Smart card

smart cards, often also as Smartcard or Integrated Circuit Card (ICC) designation, is plastic maps with inserted chip, which contains a hardware logic , memory or also a microprocessor.

Table of contents

history

in the history of the smart card gives it two inventors, whose patents coined/shaped the development of the smart card, how we know them today.

Firstthereby the German inventor is Jürgen Dethloff (1924 to 2002). Together with Helmut Gröttrup it submits 1968 its idea to insert “an integrated circuit into an identification map”, to the patent. The second inventor is the French inventor Roland Moreno, that its patent< ref name= " patent ">System for storing and transfer ring DATA< /ref> 1975 announce. On the web page US patent and trademark Office is registered it under the date 30.05.1978. It describes therein a “independent, electronic object, developed for thoseStorage of confidential data ", which releases the access after the input “of a secret code” (pin).

structure

the heart of the smart card is the integrated circuit (that microchip), that the abilities and thus the area of application thatSmart card determines.

The chip is protected by the smart card module, so that the chip is normally completely embedded and not visible. The module represents also the connection to the external world, which becomes typical gold contacts of the smart card module often falsely as chip designation. Althougha common smart card chip for communication of only five contacts needs, has smart card modules always, certainly by the size of the inserted chip, six or eight contacts however only correspond in order to ISO standards.

Finally the module inclusive chip is built into a map.In addition into a map already printed on a cavity is milled and the module is bonded.

formats

Abmessungen der Chipkarten
dimensions of the smart cards

the map dimensions are standardized according to ISO 7816 and in accordance with this standard in three different sizes available:

  • ID-1: Thatlargest and furthest common format (85.60 × 53.98 mm) becomes with kinds of hitting a corner, calling cards, which EUROPEAN UNION uses driving licence or the health insurance map. One speaks also of cheque cards - the format.
  • ID-00: The middle format (66mm × 33mm) has so far nonelarger application found.
  • ID-000: The smallest of the formats (25mm * 15mm) finds particularly with SIM maps in mobile telephones use.

The thickness of the maps of all 3 sizes is identical and amounts to 0,76mm.

memory chip maps

Blockschaltbild einer Speicher Chipkarte
block diagram memory of a smart card

The simple smart cards consist only of a memory, which can be selected or described, z. B. the health insurance map or the calling card. Over the interface it is possible to access sequenziell the individual memory cells. Memory cards find use, where it onlyon the storage of the data arrives, not however on completing complex procedures.

Dependent on the used chip the data can be protected by pins or passwords against the selection or the change through third.

processor smart cards

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Blockschaltbild einer Prozessor Chipkarte
Block diagram processor of a smart card

processor smart cards have a microprocessor, over which one accesses the stored datacan. It gives to directly access often no possibility the data area. The detour over the microprocessor makes it possible to protect on the map over cryptographic procedures the data against strange access. The possibility over on these microprocessors user-specific programs runto leave, compared with memory cards, for example with smart cards, those offers many advantages as currency to be used (money map) or important data (z. B. Mobile phone SIM map) contain. Often the map contains also a marked key, and servesas Dekoderkarte (z. B. with the paying television or other entrance systems). Already with the production of the chips parts the map operating system (COS) and intended applications to the map are loaded. After conclusion of the production no new applications can more on the mapare loaded.

The Smartcards can serve as safe information or key memory, but also would separate security agencies offer her such as Authentifikation, Verschüsselung, signature, etc. on, which can be used in a trustworthy environment. Since the private keys are stored on the Smartcardand this abandoned, is not not possible the Erspähen of the key, why a signature production is very safe of the Smartcard on.

Javakarte

Javakarten are microprocessor maps with a reduced Java as operating system. With these maps a programmer can afterthe completion of the map over a map reader and a special load software (STK) load new programs on the map. So maps with very special functionalities in small series of cost-efficiency can be manufactured. Also different systems permit a reloading of code.

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Host software API

the interaction between computer systems and smart card readers and/or. Standard is standardized smart card applications in the PC/SC. Via the PC/sports club interface however only Prozesor smart cards can be addressed. For memory chip maps therefore in Germany developed “CardTerminal Application Programming interface” (CT-API) used.

see also

sources

<references/>

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)