Caroline Lucretia Herschel (* 16. March 1750 in Hanover, † 9. January 1848 in Hanover) was the first woman, who found full acknowledgment in the astronomy. It was a Astronomin and co-operated with her brother William Herschel. Their most importantContributions to the astronomy were the discoveries of several comets.
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Herschel buildup as an only girl of five survivors children of the military musician Isaak Herschel and his Mrs. Anna Ilse Herschel in Hanover. The father was anxious, itsTo give children a musical basic training. But one made music not only much in the house Herschel, but also one operated philosophy ore and astronomy.
Caroline in their memories:
My father was a large Bewunderer of the astronomy and possessed some knowledge in the science. I remember that heme at a cold night on the road led, in order me with some our most beautiful constellations admits to make, after we had before observed a comet, which was evenly visible.
Daily it visited some hours together with its brothers the garrison school, so that it thatVintages and letters to learn knew - at that time for a girl from the middle class no matter of course. She spent many hours of the daily however against her will with cords, Sticken and all kinds of household activities. The nut/mother meant that she should remain a “raw block its and, however howevermore useful ". The thought that it - after the will of its nut/mother - should be trained as the white sewer and you would be approaching a future as bare household strength, was it intolerablly. It wanted to lead a life, which made also mental demands against it. Therefore it held itselfto the desire of the father, who planned musical training, in their case to the concert singer, for it, as for its four brothers.
1772 - 22jährig - followed it its twelve years older brother Friedrich William Herschel, that than organist and concert leaders in the distinguished Bath activelywas, to England. It needed it as a lady housekeeper to train themselves further wanted it in addition, opportunity to give to escape the domestic tightness in music and participate as Solistin in its concerts. Already soon ascended it to the first singer with the Oratorien specified by its brother,achieved by it a certain call as Vokalistin and transferred line functions in the choir. That led to the fact that you were offered a commitment with the Birmingham to festival, which rejected her however, since she wanted to arise only under the line of her loved and admired brother.
Surely it would havein music a large career before itself had, if it had not followed the passion of its brother for the astronomy. Certainly an unusual family, this Herschels from Hanover, apparent in which large gifts were, double gifts (music and astronomy) the rule: Brother Alexander, likewise musicians, workedalso as an astronomer in William family business for the study of the sky.
Caroline dedicated itself now apart from the housekeeping and its appearances as a singer also still to the astronomy; for example it helped William when making Spiegelteleskopen. Their major task consisted of polishing the mirrors andto sharpen - a work, with which it depends on absolute accuracy. Apart from the practical activities it was concerned in addition, with astronomical theory. She learned algebra formulas for computations and reductions as basis for observing and surveying the sky.
The large cutfor Caroline Herschel came 1781, in the discovery year of the planet Uranus, which rather coincidental their brother found during a sky survey. This discovery led to the fact that it admits beyond the national borders became. Apart from numerous honours he got a place in the city Slough asAstronomer by king George III. offered, which it accepted gratefully. Now he could dedicate himself to his true passion completely.
For Caroline however the discovery of the Uranus meant a renewed turn in its life. It stood before the choice, as a singer in Bath their successful careerto continue or however their brother as a scientific female assistant “serve”. It decided for the latter and got from the yard an employment as an aid of its brother with a content of 50 Pound in the year - first content, which referred ever a woman for scientific activity.Now Caroline began with the own study of the starlit sky, she dedicated herself with a small Newton telescope to the comet search. It discovered 1783 three remarkable nebulas and between 1786 and 1797 eight comets, five of it with unquestionable priority, under it the Encke comets. 1797it submitted the Royal Society an index to John Flamsteeds observations, together with a catalog of 561 which are missing stars in its “British to Catalogue”, as well as a list of errors in this publication.
It remained nightlong with its brother on observation posts, noted the star positions, thosehe it of the other end of the enormous telescope built by them zurief, evaluated the nocturnal recordings and checked her, wrote papers for the Philosophical Transactions, discovered fourteen fog, computed hundreds of them and began a catalog for star clusters and nebulas (today'sLinguistic usage:To make Deep Sky of objects). Further written it an auxiliary catalog to Flamsteeds Atlas, that covered 561 stars, as well as a total register in addition.
For this work you became all-highest acknowledgment among other things by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Johann Franz Encke gezollt. Nevertheless it remained the modestWoman, who had always been it. Her biographies Renate Feyl notices in addition: To to the end of its life it tries to only put any reference out to its own achievement as the merit/service of its famous brother. … She dares to know, does not want however this venture not publiclyadmit. Continued it, as nichtsnutzig, stresses as unable, as unfit it is. This is quiet its lifelong gesture of humility and apology for it that she erkühnt herself, to concern and in their way take itself but lastingly against the force of habits, which is entitled to a human nature:the right to realization.
1822 - after many years of untiring work - followed a further break-down in their life: their loved brother died. Now it held for nothing more in England. Caroline Herschel drew few weeks after its death again into its hometown Hanover, itnearly fifty years before as a young woman had left. Here it continued its astronomical studies. It arranged the extensive material, which had left its brother, by sorting the recordings of the together made observations according to zenith distance and Rektaszension. In this way it made possible alsoher nephew John Herschel to continue and expand on the southern starlit skies the work of its father systematically.
the most important scholars visited it in their simple house in the market route, in order to insure it to their favour and appreciation. Even to the royal yard hadit contact. Numerous honors were lent it - 1828 among other things the golden medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, whose honour member them were appointed 1835. She was the first woman, who acknowledgments of this kind assign became. Cause for it was their so-called zone catalog, it toMemory to their brother had provided. It contained the reduced observations of all from William Herschel discovered nebulas and star clusters - actually an almost unschaffbare task!1838 appointed the royal Irish Academy of Sciences in Dublin the 88jährige Caroline Herschel its member. 1846 received itat the age of 96 years on behalf the king of Prussia the golden medal of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
Still at their 97. Birthday received it the attendance of the pair of crowning princes, conversed some hours lively with them and sang to them finally a song forwards,that had composed their brother seventy years before. None of the comets discovered by it was designated after it, but a Mondkrater in the sine iridium (rainbow bay) and the Planetoid (281) Lucretia.
Caroline Herschels grave is on the garden cemetery in its hometown Hanover.
- memoirs and exchanges of letters 1750-1848. Given change of Mrs. John Herschel, Berlin 1877
- Caroline Herschel's of autobiographies. Edited by Michael Hoskin. Cambridge: Science History Publications 2003. ISBN 0-905193-06-7
- Günther Buttmann: William Herschel: Life and work. Into large natural scientists,Volume 24. Scientific publishing house company, Stuttgart 1961
- Renate Fey: Caroline Herschel (1750-1848). Departure into the not wanted independence. In: Sophie & cost. Important Mrs. Hannovers. Biographic Portraits, given change of Hiltrud Schroeder, S. 44-56, Hanover 1990, ISBN 3-7716-1521-6
- Michael Hoskin: Astronomy's Matriarch. In Sky &Telescope, May 2005
- EH Maaser: The Astronomin. Novel, Rütten & Loening, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-352-00707-1
- Dr. Johann Heinrich of Mädler: History of the astronomy. Westermann, Braunschweig 1873
- Patrick Moore: Caroline Herschel: Reflected Glory. Ralph everything, Bath 1988
- Christiane light: The Sternguckerin: Life and work of the Astronomin Caroline Herschel. A feature with Hannelore Hoger and other spokeswomen, 1 CD, audio publishing house, Dav. 2000
Web on the left of
| | * Literature of and over Caroline Herschel in the catalog of the DDB
- entry to Caroline Herschel in FemBio, the woman biography Mrs. (inclusive Literature data and quotations)
- biography with “mathematician inside in Germany”
- visual observations of Caroline Herschels Deep Sky objects
- Caroline Herschel's Deep Sky Objects
|NAME||Herschel, Lucretia Caroline|
|DATE OF BIRTH||16. March 1750|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hanover, Germany|
|DYING DATE||9. January 1848|
|DYING PLACE||Hanover, Germany|