Carlo Ibáñez del Campo

Carlo Ibáñez del Campo (* 3. November 1877 in Linares, † 28. April 1960 in Santiago de Chile) was Chilean military and a politician. Twice he was a president of Chile.

Ibáñez visited the school in its place of residence and steppedin March 1896 into the cadet school (Escuela military), which it left according to plan after two years, in order to make a career at the army. It was stationed in Santiago. 1903 led it a military order as a teacher to El Salvador. During its timethere to behave fallow a war against Guatemala out, in which the Chilean advisors had instruction, strictly neutrally. Ibáñez opposed and participated actively in the fighting, which gave rank one to him highest ones of the Salvadorian army. 1907 he married Rosita Quiroz yÁvila, which came of to a Aristokratenfamilie El Salvadors.

1909 returned Ibáñez with its family to Chile, where he began 1912 with the military academy, in order to be able to go through also in Chile the officer career. 1916 he was appointed officially the major and served as an aide. 1918 diedits wife. Appointed after a stopover in the army training it the Präfekten of Iquique in the north of Chile, exactly as the time of the election campaign for the presidency elections of 1920, from those Arturo Alessandri Palma victoriously came out, it promptly the director of the renowned Kavallerie school appointed.

With the elections from March 1924 the Alianza liberal in both chambers triumphed, so that president was practically incompetent to act Alessandri against the parliamentary majority. At the same time the army rose against small paying, equipment lacking and the bad opportunities for advancement. The army command arose in the senate,in order to clarify the discontent of the army; to 5. Septembers 1924 met representatives of the military committee (junta military) with president Alessandri and reached that this appointed a new government cabinet, to which also general Luis Altamirano belonged. Under the pressure, which the military exerted, happenedthe laws for the improvement of the army equipment at one time very fast the senate. Alessandri was forced to the resignation and fled into the message of the United States.

General Luis Altamirano became new vice-president and Minister of the Interior, dissolved the congress and held thereby the Regierungsgewalt with its government juntacompletely in hands. Soon it came to differences between the government junta under Altamirano and the military junta under Ibáñez. Altamirano sent it only end of the yearly Ibáñez to Europe and permitted to return.

The discontent of the army did not find an end with the new government: To 23. January 1925 came it to the coup d'etat, the Kavallerieschule under Ibáñez and two Jagdschwadronen stormed the Moneda, the president palace of Santiago. Ibáñez took over the office of the war and naval Minister. To 20. March 1925 returned Arturo Alessandri again to the office of the president, however all Ministers keptthe previous cabinet, so also Ibáñez as war Ministers. With the presidency elections from October 1925 Ibáñez - as strong man and representative of the army - wanted to stand as a candidate. Alessandri pushed it to deliver its ministerial position if it as a presidency candidate appear. But Carlo Ibáñez refused, on which all differentMinisters in the cabinet withdrew.

Thus Ibáñez was an only remaining Minister, which led to the fact that practically each measure of the president would have required his signature, in order to attain validity. Alessandri had loose-become its entire cabinet and depended on the sympathetic consideration of the only Minister, who he toResignation had requested. This situation appeared to it intolerably, and also it withdrew. Thus Ibáñez with its presidency candidacy and its rigid-intimate holding to its ministerial position had is already enough before the elections a veritable state crisis released.

To 23. December 1925 became Emiliano Figueroa Larraín the newPresident of Chile selected. Ibáñez remained in the new cabinet as influential war Ministers and actual strong man behind a puppet president. When in February 1927 the Minister of the Interior withdrew, Ibáñez took over also this office and further finally weakened thereby the position of the president, to 7. April 1927 withdrew.Carlo Ibáñez became the vice-president. With the elections for Figueras follow-up stepped Ibáñez on with the unjustified demand to finally fulfill the demands of the “revolution of 1924 ”. To 21. July 1927 he was appointed the president of Chile.

The economic situation was deliberate and permitted it it, into present extensive program of public investments.it furnished the Carabineros de Chile to 1927 , the kasernierte police of Chile, which is subordinated to the army. Into its term of office also the organization of the republic into sixteen provinces falls. 1928 it created the Chilean Air Force as well as the airline Línea AéreaNacional de Chile (LAN Chile). Under Ibáñez' presidency played the state in the economy and in social welfare matters a prominent role, which accompanied with a clear expansion of the public service and its bureaucracy.

With regard to foreign policy Ibáñez reached a normalization of the relations with Peru and Bolivia, thosetheir expression for instance in the railway line between Arica and the Bolivian La Paz or in the contract of Ancón (with Peru) found.

The large economic crisis of 1929 met Chile hard. Unemployment achieved enormous extents, and widens parts of the population suffered hunger. The students that Universidad de Chile stepped into the strike and their fellow students of the Universidad Católica seized even to the weapons. A general strike intensified the situation and forced Carlo Ibáñez to 26. July 1931 to the resignation. It went to Argentina into the exile.

it turned around 1938 back,to stand as a candidate with the lining up presidency elections again. The election campaign became to 5. September of a renewed coup d'etat abruptly terminates, in which Ibáñez was however involved.

To 4. November 1952 should draw Carlo Ibáñez nevertheless again into the Moneda; it had the presidency elections with 46,8%the voices clearly won. Careful beginnings of a more liberal economic policy, which its advisors suggested to it, failed soon. Its efforts were more successful around an extension of the right to vote for all citizens.

, he handed the Moneda to 1958 over, for the end of its term of office peacefully to his selected successor and pulleditself from the political life back. Two years later it died.

see also: History of Chile



 

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