Charles H. Townes

Charles hard Townes (* 28. July 1915 in Greenville/South Carolina) is an US-American physicist and Nobelpreisträger.

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lives

Charles hard Townes becameto 28. July 1915 as a son of the lawyer Henry Keith Townes and his Mrs. Ellen (hard) Townes in Greenville (South Carolina) born. He was trained at public schools in Greenville and began a study to the Furman Universityin Greenville, which it locked 1935 with the Bachelor OF Science in physics and the Bachelor OF kind in modern languages. After the master OF kind in physics to the Duke University 1936 it attained a doctorate 1939 at the California institutes OFTechnology over isotope separation and nuclear spin. After some years with the Bell Laboratories it was appointed 1948 as the Associate professor and 1950 as the professor for physics to the Columbia University. From 1959 to 1961 he was vice-president and director forResearch at Institut for defense analyses in Washington (D.C.) was operated, an Nonprofit organization of eleven the universities and the US Government advised. He was appointed 1961 the Provost and professor for physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put however the positionas Provost again strengthens 1966 down around itself the research to dedicate to be able.

It is among other things Member that national Academy OF Science (Washington) and that internationally Academy OF Science.

Townes married 1941 Frances H. Brown and has four daughters, Linda rose wine, inches Anderson one, Carla Kessler and Holly Townes. He is the brother-in-law of Arthur L. Schawlow, which had married 1951 its youngest sister Aurelia.

work

in its time to the Bell Laboratoriesduring 2. World war sketched Townes radar - bomb systems and holds a set from patents to the associated technology. After the war it concentrated on the application of the microwave technology from the radar research in the spectroscopy.

To the Columbia University setit its research to microwave physics away and researched at the reciprocal effect of microwaves with molecules and the use from microwave spectra to analysis of the structure of molecules, atoms and atomic nuclei. 1952 it developed the idea for a maser, the 1954into functioning equipment for the reinforcement and production of electromagnetic waves by stimulated Emmission flowed - the working group coined/shaped for it the term MASER, an acronym for m icrowave A mplification by s timulated e mission OF r adiation. It1958 with his brother-in-law Arthur L could. Schawlow theoretically show that the operational principle of the maser is applicable to optical and infrared wavelengths also.

Further research Townes lies in the ranges of nonlinear optics, radio and infrared astronomy. It and itsIt succeeded to colleagues as the first to prove complex molecules in the interstellar subject and to measure the mass of the black hole in the center of our Milky Way.

Townes became 1964 together with Nikolai Gennadijewitsch Bassow and Alexander Michailowitsch Prochorow “for fundamental work upthe area of the quantum electronics, those to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers on the basis masers - lasers - of the principle led " with the Nobelpreis for physics excellently.

honors

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