the chemical industry is an industry, which became in Europe and the USA about 1850 its own industry. Starting point for the development of the chemical large-scale industry was followed the production of soda ( developed by Nicolas Leblanc 1791), of productions of synthetic fertilizers and Coloring materials.
A production enterprise of the chemical industry has generally a higher need of investments of funds and smaller personnel requirements compared to other production enterprises with comparable conversion.
In the further the chemical industry draws out by
- a high automation degree,
- a high increase in value of the finished raw materials,
- a very expensive research,
- a aufwändige process engineering as well as
- a large number of manufactured products.
Are manufactured basic chemicals, intermediate and finished products. Customers are the consumer goods range as well as all ranges of the processing trade and the industry (automobile industry, construction industry, agriculture).
The chemical industry is in the public perception strongly by international companies coined/shaped. The predominant part of the chemical industry consists however of medium-size enterprises.
The world-wide gross income of the chemical industry amounted to 2002 1 ' 847 billion euro. In Germany 132.5 billion, in the USA 489 billion, in Japan 204 billion andin Switzerland 35.1 billion. In Germany 462 ' 000 persons were employed, in Switzerland 64 ' 000 persons. From Germany goods in the value of 80.2 billion euro were exported and imported goods for 57.9 billion euro. (Source of the numbers: Federation of the chemical industry)
table of contents
the largest chemical concerns of the world 2002 (approx. Conversion in billion euro)
- BASF (D) 28
- Dow Chemical (the USA) 27
- DuPont (the USA) 24
- Bavarian (D) 20
- Exxon Mobil chemicals (the USA) 20
- Atofina (F) 20
- BPChemicals (GB) 13
- Mitsubishi chemicals (J) 12
- Degussa (D) 11
- Shell chemicals (NL/GB) 11
- Cognis Germany GmbH & cost. Kg of (D) 9,37 (2004)
- INEOS (GB/B/D/USA)
turnover figures are partly not directly comparably, there at the mineral oil companies the allocation between the sections oil andChemistry according to the same criteria does not take place.
- Alfred Dupont Chandler, Shaping the industrial century: the remarkable story OF the evolution OF the decay chemical and pharmaceutical industries, Harvard Univ. Press, 2005
- Hermann J Rupieper, Friederike upholsterer, George Wagner Kyora (Hrsg.):The Central German chemical industry and its workers in 20. Century. Central German publishing house, 2005, ISBN 3-89812-246-8