Cent ral Intelligence Agency

of these articles treats the US-American federal authority CIA. For other meanings of the abbreviation CIA, see CIA (term clarifying).
Coat of arms of the CIA

the cent ral Intelligence Agency (CIA) (often also only Agency, company or Langley) one of the secret services of the United States of America is mentioned.

Table of contents

to order

the official tasks of the CIA lying in the range of the espionage, the procurement and analysis of information about foreign governments, combinations and persons, around itthe different branches of the American government as well as “friendlier” states and/or. Services to make available. Pretty often the CIA the information kolportiert, in order to affect the public opinion and the representatives of the USA as well as the international policy. Beyond that hasthe authority in the execution of covered operations ( “Covert operation”) abroad out-done.

Contrary to national the Security Agency (NSA) is occupied the CIA little with signal Intelligence (acquisition of information from radio signals), thus technical clearing-up, but cooperated primarilyhuman sources human Intelligence.

The Agency is subordinate directly to the president of the United States. The authority is controlled besides by one secret service committee each of the senate and the house of representatives, differently than other authorities needs the CIA their household notto publish. Critics see this in the contradiction for American condition.

The CIA in Langley, Virginia, with coordinates has their
head office: 38° 57 ' N, 77° 8 ' W
38° 57 ' N, 77° 8 ' W.

operations andlegal status

in contrast for example to the German Federal Information Service, is permitted it the CIA to operate by covered operations political and military influencing control abroad. The responsible department is the Directorate OF operation. The authority is for numerous casesadmits, with which in the internal affairs of other countries one intervened actively. The border to the Kombattanten is flowing thereby. The most well-known example is the missed invasion of Cuba by Exilkubaner 1961. This practice becomes both from critical observers into thatThe USA as also internationally strongly criticizes.

From intelligence and technical view were the programs with espionage airplanes, like z. B. U-2 and SR-71 very successfully.

line

the authority became to 18. September 1947 by decree of president Harry S. Truman based. Forerunner of the CIA was in the Second World War the office for strategic services (OSS - Office OF Strategic services), from which then from 1945 to 1947 the CIG (cent ral Intelligence Group) in the US State Department came out.One recognized however fast that with the cold war beginning a trunk espionage apparatus for the world power the USA was not sufficient.

First CIA director was admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter; before it the Air Force general was Hoyt S. Vandenberg director of the CIG. After Hillenkoetter followed 1953 to 1961 all Welsh Dulles, who was in the Second World War in Swiss Berne coworker of the Office OF Strategic services under „game Bill “ Donovan. Dulles was thereby beside George J. Tenet at the longest at the point of the US foreign espionage.

Input area thatCIA center.

1978 is again regulated as consequence of the determinations of the Church Committee in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance act the competencies of the CIA and their control by constant committees of congress of US.

1988 become George H. W. Bush (senior) as a first former CIA bossPresident of the United States.

Since that 11. July 1997 was George J. Tenet director of the CIA. It stepped at the 3. June 2004, after criticism at the work of the service in connection with the third Gulf War, for personal reasonsback. Up to the appointment of a new director its past deputy, took over John McLaughlin, the line of the CIA. Since 24. September 2004 is Porter John clay/tone poured acting CIA boss.

Until April 2005 the director of the CIA was also in each case as DirectorOF cent ral Intelligence responsibly for the consultation of the US president in secret service questions. In the course of the reform of the US-American secret service system after the terrorist attacks of the 11. September was transferred this function to the Director OF national Intelligence, that at the same time for the coordination thatWork of the CIA with other US secret services is responsible.

controversies

the activities of the CIA led to political controversies in the United States and other countries. Reason for this is on the one hand the proven restaurant espionage also in friendlyCountries, on the other hand those year tenth for a long time support of dictators, as for example Manuel Noriega in Panama or Somoza in Nicaragua, where - so critics - „geopolitical interests of the United States are placed over the interests of democratically selected governments “. Likewise becomesco-operation with former members of the armed forces and the SS criticizes.

In addition many critics did not see the task of the Agency last in spreading the information in the homeland to let spread (or), for example which the military-nuclear danger of the Eastern Bloc concerned, overto leave by an oversubscribed threat the US defense budget and the budget of the Agency on as high a level as possible. On the other hand the CIA did not prove as in the situation to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union.

As particularly unfavorable also the 1979 becomeweapon supplies begun to the Mudschahidin outstandingly, which took place still before outbreak of the Afghan civil war. By the destabilization of conditions at the Hindukusch one wanted the Soviet Union to an intervention to provoke and for it thus „an own Viet Nam “prepare. For this those becameradical being lords, who are involved also in the drug trade, just as promoted as Islamic currents, not least by means of the secret service of Pakistan ISI. After end of the cold war all these groups were not longer considered. This has for the stabilization of the international Terrorism led, which the USA regard nowadays as the strongest threat. The phenomenon that a covered operation drops back to the country of origin, becomes as Blowback (English. for recoil) designates.

drug trade and money laundering

involving the CIA into that Drug trade was often publicly proven. This e.g. served both the destabilization of opposing governments and for the financial support of allied groups. in Laos, Nicaragua and Afghanistan.

The CIA has with the money laundering of drug fundsrepeated with banks co-operated, which were created partially particularly for this purpose. The case of the 1991 in detail documented major bank bank OF Credit and Commerce international (BCCI), gone , spectacularly in bankruptcy< ref> federal center for political education: Networks of the terror.Meeting documentation, Octobers2002< /ref>. According to an investigation of the American senate< ref> senator John Kerry and senator Hank Brown: The BCCI Affair.Report ton the Committee on Foreign relation, US senate, December 1992< /ref> the bank was among other things at the money laundering of the drug gains of the Contras (see) takes part above. Senator John Kerry wrote already in April 1989 in a report: The CIA knew from the outset that the BCCI was a thoroughly corrupt and criminal enterprise. The CIA has the BCCI therefore for its secretOperations uses. The collapse of the bank was a direct consequence of Kerrys commission of inquiry< ref> David Sirota and Jonathan Baskin: Follow the Money. Washington Monthly, September 2004. </ref>, whose results entailed the obligatory locking of addresses of the bank in several countries.

Overthe BCCI ran also the maintenance payments of the CIA for the Afghan Mudschahidin into the 1980er years. The being lords ascended to the Opium leading world-wide - producers. This happened directly after the Opiumernte in the golden triangle had to a large extent failed. The raw materialin the border area to Pakistan into heroin one converted in great quantities. The regional being lords could wash their profits from the drug trade over the bank, which contributed Paul DeRienzo also to the enormous increase of heroin production in<> the region ref: Interview with Alfred McCoy.9.November 1991< /ref>. Robert Morgenthau, former public prosecutor of New York, called the BCCI “one of the largest criminal enterprises of world history “<ref> David Sirota and Jonathan Baskin: Follow the Money.Washington Monthly, September 2004. </ref>. Constant customers of the bank were also ManuelNoriega, which smeared the origin of the drug profits for the Medellín trust over the BCCI, and Saddam Hussein.

The personnel of the 1973 created Australian Nugan hand bank< ref>Nugan hand bank.Sourcewatch, 28. July 2004< /ref> mainly those consisted of former CIA coworkers,before in Viet Nam and Laos were active. As a legal adviser (legal counsel) former CIA director William Colby functioned< ref> Paul DeRienzo: Interview with Alfred McCoy. 9. November 1991< /ref>. After the insolvency of the bank the founder franc Nugan became dead inits car found. The second founder, Michael hand, fled to 14. June 1980 with the help of two ex-CIA-coworkers from Australia. It is considered since then as missed and searched of the Australian authorities because of numerous crimes< ref> to Ross Coulthart: The Nugan hand bank.MSNAustralia< /ref>< ref> Jonathan Kwitney:The Crimes OF Patriots, A True Tale OF dopes, Dirty Money, and the CIA, Touchstone Books, September 1988< /ref>, among other things because of laundry of drug funds and fraud.

human right offences in „the war against the terrorism “

the currentCriticism refers to repeats proven offences against the human rights in the course of the so-called was on terror. The USA ignored contracts, which ratified them and which in principle a right before national encroachments to each individual guarantee.

In the year 2005 it became by medium reports admits that the CIA makes arrested terror-suspicious by as civilian camouflaged airlines of transportation of without legal basis. The airlines Prime Minister Executive transport services, Tepper aviation, Pegasus Technologies were called and Aero Contractors. It is to have abused the Frankfurt Rhine Main air cousin for secret prisoner transportation as destination, in order to approach from there from different torture plants.

Since the CIA may use officially no torture, it is custom, prisoner in the friendlyForeign country to fly (“outsourcing “), where it of „specialists of “these countries in offshore ones - Verhörcamps hearing-technically and. A. with newest methodologies under “camp-medical support” become “treated”. Besides the CIA operates solely responsible secret prisons abroad. “Collateral damage “at cross-examining victimsthere are officially none.

The reports led Marty to an official investigation on behalf the European parliament by the Sonderermittler thickly. After its realizations the CIA in Europe over one hundred persons is to have kidnapped. Marty stressed however that henot would possess the capacities to apply sufficient proofs in order to identify the torture plants. Threw it unite European governments forwards in the affair a secret complicity with the USA to have been received.

public well-known operations

it lies inthe nature of the thing that secretofficial, covered operations do not arrive usually at the public. Successes are cannibalized most rarely publicly, misses against it medial. The following operations became by the historical research, searches of exposure journalists or by official investigationsuncovered. A multiplicity of further examples is in the article list of US interventions abroad, in which the CIA was often considerably involved.


Meanwhile it is admits become that the CIA a set of documents, which were released from the secrecy in the sense of the Freedom OF information act over years the publicagain extracted.

literature

World Factbook

one of the CIA publications, the CIA World Factbook, is not subject to the secrecy regulations and is without copyright - restrictions freely usable. The Factbook with extensive, clearly data arranged according to categories forms the basis of most land entries in the English-language Wikipedia.

Web on the left of

sources

<references/>

see also

 

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