Christian-social union in Bavaria

of these articles is occupied with the party CSU. Further meanings of the abbreviation CSU under CSU (term clarifying).
Chairman Logo
base data
Gründungsdatum: 8. January 1946,
founders' meeting)
establishment places: Munich,
peppering castle
of chairmen: Edmund Stoiber
deputy: Ingo Friedrich,
Beate notice,
refuge Seehofer,
Barbara trunk
treasurer: Thomas's farmer,
Alexander Radwan
Secretary-General: Markus Söder
of members: 173.000
(conditions: February 2005)
Woman portion: about 18%
party financing:
10.550.126, 28 €
party arrangement: 10 district federations,
108 circle federations
Address: Nymphenburger STR. 64
80335 Munich
E-Mail address:

The christian-social union in Bavaria registered association. (CSU) one is Christian - a conservative party in Bavaria. On federal level it forms a parliamentary group community with its sister party in the German Bundestag, the CDU.

Table of contents

of the Bavarian people's party


sets 5

literature of 6 Web on the left of [ work on ] contentwise profile [ work on] away in Bavaria causes. This 1918 from protest had itself against the centralistic realm financial reform Matthias Erzbergers from the realm-far center abgespalten and stressed from now to the Bavarian special interests. However their strongly right-conservative and restaurativen positions are in the CSU only very isolated again. A further important difference is that itself the CSU von Anfangalso as a party for Protestant Christians understood on, while the BVP was one excluding a catholic party, which besides radically rejected each socialist conception, whereas in the CSU in its initial years quite tendencies to socialist demands (nationalizations, land reform)were present.

Three basic values are to be found in all basic policy statements: the conservative basic attitude, the Christian adjustment and the stress of the federalism. In the home policy it sets on a strong state to protect the rights and liberty of the citizenshas. , Like the registered life partnerships or the reform of the citizenship the CSU faces social liberalisation, in principle sceptically. Social and politico-economic positions are coined/shaped by socially compatible regulations, whereby internal-party critics warn forwards increasingly neoliberalen tendencies. Differences by program to the CDUit lies mainly in the fact that the CSU is more social in the interior, on the right of and social policy more conservatively and in the economic and social pole TIC.

The current basic policy statement carries the title „in liberty for the public interest obligated “and 1993 was discharged. Up to the Party Congress inAutumn 2007 is to compile the 34köpfige principle commission under the presidency Alois of luck a new program.

present one contentwise positions

federal politics

on federal level is the CSU member of the large coalition from CDU, CSU and SPD andcarries the positions, which were negotiated in the coalition contract. Details in addition are represented in the article coalition contract.

society and social politics

marriage and family are regarded as foundation of the society and natural way of life. Therefore the CSU speaks itself forthe retention of their constitutional protection out and faces the revaluation of other ways of life to a large extent like the ELP rejecting. When concept sets to agree upon family and gainful employment with one another the CSU on the freedom of election, after which women and men decide freelyit is whether they want to dedicate themselves excluding the work in the family or in the occupation or connect both.

The Christian people picture obligates the State of, the right to lives - both of born humans, and obstructions and unborn children -to protect; the abortion is rejected in principle, granted however in „heavy emergency or conflict situations exempt from punishment.

Social politics is to turn out in principle according to the principles of the justice and humanity, in view of the present problems of the social systems wants the CSU however in structural reformsthe social security systems strengthened on the sole responsibility of the particular set, „irrelevant tasks “of the social systems go back and abuse of the social security hard punish. Thus the social free-market economy is to become secured restaurant economics in the age of the globalization.

education and research

thoseCSU sets clearly on the three-membered educational system and justifies it in the dispute around the comprehensive schools with that, also in the international comparison, for good results Bayerns in the PISA study. To the school year 2004/05 the again introduced eight-year old High School (G8) met on strongResistance in the population, just as the reform desired of the university formation. In the future are to become due already at Bavarian universities for a Erststudium study fees. The universities are by the fees, paired with a new university right and the internationalization of the conclusions more flexiblyand become higher performance. Special attention directs the CSU toward the promotion of the technology location Bavaria.

the CSU the public administration

slim wants to arrange administration and public service with a comprehensive administrative reform more efficient and. Thus is the household on a long-term basis annuallyaround approximately 300 million euro to be relieved and the financial clearance resulting from it for future investments be used. By the administrative reform practically all parts of the public administration are concerned and are partly again organized. By a dismantling of adjustments is the state entbürokratisiertand thus also on a long-term basis personnel to save will be able. The planned reform of the official right (simplification of paying, possibilities of the transverse entrance, achievement-dependent content component) faces the CSU positively.

environment and consumer protection

the CSU are accused, it on frequent putthe principle „economics before ecology “. The power production from nuclear power is in principle rejected endorsed, the eco-tax, without the demand after abolishment however since the electioneering program 2005 does. In the flood and climatic politics Bavaria invests for some years increasingly.

In that Drug politics represent the CSU a conservative, repressive prohibitionistischen beginning.

budgetary policy

the CSU submitted in the financial year 2006 for Bavaria as to first Land of the Federal Republic a household free from debt. This became particularly by radical savings of expenditures by all Ministriesreached and encountered partial violent criticism in the population.2003/2004 became and. A. a comprehensive structural reform of the Bavarian public administration and a work time extension in the public service decided. The demand for a reform of the land financial adjustment, that thoseCSU over constitutional challenges of the country Bavaria frequently in favor of of Bavaria to correct could, exists further.


the CSU is organized only in the Free State of Bavaria and places themselves also only there to the choice. On federal level it forms in German Bundestag a parliamentary group community with its sister party, the CDU, which is available in the remainder of the Federal Republic. In the European parliament the CSU is member of the parliamentary group of the European people's party (EVP).

political line

refuge Seehofer, vice-chairman thatCSU
the political line of the CSU lies with its chairman (present Edmund Stoiber), who of a 45köpfigen executive committee in the agency of the party outward, which treatment of urgent political problems as well as substantial organizational questions is supported.

The four deputy ones Chairmen are Ingo Friedrich, Beate notice, refuge Seehofer and Barbara trunk. Treasurers are Thomas's farmer and Alexander Radwan, secretary Ursula Männle and Franz Meyer. 30 further selected members and seven members strength of office are additionalin the party executive committee. The completion of current business and questions of economic manipulation of the party are task of the 21köpfigen of presidency of the party.

The Party Congress consists of the delegated ones of the district and circle federations and meets regularly. Its tasks are the adoption of resolutions over party programand statute as well as the choice and control of the function carriers on regional level. Into the treatment of fundamental political topics and the adoption of resolutions over schemes will call up the party committee („small Party Congress “), consisting of the delegated ones of the district federations.

The party-internal administration and organization are incumbent onthe national line under the line of the Secretary-General (present Markus Söder), which has its seat in the Franz Josef bunch house in Munich.

The CSU are close the Hanns Seidel donation and the Bavaria courier .

party finances

the CSU received 2002 incomes of 46.1 millionEuro, of it 41% by donations, 29% by membership dues, 26% by national means and 4% by other incomes. The CSU has the highest donation portion with party finances in relation to all other parties of the German federal daily. To the comparison:the CDU received incomes from 141.1 million euro, the FDP 31.5 million euro.

regional arrangement

the CSU has at present 173,000 members (conditions: February 2005), of which approximately 18% are women. The CSU is regional in tenDistrict federations, 108 circle federations and 2853 local federations subdivided.

Das Franz-Josef-Strauß-Haus
The Franz Josef bunch house
District federation of chairmen
Augsburg Bernd Kränzle
middle Franconia Joachim gentleman Mr.
Munich Otmar Bernhard
Lower Bavaria Erwin Huber
Nuremberg/Fürth/Schwabach Günther Beckstein
Upper Bavaria Alois luck
Upper Franconia Werner snatch on
Upper Palatinate Hans Spitzner
Swabia Markus Ferber
Lower Franconia Michael Glos

contentwise arrangement

eight working groups, ten working groups and six commissions set the contentwise emphasis of the Christian-social policy. Outside of this structure the pupils union ( CSU) stand as working group of the boys union and the ringChristian democratic students (RCDS), one the union close standing university's group.

Working group of chairmen
Junge union (JU) Manfred weber
woman union (FU) Emilia Mueller
middle class union (MU) Hans Michelbach
employee union (CSA) refuge Seehofer
AG agriculture (AGL) Albert Dess
local-political combination (KPV) Luitpold brown
senior union (SEN) Konrad Weckerle
union of the refugees (UdV) Bernd pos ELT
Working group of chairmen
Arbeitskreis outside and security politics Christian Schmidt
working group environmental safety device and land development (AKU) Josef Göppel
working group school and education (AKS) Siegfried cutter
of working group university and culture (AKH) Ludwig Spaenle
Evangelist working group (EAK) Ingo Friedrich
working group police and internal security (POLE) George forge
working group of public service (OeD) Gerhard Waschler
working group lawyer (AKJ) Thomas's cruiser
health-political working group (GPA) Wolfgang Zöller
of contact circle politics - science - culture Thomas Goppel
Commission of chairmen
Medienkommission Markus Söder
Consumer protection commission Emilia Mueller
family commission Joachim Unterländer
film commission harsh ore Huber
principle commission Alois luck
international commission Reinhold Bocklet
traffic commission Adolf Dinglreiter


establishment and building years

in the summer 1945 formed on local level Christian-conservative groupings, thosea counterweight to SPD and KPD to create wanted. Centers of the combination of the regional parties to a totalBavarian combination were the residents of Munich group around Karl Scharnagl, „Ochsensepp “ Josef Mueller and Joseph tree gardner and the peppering citizens group, their prominent head Adam Stegerwald was.

Alois Hundhammer, erster CSU-Fraktionsvorsitzender, mit seinem Enkel
Alois dog hammer, first CSU leader of the parliamentary group, to indicate as its
grandchild a Gründungsdatum of the party is difficult. To 12. September 1945 was decided in Munich the establishment of one „Bavarian christian-social union “, to 13. October 1945 was based the CSU in Peppering castle. The totalBavarian founders' meeting finally found to 8. January 1946 instead of, to 14. and 15. December 1946 decided the second state meeting the first basic policy statement and confirmed the provisional chairman of the party Josef Mueller in its office. With the choice to, the CSU 58.3% received constituent state meeting Bayerns to the first country-wide postwar choice. Differently than the Christian-conservative parties in the other Lands of the Federal Republic, which united to 1950 to the CDU, the CSU remained independently and organizational limited to Bavaria. The all-German claim to leadership first that, Then the CDU in the British zone of occupation under Konrad Adenauer the CSU rejected Berlin CDU.

The years of the foundation were coined/shaped by the struggle for the adjustment by program of the party. A Christian liberal group stood for the catholic-conservative members around Mueller and Scharnaglfrom the former BVP (Fritz Schäffer, Alois dog hammer) opposite. At the beginning of competed still the separatist aligned Bavaria party around the same constituency as the CSU, since both parties saw themselves and presented as successors of the BVP. The CSU could this struggle for power finally for itself decide. The CSU succeeded to get it on the one hand by a pragmatic course between tradition and modernization the wing ready to conciliate BP back to the CSU. On the other hand BP became end of the fifties underdubious circumstances into „the gaming house affair in such a way specified “entangles and lost thereby substantially at reputation and votes. 1966 separated it finally from the federal state parliament.

history of the CSU in Bavaria

since the first election of the federal parliament in Bavariain the year 1946 the party up to the reign of William Hoegner ( SPD, 1954 - 1957) places the Prime Minister of the country. With exception of the elections in the year 1950 the CSU was besides always strongest Kraft in Bavarian federal state parliament.

With the election of the federal parliament 1946 the CSU with 52,3% achieved the absolute majority. It formed nevertheless a coalition with SPD and WAV, there one by the still persisting factional fights within the party a load-carrying majority not securedbelieved. Prime Minister became Hans Ehard (and not the chairman of the party Josef Mueller); thus a candidate acceptable for both wings was selected into the office. The coalition broke itself already in September 1947 again, there CSU and SPD ideologically and politically increasingalienated. The CSU resumed the government alone, had however with the elections of the federal parliament of 26. November 1950 a sensitive defeat put in: It reached only 27.4% and became after the SPD only second-strongest Kraft in the federal state parliament. Background was the argumentthe CSU with the Bavaria party, which began for the first time and achieved 17.9% of the voices, which had been allotted before mainly to the CSU - as well as the likewise first candidacy of the BHE. Prime Minister remained however Hans Ehard, the one coalitionfrom CSU, SPD and BHE formed.

1954 had the CSU the first and only mark into the opposition. Although it could increase their result with 38% again, the negotiations with the past SPD coalition partner failed, thereupon the guidance of a Viererkoalitionfrom SPD, BP, BHE and FDP and William Hoegner to the Prime Minister took over selected. The CSU tried the withdrawal of the FDP and the BHE from the coalition from the opposition to let the coalition break apart and finally reached 1957. Inthe CSU chairman Hanns Seidel formed a coalition from CSU, BHE and FDP, which were confirmed in the elections of the federal parliament 1958 for the consequence.

1959 succeeded the CSU a crucial impact against the competition of the Bavaria party. High functionaries BP became to 8. August in „the gaming house affair in such a way specified “because of wrong statement upon oath to penal servitudes condemns. The CSU had collected and was complicated before load material against BP into obscure and uncovering of the case favorable for the CSU. At that timeCSU Secretary-General Friedrich Carpenter was condemned short time because of perjury in first instance, this judgement was likewise waived later however in second instance, since Carpenter in the crucial phase of its statement had a Blackout against the Bavaria party - Carpenter leads thereforeto today the pointed name “old oath hand”. 1960 stepped Hanns Seidl for health reasons back and to its successor Hans Ehard were selected again, which delivered then its office after the profit of the absolute majority 1962 at Alfons Goppel. Since 1962the CSU did not deliver its absolute majority in Bavaria no more. Also numerous affairs like e.g. the mirror affair or the residents of Munich CSU affair could not do an abort to the popularity of the CSU. 1974 reached Goppel with 62,1% of the voices the bestResult of the CSU with elections of the federal parliament.

Franz Josef bunch in the year 1982
1978 changed Franz Josef bunch as an Prime Minister from Bonn to Munich and remained this up to its death 1988. After Strauss' death followed it a internal-party double head: Max Streibl was selected to the Bavarian Prime Minister , Theo Waigel to the new chairman of the party. In Streibls reign fell the German reunification and 1990 „the residents of Munich explanation “: To the first conference of Prime Minister of all 16 German countries since 1947 the Prime Ministers spoke themselves clearly forthe föderalistische principle of the Federal Republic out.1993 had to withdraw Streibl because of „the Amigo affair in such a way specified “. The election result was not affected by this affair however and the new Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber, that itself in the struggle for the follow-upagainst Theo Waigel interspersed, 1994 with 52,8% one confirmed. Into the 1990ern the party under Stoiber pursued the goal of developing with the extensive privatisation earningses Bavaria for „High carouse location so mentioned “.

With the election of the federal parliament 2003 it only succeeded the CSU as so farTo achieve a party in the Federal Republic of Germany with 60,7% of the voices a two-thirds majority of the mandates. The easy losses at absolute voices became balanced thereby by an election turnout sunk clearly. A radical austerity policy, the introduction of the eight-year old High School and a reformthe Act concerning universities with the associated introduction from study fees are quintessential points of the momentary CSU politics and led partly to substantial protests in Bavaria.

the CSU on federal level

the history of the CSU on federal level is coined/shaped by their tendencyafter independence in the context of the Union parties. Already in the first postwar years that the Bavarian Union party does not want to insert itself into a Germany-far organisational structure, however a strong role is clearly stressed also beyond Bavaria. Already with a first meetingof union politicians at the 3. The CSU , represented by Josef Mueller, leans April 1946 in Stuttgart the claim to leadership of the citizens of Berlin CDU starting from and on first federation the Party Congress of the union to 20. October 1950 in Goslar does not close the CSUlike the remaining Christian-democratic national parties of West Germany and West Berlin to the CDU Germany together. On the other hand the CSU cooperated however from the outset in „the working group CDU/CSU Germany “and made also valid beyond Bavaria requirements: In the again created head office thatBizone occupied it the two director posts for post office and telecommunication system (Hans Schuberth) and economics (Johannes Semler). The CSU politician Anton Pfeiffer transferred the presidency of the condition convention of Herrenchiemsee and the Union faction in the parliamentary advice. Although thoseCSU by the Bavarian state government substantial affected the Basic Law the föderale basis of the Basic Law, rejected the Bavarian federal state parliament after 15stündiger debate with 101:63 voices obstructing in 9 abstentions as only land parliament as too federalannoying and the countries.In a separate resolution with 97:6 voices when 70 abstentions the legally binding effect of the Basic Law was then however recognized, if two thirds of the Lands of the Federal Republic accepted it.

2 DM-Münze mit Porträt von Franz Josef Strauß
2 DM coin with haven-guessed/advised of Franz Josef bunch
the first election to the Bundestag 1949 ended for thoseCSU with a Fiasko. It received only 29.2% of the voices and had a large part of their trailers at BP to deliver. Their 24 delegates nevertheless educated an independent parliamentary group for the agency of Bavarian interests and were with the three MinistersFritz Schäffer (finances), William NIC-read (agriculture and nutrition) and Hans Schuberth (post office and telecommunication system) in the first cabinet Adenauer represent.

The independence of the CSU in the Bundestag became however already after the first electoral period favour of the parliamentary group community existing this very day thatUnion parties given up. As also with the elections of the federal parliament the CSU gained voices starting from 1953 again and could also with elections to the Bundestag in Bavaria regularly the absolute majority for itself book. At all lead by the Union Federal Governments the CSU, was partly superproportional with Federal Ministersrepresented.

Coining/shaping for the history of the CSU on federal level Franz Josef bunch was, since 1949 of deputy chairmen of the regional committee and starting from 1953 in different offices for Minister (special tasks, atomic questions, defense). In the large coalition George Kiesingers was shortBunch Minister of Finance. After the change of government 1969 the CSU under its guidance formed itself as the more conservative wing within the Union faction. Visible expression for it was the complaint of the Free State of Bavaria initiated by bunch against the basis-of-relations treaty and the meanwhile legendary separation resolution by Wildbad Kreuth: The CSU regional committee decided to 19. November 1976 not to continue the parliamentary group community with the CDU. Official reasons for it were a more effective opposition work and more speaking time in the parliament. Behind the window blinds the CSU was however annoyed about it,that the union could not replace the SPD with the past election to the Bundestag despite a 60%-Ergebnisses of the CSU in Bavaria. Also the relationship to the FDP and considerations to a strategic transformation of the party landscape led to tensions:

Theodor Waigel
Theodor Waigel
around medium-term thatcivil camps again the majority to secure, it came particularly into the CSU to considerations to organize the CSU country widely and to create thus a fourth party, the one decidedly conservative profile has and right edge actuallyto bind should, while the CDU should cover the more liberal center. The CDU faced these plans however from fear of voice losses rejecting.

After hard negotiations the CSU took to 12. December cross ago the resolution back, went out however clearly strengthenedthe conflict out and nominating her chairman Strauss reached 1980 as a candidate for the chancellorship for the election to the Bundestag. Because of its conservative opinions and political past the strongly disputed bunch could not itself however in a strongly polarizing election campaign against the office holder Helmut Schmidt intersperse. While the CSU could hold their result of 1976, the CDU lost nearly four per cent points.

In the cabinets from Helmut Kohl was the CSU of 1982 - 1998 always with four to six Federal Ministers represent. Of it are particularly Friedrich Carpenter to emphasize Theo Waigel and refuge Seehofer. After the defeat with the election to the Bundestag 1998, with which the CSU fell in Bavaria for the first time since 1953 again under the mark of 50% of the voices, Theo steppedWaigel as a chairman back and the Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber was selected to its successor as a party chairman. 1999 initiated CSU and CDU a signature action against the reform of the German nationality right, in that the descending right by elements ius solito be supplemented should and reached with this vehement criticized action in Hessen the first choice victory after the lost election to the Bundestag. Under the presidency of Edmund Stoiber took the influence of the CSU in the union again strongly to and in the year 2002Stoiber was nominated to the candidate for the chancellorship of the union. Differently than bunch 1980 Stoiber had thereby the entire union behind itself, failed however despite an increase at voices for the union against Gerhard Schröder, since he, exactly like bunch, had difficulties,to mobilize the voters in east and Northern Germany.

Bundeswirtschaftsminister Michael Glos
Federal Minister for Economic Affairs Michael Glos
with the preferred election to the Bundestag 2005 had to accept the CSU in Bavaria clear losses, however primarily on a high portion of borrowing voices for the FDP, thosetheir election result in Bavaria more than doubling could, to lead back is. It loses 9.3% and comes on 49,3%.

In order to signal the weight of the CSU in the planned large coalition under Angela Merkel to true and the support of the CSU, should Edmund Stoiber as Federal Ministers of a again created Ministry for economics and technology to Berlin change. For his follow-up in Bavaria Ministers of the Interior Günther Beckstein and state chancellery boss Erwin Huber applied.

Edmund Stoiber did not take the announcement of the SPD chairman of the party Franz Müntefering, to no moreto want to stand as a candidate for the SPD presidency to occur to the cause around its promise as Ministers the Federal Cabinet under Mrs. Merkel to withdraw and to release with it a temporary internal-party crisis. In the center of the criticism thereby the demand was located after a more intensive internal-party discussioncentral topics. Stoiber reacted to it among other things with the plan to one „actualization “of the basic policy statement from the year 1993. In the cabinet Merkel is now represented with Michael Glos and refuge Seehofer as Federal Ministers the CSU.

the CSU inEurope

defiance occasionally Europeansceptical positions sees itself also decided the CSU as a European party and sets on sturdy Europe of the regions, which is to be based on the principles of the federalism and the Subsidiarität. Together with 10 other European Christian democraticand the CSU created conservative-civil parties to 8. July 1976 the European people's party (EVP). It is represented since the first step-by-step selections to the European parliament 1979 always with seven to ten delegates and achieved also here up to 1989 always the absoluteMajority in Bavaria. In order to secure the influence possibilities of the countries sufficiently, the CSU used itself over the Bavarian state government 1992 substantial for which to create and its Secretary-General could place later committee of the regions on European level. With that European choice 2004, with which she got Ingo Friedrich 57.4% of the voices with her leading candidate and placed thus nine of eleven European delegates, set the CSU as one of the main election campaign topics on the refusal of an European Union full membership of Turkey in the population. Likewise 2004Edmund Stoiber of Jacques Chirac and Gerhard Schröder as a successor of the EU-commission president Romano Prodi in the discussion was brought. Stoiber decided however against a change to Brussels.

in the middle

of the fifties formed CSU groupings outside of Bayerns in the SaarlandYears, however without co-operation and approval of the CSU in Bavaria, a combination named CSU Saar (CSU-S). It reached straight times 0.6% in the Saarland with the there election of the federal parliament. After the integration of the Saarland into the Federal Republic of Germany the Christian people's party tookthe Saarland (CVP), which against an integration had expressed itself, negotiations with the Bavarian CSU up. Consequently it came to 6. July 1957 for the education of a kind CSU regional organization from the CVP and the CSU Saar, which began with the election to the Bundestag 1957.According to an outline agreement with the CDU Saar to 30. The members could change November 1958 until September 1959 into the CDU Saar. At the end of of 1959 was then dissolved the CSU/CVP. A minority created the SVP, since they do not follow the CDU Saarwanted.

In the course of the idea of a fourth party CSU Freundeskreise so mentioned was based in the middle of the 1970er outside of Bayerns, which could have developed fast local of federations with a resolution to expand the CSU as a the fourth party since the entire Federal Republic. 1975 based- without participation of the CSU - the action committee a FOURTH PARTY, which wanted to put the plans into practice, but at the missing co-operation of the CSU and „the friend circles “failed itself. After the defeat at the polls Strauss' and the change of government 1983 becamethe idea of the fourth party finally fall calmly, there the change of power by co-operation with the liberals had become possible and the friend circles dissolved to a large extent.

After the case of the wall finally formed to 20. January 1990 outapproximately a dozen of liberal-conservative and Christian parties in Leipzig the German social union (DSU). The CSU supported this establishment and co-operated with it. To the people chamber elections to 18. March 1990 went it together with the CDU and that Democratic departure the alliance for Germany and won the elections. On pressure of the CDU the CSU terminated co-operation with the DSU however, when this planned, since the entire federal territory to expand and in the consequence sank the partyin the Bedeutungslosigkeit.

further one prominent members


  • this, Matthias: The guidance question. CDU and CSU in the between-party struggle for power. Munich 2003.
  • Haneke, Burkhard: Historya people's party. 50 years CSU 1945-1995. Green forest 1995.
  • Kiessling, Andreas: The CSU. Keeping in power and power renewal. Wiesbaden 2004.
  • Konrad Adenauer donation (Hg.): Bibliography for the history of the CDU and CSU. Duesseldorf 1981ff.
  • Mintzel Alf: The CSU hegemony in Bavaria. Strategy and success; Winner andLoser. Passau 1998.
  • Salbaum, Michael: The history of the CSU. Augsburg 1998.
  • Wolf, Konstanze: CSU and a Bavaria party. A special competition relationship 1948-1960. Cologne 1982.

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