and expressed themselves against a European condition .
political and social goals of the Carlism
is not easy to categorize the Carlism applicable since the Carlists was monolithic never, while their long history continuous developments went through and took up influences of other political directions, as also different political directions Carlistic ideas took over - for instance the social commitment, which came with the Carlists for example in the establishment of Christian trade unions to the expression. Originally from retreat combat of the Spanish Ancien Régimes developed, defined the Carlism by the times repeats itself again, in order not to lose the connection to the time: in order to implement its conceptions, the Carlism fenced first wars out, in order to then become a parliamentary active political party and under the Franquismus finally a kind syndicate.
The Carlists applied anyhow in the first half 20. Century predominantly as a party of the low aristocracy, were not however limited with their in terms of figures considerable appendix with the farmers and workers to this group by any means. They were strictly catholic and deeply conservatively - parts of them so much that they attacked in the course of the third Carlistenkriegs stations as again-fashionable horriblenesses. You of the reformerischen Mellisten coined/shaped program of 1897 took distance from an absolutist state, however also further regional self-determination demanded a monarchische system of government, re-establishment of the aristocracy with unit of Spain under the indication of the catholicism , in their traditional functions and social commitment in the sense of the catholic social teachings in agreement with the papal Enzykliken concerned. The Carlism understood itself as determining Kraft of the Conservadurismo in such a way specified (Spanish conservativism) and bent the longer, the more to an authoritarian government and to the Korporativismus. As monarchists the Carlists rejected the idea of the people sovereignty , however no diktatorische, but a king rule in-preserved by faith, custom and law publicised. They turned rather explicitly against the potentiometer mash: Sobre el Rey está el Ley, „over the king stands the law “, with which primarily the unalterable nature right and the unwritten principles of good and fair governing were meant.
The historian Hugh Thomas illustrates in practice the view of politics, connected with it, as follows: When the leader of the parliamentary group of the Carlists into the Cortes, which was asked count von Rodezno, 1931, who in case of a return of the king Prime Minister would probably become, was it the following characteristic answer to have given: “Here, concerns you or one of the gentlemen nevertheless only secretary places… I [even however] would remain with the king, and we would speak of the hunt.“Hugh Thomas according to” belonged to the core of the Carlistic view of society… [D] the policy on the hunt ate is made “.
The influence of these Spanish history by more than one century lastingly coining/shaping movement on today's Spain was various. The baskische nationalism has Carlistic roots. Furthermore Carlists created with the “Sindicatos of libres” the first Christian trade unions of Spain.
relationship of church and State of
the Carlistic understanding and state and society was based substantially on its ideal conceptions of a relationship between state and church, how it had prevailed in the Spain of the time before the clearing-up. The church legitimized the king rule with its Gottesgnadentum since more jeher not only, but was since the times of the Reyes Católicos in a as heterogeneous state as Spain strongest integrating and stabilizing Kraft and in this characteristic than support of the existing order of crucial importance. On political as in cultural area the church was pervasive. The summit of Spanish power in Europe and the world fell into this time of the symbiosis of throne and altar. In the course of the sea protest of this time after the fall of Spain around Spanish the succession war a connection between the old constitution and glory was manufactured, which the Carlism took up and made themselves too own.
The most powerful totalSpanish institution of old Spain, the Inquisition, had been controlled by the church and a substantial support of their power. Also although it had imposed in the last forty yearly of its existence no more death penalty (the last witch burn found 1781), was their political power into the times of the government Ferdinands VII., which abolished it on pressure of France, still enormously and was enough into the yard state of the king inside. Furthermore alone the Inquisition was thought capable of to become finished with the free bricklaying and to banish the liberalism from Spain, and it does not surprise that still in 20. Century one the principal claim of the Carlists long time the remechanism of the Inquisition was, of which they spoke as of the most venerable tribunal brought of angels of the sky on earth.
Four elements essentially constituted the socio-political conceptions, on which the Carlists outside or better back-wanted: religious unit of the people, a national and social system, co-operation between church and state, developed on religious faith sets, and liberty of the church. Characteristically the Carlists connected always political with its meetings with religious elements. Reading a fair tended to precede a political speech.
The Carlistic conceptions of the commonwealth were taken to the Middle Ages. A separation from church and state was not there intended. Besides the religion could not be a private thing, because the catholic denomination and the Christian values were after Carlistic view the foundation of the society. For this in the resort to the Spanish Middle Ages the complete konfessionelle agreement of the Spanish people was regarded as necessary, and the Inquisition should guarantee the religious unit of the people. For this reason the Carlism freedom of religion rejected strictly. The fact that in the course of the draft the Carlists in the Cortes in the controversy over the grant of the freedom of religion was subject to the condition of 1869 is therefore regarded as one of the reasons for the renewed grasp to the weapons few years later.
The Carlists saw the political development of Europe in 19. Century as the French revolution changed over into a European revolution on, which their opinion to in all European countries, including Spain, continual in the sense their political opponent, who was liberal, at the work. In this sense the Prätendent Carlo (VII.) expressed itself as follows: “The Spanish revolution is only one of the battalions of the large kosmopolitischen revolution. Substantial characteristic of the latters is the complete denial of the rule of God over the world; their goal exists in the complete destruction of the bases, which were brought out by the Christianity and on which the human society are justified. “The Carlistenkriege as well as the Spanish civil war was not motivated only politically, but was also religious crusades. Thus the Carlists called Spanish the civil war openly cruzada (crusade).
symbols of the Carlismsymbol of the Carlists is a red Burgundi St Andrews cross (cruz de Borgoña) on white reason. The Burgundi St Andrews cross represents more or less stylizes two crossed, only roughly into shape-cut branches. It reminded of the Martyrium of the Apostels sank Andreas. On a white, but occasionally also blue or also field held in other colors it was since that 15. Century - when Philipp the beautiful one, a duke of Burgund, it as personal indication used - the Spanish war flag. Originally it concerned a burgundisches emblem - Schutzheiliger of the dukes of Burgund was pc. Andreas. In use the Burgundi St Andrews cross was as war flag until 1843, as which 1785 introduced red-yellow-red naval warfare flag (in its fundamentals corresponds to the today's flag Spain) was used also for the war for country as well as state flag. From 1843 on the Carlistic movement stood thus under an old Spanish flag in the field, which reminds of the phenomenon of the black-and-white-red and black-red-golden flags in Germany.
The Wahlspruch of the Carlistenbewegung reads Dios, Patria, Fueros, Rey („God, native country, old privileges, king “. One compares the slogan of the Christian-conservative baskischen party EAJ/PNV: Jainkoa eta puts - „God and the old right to Zaharrak “). The Wahlspruch of the Partido Carlista however reads Libertad, Socialismo, Autogestión, Federalismo („liberty, socialism, autonomy, federalism “).
first Carlistic dynasty
- of Carlo (Vth) Maria Isidro de Borbón (* 29. March 1788 in Aranjuez; † 10. March 1855 in Triest). Founder of the first Carlistic dynasty. Also admits as a count von Molina. Prätendent from 1833 to 18. May 1845 (resignation). Leader of the movement in the first Carlistenkrieg, of its Kontrahentin, the Regentin María Cristina to 16. October 1833 to the rebel explains.
- Carlo (VITH) Luis de Borbón y Braganza. Son of the preceding Prätendenten (* 31. January 1818 in Madrid; † 13. January 1861 in Triest). Also admits as a count von Montemolín. Prätendent from 1845 to 1860. Resignation in consequence of its capture by Isabellas troops in Tortosa.
- Juan (of IIITH) Carlo de Borbón y Braganza. Brother of the preceding Prätendenten (* 15. May 1822 in Aranjuez; † 21. November 1887 in Brighton). Also admits as a count von Montizon. Prätendent from 1860 to 1868. Because of his inclination to the liberalism in a forced manner to the resignation, there was entitled to it in opinion of the Carlists no “legitimacy by acts” (not only by descent). 1883 it became head of the royal family of the Capets and could stress thereby the French throne.
- Carlo's (VIITH) Maria de loosely Dolores de Borbón y Austria Este. Son of the preceding Prätendenten (* 30. March 1848 in loaf oh; † 18. July 1909 in Varese). Also admits as a duke of Madrid. Prätendent of the 3. October 1868 to 1909, 1873 in the Santuario de Loyola to the Spanish king gesalbt. Leader of the movement during the third Carlistenkrieges. Grandfather of the later Prätendenten ore duke Karl Pius of Habsburg Lorraine Toskana.
- Jaime (IIITH) de Borbón y Borbón. Son of the preceding Prätendenten (* 27. June 1870 in Vevey; † 9. October 1931 in Paris). Also admits as a duke of Madrid. Prätendent from 1909 to 1931.
- Alfonso Carlo (Ith) de Borbón y Austria Este. Uncle of the preceding Prätendenten, brother Carlos' (VII.) (* 12. September 1849 in London; † 29. September 1936 in Vienna on the occasion of a traffic accident). Also admits as a duke of San Jaime. Prätendent from 1931 to 1936. Last male heir to the throne of the Carlistic line; with it the first Carlistic dynasty expired.
second Carlistic dynasty
from 1936 to 1952 did not give it to official Prätendenten of the Carlistic movement. As Weser Francisco Javier de Borbón Parma served in this time.
The Borbón Parma is a branch of the family, that already itself from the principal firm in 18. Century under Philipp V. separated. Last common ancestor of the main line, the first Carlistic dynasty and the Borbón Parma was Philipp I. Duke of Parma, its daughter María Luisa as a wife Carlos' IV. Nut/mother both Ferdinands VII. and the Prätendenten Carlo (V.) was. Apart from the fact the wife of Carlo (VII.) was a Borbón Parma and thus a nut/mother Jaimes (III.).
To 30. May 1952 raised Francisco Javier requirement on the throne and justified so the second Carlistic dynasty:
- Javier (Ith) de Borbón Parma y Braganza, with full name Francisco Javier, *25. May 1889, † 7. May 1977, Prätendent of 1952 - 1975 (resignation). Since the year of 1964 carriers of the title of the count von Molina.
- Carlo Hugo (Ith) de Borbón Parma y Borbón, *8 April 1930 in Paris, son Francisco Javiers, Prätendent since 1975. It leads also the title of a duke of Madrid.
As Gegenprätendent of the traditionalistischen direction of the Carlistic movement Sixto (
- to Ith) is set up Enrique de Borbón Parma y Borbón, Gegenprätendent since 1977. *22. July 1940 in Pau. Also admits as a duke of Aranjuez.
- 1958 recognized a in terms of figures strong group of Carlists Juan de Borbón y battery mountain, count of Barcelona, than head on.
- 1960 proclaimed a in terms of figures strong parliamentary group on the Montejurra the oldest son Alfonsos XIII. Jaime (IV.) as Prätendenten, which actually because of its deaf-muteness the rights to the Spanish throne to its younger brother Juan, which had retired counts from Barcelona.
- In addition from 1943 to 1953 ore duke stressed Karl Pius of Habsburg Lorraine Toskana, a descendant of the emperor Leopold II. on the paternal side and grandchild Carlos' (VII.) mütterlicherseits, as Carlo's (VIII.) the Führerschaft of the movement, supports from a group so-called „Carlo octavistas “.
Besides there was a number of Carlists, which recognized neither the latter Prätendenten nor also Francisco Javier or Carlo Hugo as head.
Triest - seat and grave-puts the Carlistic Prätendenten
your “yard” held the Carlistic Prätendenten until 1874 in Triest (Italy). The choice Carlos' (V.) fell in the year 1847 on this city, because the duchess of Berry, the sister of the wife Carlos' (V.), a building in the via Lazzaretto Vecchio No. , inhabited its possessed 9 first stick it. It left the second stick of the building Carlo (V.). de 1874 starbmatrijs Prinzessin von Beira Ehefrau, van Carlos (V.) zweite, was dazu führte, dass Triest aufgegeben als Sitz der Prätendenten wurde.Escorial “is called. Here the Prätendenten Carlo (V.) is buried, (VI. ) and (VII. ) and Juan (III. ), as well as
- the two wives Carlos' (V.) - María Francisca de Asís y de Borbón (1800 - 1816) and since 1838 with Carlo ground María Teresa de Braganza y de Borbón, princess von Beira (1793 - 1874),
- the wife Carlos' (VI.) - María Carolina de Borbón DOS Sicílias (1820 - 1861),
- the Infant Fernando de Borbón y de Braganza (1824 - 1861), son Carlos' (V.),
- Francisco José Carlo de Habsburgo y de Borbón (1905 - 1975), Grandchild Carlos' (VII.).
In plot No. 111 of the cemetery of Santa Anna to Triest lies beyond that 24 members of the Carlistic yard attendants. This plot was purchased 1868 by the princess von Beira; the following words are to be inferred from the gravestone: Seguito dell'Augusta Signora Maria Teresa di Borbone, Contessa de Molina.
The other Prätendenten was bestattet at other places:
- Jaime (III.) as well as Blanca de Borbón y Borbón Parma, the wife Carlos' (VII.), in Viareggio (Italy),
- Alfonso Carlo and its wife, María de read Nieves de Braganza, in lock Puchheim (Austria).
- Carlo (VIII.) its last Ruhestätte in the Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet ( Spain) found.
- Juan de Borbón y battery mountain and its brother Jaime, which itself both however not when leaders of the Carlistic movement understood, became buried in the Escorial, Juan with royal honours as Juan III.
- Marcha de Oriamendi
- history of Spain
- Jakobiten - the Carlism similar a feature in England
- Miguelistenkrieg - the Portuguese conflict between absolutism and liberalism
Web on the left of
- left for the history of the Carlism:
- Chronological representation of the expiration of of the three Carlistenkriege, with further information (English)
- a general map to the first Carlistenkrieg (pdf) (splinter)
- picture gallery to the Carlism with historical pictures (ital.)
- the Carlists and the Fremdenlegion
- Spanish civil war: Gallery of Carlistic posters and paintings, uniforms and badges of the Requetés
- detailed paper to the state-legal and religious conceptions and goals of the Carlism (English)
- Carlism today:
- Homepage of the Partido Carlista - left wing of the movement (splinter), the Partido Carlista de Euskal Herria, and a collection of stickers
- homepage of the CTC - traditionalistischer wing (splinter), explanations and communist manifestos Sixto Enriques (splinter), a communist manifesto Sixto Enriques from the year 2001 (dt.)
- homepage of the family Bourbon Parma (splinter), their family tree, to its genealogy English) and the dynastischen entangling after 1945 (English)
- Edward Bell Stephens (around 1837?), The Basque of provinces: their political state, scenery, and inhabitants; with adventures amongst the Carlists and Christinos (English); a photocopy of the four sides of the preface:    
- an adventure under the Carlists (Karl May) (barking trichloroethylene TIC)
- Ramón de Valle Inclán, the Karlistenkrieg. Romantrilogie, ISBN 3-596-10699-0 (barking trichloroethylene TIC; no special book written in German
language unfortunately acts of the third Carlistenkrieg) is well-known the author, which argues explicitly with the Carlism and the Carlistenkriegen. The following books are concerned with the Spanish history 19. and 20 of century and treats the Carlistenkriege as well as the Carlism in this connection with different detailedness.
- Gerald Brenan, the history of Spain. Over the social and political background the Spanish of civil war, Karin shopkeeper publishing house Berlin, 1978, ISBN 3-87956-034-X
- walter L. Bernecker/refuge Pietschmann: History of Spain, Kohl hammer, 2005, ISBN 3-170-16188-1
- walter L. Bernecker, social history of Spain in 19. and 20. Century, edition Suhrkamp (volume 1540), 1989, ISBN 3-518-11540-5
- roll ago L. Bernecker, Hans Jürgen fox, Bert Hoffmann et al., Spain encyclopedia, publishing house C.H.Beck, 1990, ISBN 3-406-34724-X
- Salvador de Madariaga, Spain, German publishing house, 1979, ISBN 3-421-01925-8
- Hugh Thomas, the Spanish civil war, Büchergilde good mountain, 1964, ISBN B0000BOKPQ (standard work to the Spanish civil war, unfortunately out of print)
- Bibliografie of the Carlism from left view (Partido Carlista; splinter)
- Bibliografie of the Carlism from traditionalistischer view (splinter)
- detailed bibliography of English and Spanish books over the Carlism
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