Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Goldoni

Carlo Goldoni (* 25. February 1707 in Venice, † 6. February 1793 in Paris) was a famous Italian comedy poet and dear savingist.

Table of contents

lives

Goldoni received its first scientific education at jesuitischen and Dominican Kollegien in Perugia and Rimini, dedicated themselves then in Venice and Pavia to the study of the rights and philosophy. First it hit a law career: He became a secretarythe vice-chancellor of the criminal court in Chioggia, which it followed 1729 after Feltre. Meanwhile he tried on a lover theatre in the opera Metastasios furnished by him for the execution without music „Didone e Siroe “ as an actor and wrote themselves the two comedies „II buon padre “ and „La cantatrice “, which found large applause. After it had attained a doctorate to 1731 in Padua, it practiced some time as an lawyer in Venice, without renouncing thereby to its favourite occupation, the dramatic seal.

Very soon however a unfortunate affair of dear forced it to suddenly leave Venice. 1734it attached a COMM dia. dell'arte themselves - troop, which it supplied with spoken and sung texts, and became as an assistant of Domenico Lalli, the house poet of the most important opera house of Venice, S. Giovanni Grisostomo, obligates. Its activity existed there mainly in the setting-up of opere seriesother dear savingists. In Venice also its first larger dramatic attempts became:„IL gondoliere veneziano “, „Belisarlo “, „Rosamunda “ among other things by an actor troop, which it in Verona know had learned, to the performance brought and partially with large applause taken up. Always literarily busily, Goldoni lived several yearsin different cities of upper Italy, until it made the acquaintance of the daughter of a notary in Genova, whom it married 1736.

Financial obligations induced it 1743 to leave Venice and establish themselves as an lawyer in the Toskana. Only as it 1748 , in a firm succeeded to itRelationship to the larva-Bach troop to step, which played in the theatre Sant' Angelo in Venice, it gave the Advokatur up completely, in order to dedicate itself excluding the work for this stage. It wrote now a large number of pieces, those to the taste of the public finally onedecided idiom in favor of the new direction gave. Approximately at this time also co-operation began first with Ciampi, then however with Baldassare Galuppi, on whose opere the buffe main part of its meaning is justified as dear savingist. Rose from this co-operation over the next seven yearssome the most successful Buffo operas of Italy.

Its fame spread soon also beyond of Italy borders and provided for it 1761 a call to Paris, in order to work for the there Italian theatre, the Goldoni followed and where it spent the last 30 years of its life.Here it wrote still several Italian pieces and two French, to their one, „Le bourru blenfaisant “, 1771 with large success in Fontainebleau was specified („the good goat Murrkopf “, Augsb. 1785). When its contract with the there stage had run off, Ludwig XV appointed it.toand a year money of 3600 Livres exposed Italian language teacher of its daughters to it, which it lost by the revolution however again, until it was again granted to it due to a resolution of the convention. Goldoni died in Paris, 6. February 1793.

works

comedies

in its theatrical working with the center Venice were given to Goldoni the role of a Reformators of the Italian comedy. It represented the character and custom comedy in place of the COMM dia. dell' arte with its Harlekinaden and Possenreissereien, its indecentnesses and fantastic inventions after MolièresModel. During fight for many years and the laborious, which he had to lead against the past form, and in which Carlo Gozzi its main opponent was, it, also by various personal misfortune pursued, changed frequently its place of residence, apart from its activity for the stage also still as an lawyerpracticing. Only after its return after Venice 1748 its efforts were crowned gradually with success, and it could deny its income from its literary activity.

Goldoni wrote against 200 pieces and in all dramatic kinds tried. Its fame is however preferably based on itsComedies, from which a part belongs still to the old kind of the mask plays, although in substantially improved shape. Its main earnings/services exist in the introduction of the regular comedy, particularly the customs and character comedy. At its extraordinary fertility he worked often volatilely and unequally; also it is missingit, in particular with Molière compared, at amusing Kraft and genuine humor, if also not at some good ideas. But he drew the customs of its time and nation with large truth and sharp outlines, in natural speech and alive dialogue.

Further Goldonis process comedies alsoInfluences of their time. Influences of the clearing-up are, just as to haven RA animals its comedies again and again the fall of the aristocracy and the ascent of the middle class.

Libretti

Goldoni was member of the famous Accademia dell'Arcadia and marked its Libretti therefore, differently than its worksfor the speech theatre, with which alias Polisseno Fegejo, under which it belonged to this literary society. However he spoke in is auto+biographic writings rather geringschätzig of them, as lucrative additional job. Many of the librettos, in particular those from co-operation with Galuppi, written by him, became -against other practice in the Opera buffa - several times again-tones among other things by Tozzi, Dittersdorf, Haydn, Mozart, Paisiello, Portugal, Piccini, Salieri and Cimarosa. In the course of these new neuvertonungen its original Libretti were often strongly modified, which it in additioninduced to warn in its Mémoires (Paris, 1787) explicitly of falsifications.

Goldoni-Denkmal in Venedig
Goldoni monument in Venice

it supplied reliably varied to the composers with, often in the sphere fantastic settled material with many pageant and unexpected idioms of the action. Goldoni was first, that the term dramma giocosoconsistently as Gattungsbezeichnung used, and its understanding of this term as mixture of different role types, of serio to buffo, became style-forming for other dear savingists, for example Giovanni Bertati and Lorenzo there Ponte. A typical (original) Goldoni libretto mostly begins with an opening ensemble, followed from onecolored tablet and a first notion of the dramatic taper. Typically the whole dreiaktige form is provided with plentifully ensemble portions, and the third act contains a Duett of the two main characters directly before the final. Its main contribution to the Opera buffa that time however were the expanded, alsoplentifully action enriched finali, which were conceived for continuous music. The composers of that time forced this innovation to argue also in the context of a musical “number” with action or sudden events and these dramatic turning points not, how so far usual to discuss in the Rezitativ. To that extent Goldoni hascertainly a large portion of the development of the Opera buffa in the second half 18. Century.

selected work list

comedies

  • of the servants of two Mr. (1745)
  • the liar (1750)
  • Mirandolina (1752)
  • much noise in Chiozza (1761)

Libretti

  • La contessina, 1743, first tones from Maccari
  • IL mondo della luna, 1750, Galuppi
  • Le pescatrici, 1751, Bertoni
  • IL filosofo campagna, 1754, Galuppi
  • Lo special, 1755, gh

altogether 80 Libretti, of it by far most Buffo operas

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