the abbey of Cluny in Burgund was as starting point of important monastery reforms one of the most influential religious centers of the Middle Ages. Their church was occasionally the largest place of worship of the Christianity. Several buildings of the Benediktinerabtei waived due to the French revolution and some remainders of the abbey church in the center of the French city of the same name Cluny are received.
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Cluny became with document of the 11. Septembers 909 or 910 by duke William I. of Aquitanien as Benediktinerkloster based. (see: fr: Guillaume Ier d'Aquitaine) thereby did to duke William without each force over the monastery and closed any interference of lay or religious force into the internal affairs of the monastery out (Exemtion and immunity). In particular without the economic use one did. Monastery was placed under the direct protection of the Pope. For conditions 10. Century was this an innovation. He appointed only the first abbott, Berno, and permitted to the convention thereafter a free abbott choice. These two criteria, Exemtion and free abbott choice, contributed substantially to the development Clunys. These innovations as well as a strict interpretation of the Benediktusregel made Cluny the output and center of the cluniazensischen reform, in whose bloom time about 1,200 monasteries with approximately 20,000 monks belonged to Cluny. One the most important Priorate lay in La Charité sur Loire. The taut order was remarkable within the community. This very day there is an active discussion over the Cluneziani movement, which proceeded from the abbey.
of the monastery the first abbott, Berno, brought reform ideas from his previous monastery also. Thus the ideas were taken up by Benedikt of Aniane (750-821) again. In the center the return to the monastery rules was located hl. Benedikt and the fight against the secularization of the monastery life. Under abbott Berno developed the Cluniazensiche federation. Its successor, Odo, removed the federation. Either new Priorate from Cluny was created or the coming universityty of an abbey already existing followed Cluny. Also requests were near-carried by noble monastery gentlemen at Odo to accomplish in their monasteries reforms after the model Clunys. But the aristocrats did without their influence on these monasteries. In the Cluniazensichen federation gave it to four stages of integrated monasteries: In Prioraten was the abbott of Cluny of direct upper. Was led this Priorate of a Prior, which had the abbott of Cluny in relation to a loyalty vow placings. The next stage was those of the inkorporierten abbeys. The abbeys of these stages differed from Prioraten by the fact that they had their own abbott, who was subordinate however to the abbott of Cluny and had for this a loyalty vow to carry out. The third stage was those of the dependent, abbeys controlled by Cluny. This were usually large abbeys with intact business concern, which were subordinated to the Pope before and which this handed to reforms to Cluny over and the ever own legal status of an abbey to Cluny specified. Thus for instance the abbott of Cluny appointed the abbott of such an abbey or was nevertheless involved during its appointment substantially. The fourth stage was those of the abbeys, which the life habits of Cluny took over, but remained independent. The klösterliche discipline in the federation was kept upright by control of the integrated monasteries by the abbott from Cluny. The Liturgie stood in Cluny in the foreground. With the time the choir prayer became ever more extensive. Thus each monk under abbott Hugo daily 215 Psalmen , opposite the 37 Psalmen planned by Benedikt in its rule prayed daily. Thus because of the extensive liturgical service in particular the manual work was neglected by the monks, which got themselves in addition Konversen in the monastery. With the Liturgie lined up the dead memory far above. Abbott Odilo introduced all soul all this, which was committed later also in the world church and until today is committed as general Gedächnistag for all deceased.
By its splendour development Cluny exercised also a high attraction to noble ones , so that the monastery got rich donations of wealthy ones. The abbey possessed enormous financial resources at this time. Despite the outside splendour importance was always attached to strict Askese. The abbott for example did not have, like Benedikt in its rule was permitted and it also otherwise practiced, its own dwelling within the monastery range, but lived with the monks. Under abbott Petrus Venerabilis began the fall Clunys. It used a phase of the stagnation in the propagation of the cluniazensichen federation. In addition some monasteries of the federation independent tendencies showed. In addition the argument with Bernhard von Clairvaux and the later Cistercians came.
In the consequence of the French revolution the abbey was waived. The church purged and under Napoleon as quarry for the building of the “Haras national” (horse breeding) in Cluny was used. The actual monastery buildings serve today as vocational school.
also the abbey church of Cluny was adapted to the requirements of the increased liturgical service and converted twice, once under abbott Maiolus (981, Cluny II) and a further mark under abbott Hugo (1089, Cluny III). Cluny II was the first church with choir plant in the form of steps. The church had a roof slab. Some churches with roof slab, like for example the monastic church in Alpirsbach, follow this influence. Also the monastery of Hirsau (begun 1082), was had a feeling for to Cluny II, although this architectural style was already “outdated” already and to Cluny III in the building.
The consecration of the high altar of the monastic church Cluny III took place 1095. The building held to in 12. Century on. Cluny III was up to the reconstruction of sinking Peter in the Vatikan the largest building of churches of the Christianity with a fünfschiffigem nave of 187 m length and two transverse ships, from which today the only latter is partly received. The sketch with double side ships became after many centuries of forgetting the konstantinischen churches such as alto sp. Peter taken over. Particularly impressing with Cluny III was the Gewölbe with one span of 12,20 m with a height of 30,48 M.
The Clunezianerorden had a special influence on the architecture of the time at that time. However many buildings of the clunezianischen architectural style are no longer received. The regained sketch with the double side ships lives however in many churches away, so for example in the cathedral Notre-Dame in Paris.
Their development owes the abbey in special form to the first six abbotts. Abbott Hugo (the 6. the evenly specified) the church increased (to in 16. Jh. the largest of the Christians) around a multiple.
1810 was blown up large parts of the plant.
received tower at the transverse house
opinion from other perspective
basement of the Getreidespeichers
Säulenkapitell of the abbey church, issued in the upper floor
- 919-927 Berno of tree
- 927-942 Odo of Cluny
- 942-964 (948) Aymardus, Aymardus went blind at the age, which correct it could bear never.
- 964-994 Maiolus was starting from 954 Koadjutor of Aymardus.
- 994-1049 Odilo of Cluny
- 1049-1109 Hugo of Cluny
- 1109-1122 Pontius
- 1122-1156 Petrus Venerabilis
- B.Egger, history of the cluniazensischen monasteries in the Western part of Switzerland; 1907
- K.S.Frank, Cluny, in: TRE 8 (1981) 126-132
- K.Hallinger, Gorze Kluny. Studies to monast ways of life and contrasts in the high Middle Ages; 2 Bde., 1950/51
- A.Hessel; Cluny and Mârcon; in: ZKG 22 (1901)
- ders., Odo of Cluny and the French culture problem in the early Middle Ages; in: Cycles per second of 128 (1923)
- D.Knowles, ascent and fall of Cluny; in: Concilium 10 (1974), 475-480
- E.Sackur, the Cluniazenser; 2 Bde., 1892/94
- E.Werner, the social bases of the monastery reform in the 11. Century; 1953
- J. Wollasch, Cluny - “light of the world”; 1996
- K. J. Conant, Cluny. Les of églises et la maison you boss d'ordre; 1968
Web on the left of
- „the documents of the monastery Cluny “ (research project of the institute for early Middle Ages research Münster, with detailed on-line bibliography)
- Abbaye de Cluny (to the architecture of the abbey, fanzösisch)
- Abbaye de Cluny with romanes.com (with numerous pictures, French)