Christianity

Das Christusmonogramm mit den griechischen Buchstaben Alpha und Omega Das „X“ und das „P“ sind die beiden griechischen Buchstaben Chi und Rho und die beiden Anfangsbuchstaben von Christus
the Christ mono gram with the Greek letters alpha and omega „the X “and „the P “are the two Greek letters Chi and Rho and the two initial letters of Christ

the Christianity are with approximately 2 billion trailers forwardsthe Islam (approx. 1,2 billion) and the Hinduismus (approximately 800 million) the largest religion of the earth and one of the five world religions. Also with the term the Christianity becomes occasional - which whole of the trailers of this religion - designates.

ThatChristianity (v. understood.griech. christianismós) in a letter of the Syrian of bishop Ignatius von Antiochia one mentions for the first time. The trailers of the Christianity call themselves Christians, after Jesus Christ. The Apostelgeschichte tells that the successors Christi the name Christianfirst from the disbelieving ones of the Syrian city Antiochia received, into which it after first pursuits in Palestine had fled.

The Christianity is a monotheistische, donated and missionierende religion. Their roots lie in the Judentum of the second temple, in Palestine, at present the Roman rule at the beginning of the 1. Century. The Christianity goes back on the trailers of a Jewish Wanderpredigers named Jesus of Nazaret. Jesus becomes of the Christians as the Christ (the Gesalbte), thusas well as the Jewish Messiah, humans son of God become admires.

The core of the Christian religion agitates after its self understanding from an allowance of God at humans. In this allowance, with the God reveals itself and/or. itself, the relationship opens people world God is clarified. Like all religions with requirement for exclusivity the Christianity understands itself either as the exclusive place, at the God humans turned or at least as the place, at which it this in more appropriate,did to most clarified and unüberholbarer way. After the first position all other religions than inadmissible and impossible attempts of humans are regarded, with its efforts and „to works “God, to please or what it regards as it, and itself it tooapproach; the other one regards these attempts than insufficiently clarified. This clarifying, which happens in God revealing, is not however for both of these positions a gift (grace) God, active doing of humans.

By the majority the faith prevails in the Christianityforwards that God turned in Jesus Christ to sündigen mankind. Death Jesu Christi at the cross is regarded thereby as serving Erlösertat of God. In Jesus thus the debt and sin of entire mankind are waived. As Initialzündung of theChristian faith applies the development of this certainty at Easter, for the third day after Jesu Kreuzigung, at the God at Jesus the Auferstehung and/or. Auferweckung as first of all humans worked and thus the message of this Jesus of Nazareth confirmsto have is. By this east he and/or. Auferstehungsglauben developed the Christian community („church “). A further characteristic of the Christianity is admitting Jesus of Nazareth than „Christ “, „son of God “etc. (Sovereignty titles). One tried this faith, together with the memoryat Jesus of Nazareth as the initiator of the community and the faith in Jesus Christ, as the Verkünder of the message of God to hold and retain in and in several consent movements the specified neutestamentlichen canon grown historically authentically (resuming see „Christian teachings “).


Die Welt: regional vorherrschende Religionen. Länder, in denen das Christentum die vorherrschende Religion ist, sind violett (kath.), blau (prot.) oder rötlich (orth.) gekennzeichnet
The world: regionally prevailing religions. Countries, in which the Christianity is the prevailing religion, are violet (kath.), blue (prot.) or reddish (orth.) characterized

table of contents

spreading

Anzahl der Mitglieder der evangelischen und katholischen Kirche in Deutschland 2003
number of members of the Evangelist and catholic church in Germany 2003

the Christian religion, all faith directionscollected, is in terms of figures most meaning world religion; it becomes estimated that approximately a third of all humans in the world belong to one of the Christian churches. These numbers are based however only on estimations, there the definitions, who is to be taken in account as a Christian and whonot, apart-go. Most national statistics will be to due to self designations of the individual citizens or computer forecasts, sometimes also to official lists. To what extent other Christians see Christians due to these characteristics in the persons counted there, cannot on statistic basis estimatedbecome, since it is mostly coined/shaped on very individual attitudes of mind. In many countries of the earth Christians are also today pursued, so that from there also only very uncertain numbers are present.

Christianity world-wide in figures (2000)

Region population Christian
in millions Growth in per cent in millions Growth
Europe 730 0.05% 71.0% 519.1 0.4%
Germany 82 0.1% 69.4% 57.1 1.0%
Switzerland 7 0.67% 86.6% 6.4 0.4%
Austria 8 0.52% 89.7% 7,3 0.2%
Asia 3,691 1.41% 8.5% 316.5 3.7%
Africa 784 2.41% 48.3% 379.4 2.8%
Angloamerika 309.6 0.85% 81.5% 259.0 0.7%
Latin America 519 1.59% 91.6% 476.6 1.5%
Pacific 31 1.59% 73.3% 22.9 0.74%
world-wide 6,065 1.59% 32.5% 1,973, 0 1.4%

population numbers of the UN of 1998. Numbers over religion from prayer for the world, edition 2003 (see below). The data originate from the years 1998-2000.The growth rates concern the average growth of 1995-2000, are based however partially on a change of the database.

Co-operation, organization and directions

the entire Christianity becomes as „the church “regarded, as body Christi with Christ as church head and each individual Christian represents a member of this mystischen body. Some Christian theologians differentiate between „the invisible church “, which covers all gläubigen Christian of all denominations, and who or the visible churches,their members to be more or less gläubig can. All Christian churches and municipalities feel associated the body Christi. The opinions over it, who listens to the body Christi except the specific church also still, are however very different: the spectrum goesall members of all Christian churches baptized of „“over „we do not know it “up to „only who as we believe and in our community are baptized “.

Many churches are in a more or less loose community with other churches, thosein on both sides recognized teachings is justified, without giving up therefore their specific teachings and customs. Examples of such communities are the Ökumeni advice of the churches, the Evangelist alliance, the Leuenberger Konkordie. Besides there are also church communities, thosethe complete mutual acknowledgment of Sakramenten, church membership and offices contain. Examples of such church communities are the anglikanische coming union or the eastern-orthodox church or Evangelist university ores the churches.

Within the Christianity soon several groupings developed and/or. Currents, sometimes by politicalMotives or geographical conditions, in addition, by deviating Lehrmeinungen. These directions toward their characteristics can rough be divided in denominations. To a denomination one or more churches or municipalities belong. The individual Christian is member of a certain church or municipality.Apart from the denominations there are today theological directions, for example liberally, also denomination-spreading , evangelikal, or charismatisch.

Historical development

in the antique world gave in each case it five Christian Patriarchate, to those the local Metropoliten, archbishops and bishops were subordinated: Rome, Konstantinopel, Alexandria, Antiochia and Jerusalem. Was to be decided on substantial training questions, a council (a meeting of bishops) was called up. The ökumenischen councils enjoyed the highest reputation, in which bishops from all Patriarchaten met;however also these did not have „the final say “, because this status was denied to several councils, which regarded themselves as „ökumenisch “, later because of agreement lacking of the population. Altogether it gave between 321 and 787 sieves ökumenische councils, totoday by eastern-orthodox, catholic and most Evangelist churches to be recognized; many Evangelist churches recognize however the sieved council not on because of its icon teachings.

To a first splitting it came 451 to the ökumenischen council of Chalcedon, thatnature Christi as both humanly and göttlich defined. The Patriarchate including Rome accepted the council decision. The miaphysitischen churches selected against it an interpretation, which is not compatible with that of the council. The Kopti church regards Jesus as meat-becomeWord, i.e. it is göttlich, however in perfectly fleischlicher shape. Both split themselves off its respective Patriarchaten Antiochia and Alexandria. The Assyri church of the east represented the Miaphysitismus an opposite position.

In the following centuries deepened in that Realm church the alienation between the eastern and western tradition up to the definite break. The western tradition developed in late ancient times and in the early Middle Ages in the westRoman realm, while the eastern tradition in Konstantinopel, small Asia, Syria and Egypt developed (Byzantine realm). Those actually dogma tables of differences remain small until today, but the Roman church had developed teachings, which had not been abgesegnet by ökumenischen councils in this time, e.g. concerning Primat of the papacy and Filioque and jurisdiction demanded over the remaining Patriarchate, which these refused. Further differences existed for a long time concerning political environment, language and theological beginnings. The situation escalated and 1054 came it to a mutual Exkommunikation between the Pope and the Patriarchen ofKonstantinopel. On this cause the Morgenländi Schisma between eastern-orthodox churches and the Roman-catholic church is usually dated. Despite some reconciliation attempts the traditions remained from then on separate.

The western tradition (Roman-catholic church without university Universities of east churches) experienced by the reformation16. Century a new deeply seizing splitting. It concerned above all churches - and Sakramentsverständnis and the release teachings. The reformatorische movement led itself to several parallel church formations, from which in the further process new groupings separated, howeveralso again to church communities together-found.

While the different traditions exkommunizierten themselves in former times mutually, they concerned those today at a certain acceptance and a differently strongly minted co-operation in the Ökumene and see denominations, the central elements of the Christian teachingslikewise, as Christian sister churches, or at least Christian church communities (see Domine Jesu) affirm on. In the evangelikalen tradition is ökumenische co-operation with churches, which do not belong to this tradition (e.g. in the world church advice), disputed; also the Roman-catholic church does not workin this committee also.

Geschichtliche Entwicklung der traditionellen christlichen Gruppen
Historical development of the traditional Christian groups

eastern tradition

the Patriarchate of Konstantinopel, Alexandria, Antiochia and Jerusalem and some since that time again which were added national churches, have to today the same theology and Spiritualität, itself, inContrast to Protestant and catholic theology changed, hardly, and sees themselves as part of the original church created of Christ. It is common to all that they have Bible and Liturgie in the respective national language. The largest orthodox church is today thoseRussian orthodox church. Today the orthodox Patriarchate have often also churches abroad, which are subordinated to them. There are significant differences between the orthodox ones and the western churches - in addition e.g. belong. the interpretation of the three-agreement and the release actChristi, the value of the Liturgie, the sanctifying teachings, the Spiritualität, the meaning of icons, or the theory over the church. The orthodox churches have their historical emphasis in Eastern Europe, in the Balkans, in the Near East, in India and in Northeast Africa, are to be found today as emigrant churches in all parts of the world.

Roman-catholic church and orthodox churches differ thus mainly in the fact that there is no Pope in the orthodox church (although the Patriarch of Konstantinopel holds an honour priority)and the Orthodoxie of synodalen processes is led. In both churches there are 7 holy Sakramente (baptism, holy Eucharistie/Kommunion, Salbung and/or. Firmung, Sakrament of the reconciliation/Busssakrament, Krankensalbung, Priesterweihe, marriage). In orthodox churches the Sakramente becomes baptism, first cummunion and Firmung together inInfancy donated, while this was gradated temporally in the Roman-catholic church; in the catholic east churches Eucharistie and Firmung are donated likewise immediately after the baptism. The Zölibat becomes in the orthodox church as also in the catholic east churches only forthe office for bishop and for medal people prescribed, while it is prescribed in the western catholic church for all priests. The theory of both churches is based on the teachings Christi, whose understanding in the church tradition under the line of the holy spirit progresscan, whereby one shows up „traditio constitutiva “(unchangeably) and one „traditio divino apostolica “in the human traditiones (expression, therefore changeable) to be differentiated is. The Orthodoxie limits „traditio constitutiva “to the ökumenischen Konzilien recognized by them.

Western tradition

in the westRomanRichly teachings that the bishop von Rom (Pope) possesses an authority, developed those directly to the Apostel Petrus to be attributed can and it to the deputy Christi and thus owner of the highest jurisdiction, lehr and Hirtenamtsin the Christian church makes. This development, which had already begun under Irish from of Lyon, carried out itself gradually, to in the 1. Vatikani council the dogma of the papal infallibility one promulgiert. Around the center of the second millenium developed at differentPlaces in Europe (Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli in the German linguistic area, Johannes Calvin in the French, and Thomas Cranmer in the English) from protest against abuses in the catholic church the reformation. After the reformation the western church was furthersplit into a Roman tradition (in the reformation to Rome held) and a reformatorische tradition (from Rome separated). In the first Vatikani council separated then, under guidance of the archbishop from Utrecht, the oldcatholic church from the Roman-catholicChurch; because their historical tradition between that 16. and that 19. Century with Rome parallel ran, it however today in its theory with the Anglikani church, which followed from the reformation, united is, is difficult their classification.

Roman tradition

the Roman-catholic church sees itself - together with the orthodox church - as an exclusive administrator of all Sakramente, since it subsistiert in it the church Christi sees (see. 2. Vatikani council lumen Gentium as Apostolicae Curae and Domine Jesu). Roman-catholic church and orthodox churches differ thus mainly in the fact that there is no Pope in the orthodox church (although the Patriarch of Konstantinopel holds an honour priority) and the Orthodoxie of synodalen processes is led. In bothThere are churches 7 holy Sakramente (baptism, holy Eucharistie/Kommunion, Salbung and/or. Firmung, Sakrament of the reconciliation/Busssakrament, Krankensalbung, Priesterweihe, marriage). In orthodox churches the Sakramente baptism, first cummunion and Firmung is donated together in the infancy, gradated temporally during this in the Roman-catholic churchbecame; in the catholic east churches Eucharistie and Firmung are donated likewise immediately after the baptism. The Zölibat is prescribed in the orthodox church as also in the catholic east churches only for the office for bishop and for medal people, during it in thatwestern catholic church for all priests is prescribed. The theory of both churches is based on the teachings Christi, whose understanding in the church tradition under the line of the holy spirit can progress, whereby one „traditio constitutiva “(unchangeably) and one „traditio divino apostolica “in the human traditiones shows up (expression, therefore changeable) to differentiate is. The Orthodoxie limits „traditio constitutiva “to the ökumenischen Konzilien recognized by them.

The Roman-catholic church is by far the largest Christian denomination and in regional more differentStrength world-wide represent. The apostolische Sukzession plays a role with it, with the old catholics and with the Anglikanern with the validity of the consecration of bishops and to it tying priests. In I. The churches of the Roman catholics separated Vatikani counciland those of the old catholics; the latters reject the infallibility of the Pope and likewise the Pflichtzölibat, while first has the contrary position in these questions; the line with the old catholics is incumbent on similarly the Orthodoxie a Synode.

Roman-catholic services are,as is the case for other churches also, accessible for all; differently than with many other churches the coming union receipt is possible however only for baptized Christians, who know themselves in unit with the Roman teachings, and also only after receipt of the first cummunion. ThoseIntercoming union is forbidden and only in exceptional cases permitted.

Evangelist tradition

the Evangelist churches understand themselves as from the Biblical writing justified (Sola scriptura), while the Roman-catholic church sees itself justified by the writing and the excessive quantity. Neverthelessrecognize the Evangelist churches the early church traditions, their Synode, and from their coming confessions (Apostolikum, Nizäi Glaubensbekenntnis) on. These do not refer their authority however only from their agreement with the Evangelist understanding of the writing, anddue to the offices of their authors.

The public argument of Luther with the Roman-catholic tradition began - after a theological development of several years - with the 95 theses; its teachings are in two Katechismen written by him (large and small Katechismus)among other things Writings held. Luther was still advocate of the child baptism, the Busssakraments and the Marienverehrung. The theologian designed as Augustinermönch wrote however new justification teachings , which mean, which are based on Augustin, „the faith alone “(Sola fide) became humans„coram Deo “(before God) make and him before the fair punishment of God fair erretten in such a way. Based on this justification teachings, as well as the principle of the Sola scriptura, Evangelist Christians recognize only two actions on as Sakramente: the baptism Jesu,which was not more acting he, but Johannes of the Täufer, and the communion or gentleman meal, which justified Jesus. For both actions a word and an element are konstitutiv, those in the Biblical excessive quantity with the requirement Jesuare connected to accomplish they. In the Evangelist tradition there are different communion understandings, which are not considered church-separating however into the Leuenberger Konkordie. Outside of the lutherischen and anglikanischen churches and municipalities the communion places in (predominantly reformed tradition inpurely symbolic memory meal (no material operational readiness level Jesu in bread and wine). It is further possible to put the Beichte down and receive Absolution, but this is neither necessary, nor it is a Sakrament. In some Evangelist churches (not however the GermansRegional churches, which are united in the Evangelist church in Germany) the child baptism was often replaced by the Gläubigentaufe, since these churches assume that, it must an active faith to the Errettung be present (Sola Fide). The various Evangelist denominations are institutionalautonomously and no official common teachings, which go beyond the writing, and no common head have except Christ.

The Evangelist churches „the four Solas are common “: solus Christ, however Jesus Christ as a master of the church, sola scriptura alonethe Bible as „regula fidei “(rule/guide of the faith), sola gratia release alone from grace, sola fide justification alone by the faith.

A special case is the Anglikani church, which holds to the apostolischen Sukzession (although the Roman-catholicChurch at the validity of the anglikanischen Bischofsweihe doubts), and to many catholic customs in the Liturgie and to eucharistischem understanding holds. Concerning attitude to the church tradition there are all intermediate stages from the Anglikani church to the calvinistisch reformed churches, thoseall church tradition outside of the Bible reject.

On teachings and practice in most denominations by Synoden or conferences on international level one decides, in other denominations on the level of the local church.

Today are the differences between liberals and conservativeWings within a denomination often more largely than the differences between individual liberals and/or. between individual conservative ones from different denominations.

While the Evangelist denominations stressed in former times very strongly the differences, there are today some beginnings for approximation: Many Evangelist denominations inEurope in the Leuenberger Konkordie united, conservative denominations co-operate in the Evangelist alliance, in some cases it even to reunifications came (United Church OF Canada from Lutheranern, Methodists and Presbyterianern; Uniting Church OF Australiafrom Presbyterianern, Kongregationalisten and Methodists; United Church OF Christian from seven denominations). With the world church advice there is also a committee of ökumenischen co-operation not only between the different Evangelist churches, but also with the orthodox churches together.

Other denominations

different ones other denominations, for which Jesus Christ is likewise a central figure, still see themselves neither in the orthodox, catholic in the Evangelist tradition. Groups arrange themselves in such a way, are for example the Quäker, the church Jesu Christi of the holy ones the last days and other communities of the Mormonen, the free Bible researchers, the combination church and the witnesses Jehovas. These newreligious communities have usually very special interpretations or structures, which are often only with difficulty comprehensible for outstanding ones.For example they have opinions over three-agreement, those not with the ökumenischen councils to agree or equivalent writings beside the Bible. Such groups have often (however differently strongly minted) the tendency to set their own view of the Christianity absolutely and allto agree upon other traditions the Christian its or to establish internally undemocratic structures. Those university-tare call themselves as a border Christian (boron that LINE Christians), since Jesus Christ does not play a central role in its faith system.

Heads of some Christian denominations

Heads of some Christian denominations
denomination head First head current head number of Apost. Sukzession
catholic church Pope Simon Petrus Benedikt XVI. 265
orthodox churches Patriarch of Konstantinopel (only honorary chairmanship) Apostel Andreas Bartholomäus I. 273
Anglikani church community archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer Rowan Douglas Williams 35 Disputed
Kopti church Pope Johannes Markus Shenouda III. 116
Syrian-orthodox church Patriarch Simon Petrus Ignatius Zakka I. Iwas 122
Armenian Apostoli church Patriarch Judas Thaddäus Karekin II. 152
Assyri church Patriarch Apostel Thomas Dinkha IV. Khanania 115
Neuapostoli church Stammapostel Friedrich cancer William liver 8 no
church Jesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days president Joseph Smith Gordon B. Hinckley 15 no

history

see: Christianity history

Christianity today

Klosterportal
monastery portal

not all humans, who understand themselves as Christians,accept if all theological positions, which will represent from their respective churches, and not all humans, who are church members, actually believe in God and have the God understanding „their “church.

The clearing-up has the Christianity in 17. and early 18. Century politicallyto a large extent weakened. The most important change existed in the partial dissociation from church and state. Since that time it is possible in many states to be and the opinions of the respective church in different ranges reject a free member of the societyto withdraw or even safely from the church. Millions took this path and became free philosophers and developed completely own faith systems like the human, atheism, Agnostizismus and Deismus or that new Age; others created liberal wing of the EvangelistTheology. With the eastern and eastern churches the clearing-up did not leave a so strong impression.

Marriage between Christians and non--Christians or between Christians of different denominations (see Interkonfessionelle marriage) becomes from different in each case denominations, and/or. also only, differently judges interpretation traditions.

Whichthe personal faith life concerns, then one can determine that there are countries and areas, in which a larger portion of humans their faith life a great importance attributes (e.g.The USA, Poland, Portugal, Croatia) and countries, where thatFaith with fewer humans a large role plays (e.g.Germany, France). Likewise there are countries, with which the church and the state are more closely linked (e.g. Germany/concordat, Vatikanstaat, or England), and such, thosea strict separation by condition or tradition fixed (e.g.The USA, France).

Parallel to the increasing secularization in the large cities of Europe and North America 20. Century came it to an exponential growth of the Christianity in the third world, which places today the majority of the Christians. Over 1900 was 16% of the Christians in Asia, Africa and Latin America - 1960 was it already 35% and today lives 60% of the Christians in the third world in such a way specified. This growthdistributes itself equally on the catholic church, evangelikale denominations and local churches of the Pfingstbewegung. The portion of the traditional Evangelist denominations decreases/goes back thus slowly, also in Europe and North America (although they possessed a much larger starting position).

See also: Dogma TIC

Monastery library

the central elements of the Christian teachings is the love for God, the love for the next one and the love for itself (Christian ethics); the people becoming of God in the Messiah Jesus, its victim death in formthe Kreuzigung as well as the faith in the Auferstehung after death. The Christians believe that these events form the basis of God work, with whom mankind with it should to be ausgesöhnt, there all humans, after Christian teachings, of birthon are afflicted with the hereditary sin. This closed Jewish Urchristen, which accepted this faith, of which community of the Jews among themselves out, since these rejected it among other things, humans anzubeten, because it saw in Jesus Christ not to the promised Messiah and son of God.

Jesus is after Christian faith understanding whole God and whole humans - with the stress: whole humans, however without human sin and of the hereditary sin freely. Besides it is taught that Jesus Christ did not gesündigt andnot can do sündigen. It is angebetet as humans and as God. In contrast to it reject the Jewish faith as well as theory and interpretation Islam both the possibility of the Inkarnation of God and humans and the Anbetung of humans .

Itexist however many opinion differences, which really represents now the crucial criterion for the Christian its. On the one hand assumes a great many to Christian its belongs to both obeying the ethical principles, as well as active participation in the Christian church. Other oneHumans see themselves as Christians, because they are gottesgläubig and respect the Christian ethics, without they however (active) are member in a church. The expression human Christians designates again humans, nor which are neither in a churchbelieve in God, however their ethics as Christian regard.Anonymous Christians (after Karl Rahner) are however those, which do not reject the Christianity or it even consciously, but follow the moral principles nevertheless. Again different teach that it onerequires conscious decision for the Christian faith (Bekehrung), which would draw a radical change of the life with itself.

Origin and influences

Christusdarstellung aus dem Jahr 1310
Christ representation from the year 1310

Christianity decrease/go back to the theories of the Jesus of Nazareth, infirst century (therefore it agitating) of the Christian time calculation (A.D. = anno domini = year of the gentleman) by Urchristen crucially one developed and one elaboriert. The Christians took over the five books Mose and other alttestamentliche writings from the Jewish tradition and manyfundamental theories like the faith in a Messiah or a Christ (from the Greek: christos: Gesalbter). By the Jews were taken over also the kind of the God admiration as well as the prayer and the use of the Psalmen. A further community with thatJudentum exists in the Anbetung of the same creator God. However the Christians see God as a dreifaltigen God on (tri rivet RK): The father, the son (Christ) and the holy spirit. Jesus Christ is after Christian teachings at the same time completely humans and completelyGod.

The first Christians were Jews, who bekehrten themselves to the Christian faith. The reproach is often made for the Christianity a principal debt at Jew pursuit to have had. Thus there are also today still discussions over it whether Christian Jew the debtat cross death Jesu give, there it Jewish writing scholars and/or. Priests were, who demanded the execution Jesu from Pontius Pilatus. The Christian faith understanding assumes each Sünder carries the debt at cross death Jesu and for this not simplya certain group to make responsible is.

Sources of supply and holy writings

the central source of supply for contents and the nature of the Christian faith is the Bible, whereby its valuation and interpretation vary strongly.

The Christian Bible consists of twoParts: the old person will and the new will. Old person the will corresponds contentwise up to details to the Jewish Tanach and of Jesus and the Urchristen just like of the Jews as holy writing was seen. The new will containsReports of the life Jesu (gospels), the early church (Apostelgeschichte; Urchristentum), letters of the Apostel, as well as revealing the Johannes. The terms „alto “and „new “for the wills designate the facts that it from view thatChristian an old and to a new federation between God and humans gives.

The extent of the old person of will is not differently determined by different denominations, since the Greek excessive quantity of the Septuaginta contains also several texts, those in the Hebrew excessive quantityare contained. The parts, which stand only in the Septuaginta, become depending upon aspect as deuterokanonische writings and/or.Apokryphen designates. Details are specified in the article canon of the old person of will.

Over contents of the new will exists with all large denominationsa consent, which developed in the first four centuries. The canon of the new will goes to it into details.

By numerous finds of Kodizes and papyri in the last two centuries the original text of the new will can todaywith good reason large accuracy to be reconstructed scientific. Details in addition are described in the topic text history of the new will. However the opinions of the theologians and the individual Christians go themselves today very far apart in the question, into like far itwith this text around accurate excessive quantities of Jesus and the Aposteln or around additives of the early church acts.

Likewise there are very different aspects concerning the correct method of the translation, those in the article Bible translation and with articles over the particularsBible translations are in detail stated.

Also concerning interpretation of the Biblical texts and their practical applicability on ethics and daily life there is a large range of opinions, both under the denominations and with individual Christians within the denominations. The officialStatements and Bible interpretations on the part of the churches played particularly in earlier time a large role, while humans put today often own interpretations by right, whereby they contradict pretty often thereby openly the defaults of their respective churches. Again different Christiansassumes alone the personal guidance opens its own understanding for the word of God by the holy spirit.

Beside the Bible also different excessive quantities play such as Glaubensbekenntnisse, tradition, Liturgie and Christian models with most denominationslike holy one a substantial role in forming out church practice.

Today some Christians let themselves be inspired also by other, in particular eastern religions or by neutestamentliche Apokryphen, texts from the first two centuries, those not in the canons of the Biblewith were taken up. Both belongs in no church to the official teachings.

Christian theory

during in the Christian teachings countless variants of the central elements of the Christian teachings, give it nevertheless some points, the orthodox, catholic and Evangelist denominations exist over thosemost time in the last 2,000 years for the Christian faith considered indispensable and several times officially confirmed:

  • It existed only one God, God is three united - a only one eternal nature, which exists in three features: Father (creator),Son (Jesus Christ) and holy spirit. There is the hidden (deus absconditus) and the geoffenbarten (deus relevatus) God.
  • Jesus Christ is the son of God and the Messiah of the Jewish forecast. The Jewish nut/mother religion expects afteras before a Messiah. Also in the Islam Jesus (Isa) carries the title aluminium-masih and not few Muslims is convinced that its return will introduce the end time.
  • Jesus Christ announced and is the coming God realm beginning even anticipated, with itsphysical Auferstehung to God in the sky. Jesus could not do sündigen. By its self victim at the cross their debt of the hereditary sin is assigned to all humans, which to them since its birth adheres, and they are reconciled by the blood Christi with God.Jesus is completely God and completely humans, two nature in a person.
  • Gläubige are baptized on death by Christi body. By the faith they live mirror-image-ritually and become from death into an eternal life up-arise, if them onthis release work of God for it believe. It received with its Bekehrung the holy spirit, hope brings and the church in God truth and in accordance with God intentions leads.
  • Jesus sits to rights of God in all authority and authority in more physicalAuferstehung. It will return humans, in order to get the Gläubigen to itself, so that they will live eternally in the holy presence of God, in power and glory, in order to govern together with its together. To it „at the end thatTimes “, has the church the order returns to preach the glad message at everyone.
Re-establishment of the Paradieses
  • the teachings that humans are not explained by the hereditary sin separately from the community with God and from own Kraft this communityto repair it can but that she is repaired by the faith in Jesus Christ. Over the exact kind of this release of the Gläubigen and the way to it there are different views within the different Christian denominations.
  • The Christian Bible is the word of God and/or. from God verbal-inspired work and gives no other books, than the books to the Bible, which have a same value for the Christians. Although the Christians are not united, as are taken literally the Bibleand if it should different interpretations of many places gives, it is nevertheless generally recognized source of information about Jesus and God.
  • Maria, the nut/mother of Jesus, bore the son of God, that, although in eternity existing, in her body witnessedbecame by the holy spirit. From its humanity it received human understanding and will and all what natural-proved a child from its nut/mother receives. Maria is called, according to earlyChristian council resolution, Theotokos = nut/mother God.

In the catholic and orthodoxChurch is admired Maria and asked for Fürsprache (Marienverehrung). The Evangelist churches attach Maria different degrees of the meaning and reject the term „nut/mother God “mostly. While Martin Luther recommended the Gläubigen still the Fürsprache Mariens, has itselfthis, particularly with the Evangelikalen, not into the present held. Isolated still Marienstatuen are rare or - portraits in anglikanischen churches, in lutherischen churches, and in the remaining Evangelist churches are missing only rarely them completely. Similarly the relationship tooother suctions. „Holy ones “and their figurative representations. For the Evangelist Christian only alone God is holy.

See also: Christian ethics, Christian Eschatologie, Christian moral

relationship with other world views

the Christianity affected other religions, their trailer itselfnot when Christians see, but Jesus as prophets of God to recognize. The Islam is the largest of these religions, centuries of Christian-Islamic arguments however the Jesus picture in the Koran become indistinct let. Thus Jesus in the Koran carries on the one hand positive titles such as Messiah, Word of God and also spirit of God; likewise it, like all Biblical prophets, is regarded as such.

Sharply back to be pointed however three-agreement and each Anbetung Jesu. (And after more mehrheitlicher, not exclusive view denied) the Kreuzigung is disputed.Only very slowly the unfolding dialogue begins to set here.

Under Nichtchristen positive is generally awarded to the Christianity like negative. Usually the theory of the next love is seen positive. Also world-wide many Christians for the peace and for barmherzige concepts sit downagainst the poverty. The history of the Christianity with crusades, witch pursuits and Antijudaismus is seen negative. The positions to artificial Empfängnisverhütung, Homosexualität, abortion are also internal like a Christian disputed.

It is a request of many Christian churches, itself among themselves tooreconcile and a common basis to create (Ökumene), to cause and possible reconciliation with other religions. For this for example the Vatikan organizes regularly inter+religious meetings, the most well-known thereby the prayer of the world religions in Assisi. A goal is peaceful co-existingthe religions, because many wars were led from religious motives. Not surveyed one may that the early Christians were strongly pursued and that there are also today, straight in communist and Islamic countries, a strong Christian pursuit.

Cultural influence of theChristianity

in the history of the evening country faith, culture and art mutually affected each other. A crucial station was for example the picture controversy in the early Middle Ages. In the evening country busy itself art often with Christian topics, although for the Renaissance more strongly alsoResort to not-Christian motives from the antique one was taken. In the range of the music are to be differentiated everyday and secular music often only on the basis the texts, however many composers also tried, a text a particularly fitting musical expression toolend.

Criticism at the Christianity

trailer of other religions, Agnostiker, Atheisten, in addition, Christian, practiced since jeher criticism at the Christianity. Here is difficult it sometimes to differentiate whether itself the points of criticism against the church as institution, the churchInterpretation of the Bible, which direct Bible, or against fundamental principles of the Christianity.

Substantial criticism is directed thereby in today's time against fundamental dogma tables interpretations of the Christianity in questions of the ethics and moral, in particular the Sexualmoral. Critics see in dererleiInterpretations a contradiction for the core of the Christian teachings, and an uncritical and unhistorisch literal interpretation of the Bible. Authors of this movement as for instance Bruce Bawer (Stealing Jesus: How Fundamentalism Betrays Christianity), Clayton Sullivan (Rescuing Jesus from the Christians) try and episkopalische bishop John Shelby Spong (different publications), the science of the Jesus of these their opinion after later added to release. As alternative they draw also the human Sexualität into for all their variants affirming Christianity, thatit the particular leaves to judge in these questions themselves. Particularly against the interpretation of Bible texts concerning the current topic Homosexualität arranges itself the criticism of e.g. Daniel Helminiak in What the Bible Really Says About Homosexuality. Into onesimilar direction practices also the ökumenische working movement homosexual one and church criticism.

Other scientists lead points of criticism on concerning that history quotation of the person Jesu Christi, the Bible or urchristlichen history.

  • The Bible history of the birth in Betlehem becomes from unknown scientistsas a later invention in the service of the Missionierung of the Jews seen, since these expected a Messiah from the house of David, what to a Aramäer from Nazaret would not have applied. Thus birth history is shifted and decorated with promise after Betlehem.
  • Michael Baigent and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Leigh assume that the science of Jesus was the same, which represented also the Essener, or also that Jesus was a Essener.
  • Gerd loading man holds not the Apostel but Paulus of Tarsus asin addition actual founder of the Christianity and assumes only later among the entwurzelten fringe groups and slaves of the Roman realm the plentifully decorated and modified history of the God son struck to the cross got its high attractiveness.

See also

Wiktionary: Christianity - word origin, synonyms and translations

literature

On nine volumes overall display put on, those thatcurrent state of research refers.
  • Bruce Bawer: Stealing Jesus: How Fundamentalism Betrays Christianity. Three Rivers press 1998. ISBN 0609802224. (Criticism at fundamental dogma tables tendencies.)
  • Eugen Biser, Ferdinand cock, Michael of long ones: Encyclopedia of the Christian faith, 2004, ISBN 3-62901-667-7
  • history of theChristianity. Religion politics culture, given change of Jean Marie Mayeur, Charles and Luce Pietri, André Vaucher, Mark of Venard. German expenditure given change of Norbert Brox, Odilo of angel, George Kretschmar, briefly Meier, Heribert Smolinsky, 14 Bde., publishing house Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 1991ff.(Current overall display:Discussion)
  • manual of church history, given change of H. Jedin among other things, 7 Bde., Freiburg 1962 - 1979, ISBN 3-45120-454-1
standard work for the history (the Christianity from the point of view) of the catholic church
  • H. - P. Hasenfratz: The Christianity. A small problem history.Theol.Publishing house Zurich, 1992. - ISBN 3-29010-151-7
the book treats questions, which led again and again in the history of the Christianity to problems.
review: „Which is the Christianity? What is the really Christian? Which holds the so various and in itselfdifferent Christian churches… at all together? “Questions, on which the churches must find clear answers, if they want to overcome the present/immediate large crisis of the Christianity.
Küng supplies a comprehensive analysis of twenty centuries of church history and thus that with its bookBasic stick, on which a fruitful discussion could be led across the future of the Christianity.

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)