(or) of the Comic is the usual term for the Sequenzielle art. It represents sequenziell arranged consequences by pictures, on the basis those a procedure is described or a history told (see also picture history or Zeichentrickfilm). In thatThe pictures are drawn rule (however not compelling) and with telling text and/or literal speech are combined (see in addition also Storyboard with the feature).
In the Comic art literature and screen end art overlap. It places therefore its own art form. The term “Comic” (originally Comics) is derived from the English term comic strip (amusing strip). Since Comics do not have to be inevitably amusing however, there is the more neutral term “sequenzielle art”. The French literature scientist Francis Lacassin arranged 1971 thatComic as the ninth art in the canons of the forming arts . In the French usually the term “gang dessinée” becomes (drawn strip) or its abbreviation “BD” used. In the USA exists also the designation graphics Novel (graphic novel/graphic novella) forpredominantly literarily aligned Comics in demarcation to the Mainstream - Comic.
Table of contents
after Scott McCloud are Comics” for spatial sequences arranged, figurative or other indications, the information to mediate and/or an aesthetic effect with the viewer produce “(Comicsread correctly. Carlsen, 1994). It takes up thereby wants Eisners definition, which Comics as sequential kind (sequential art) designation (with pictures tell - Comics and sequential art.Comic press publishing house: Wimmelbach, 1994). This definition has the advantage that itof contents, conversion and medium is independent. However a Comic must consist at least of two pictures after it. Illustrations, caricatures or Cartoons, which consist only of a picture, would be therefore no Comics.
A further problem saves itself in Indication term: Depending upon used indication term arbitrary indication successions can be regarded as Comic according to this definition. Probably McCloud additionally still thought of symbolic and indexikalische indications, forgot with the fact however that according to its above definition also a text a Comic itsbecame: The designation “other one” contains thus quite still clarifying need.
If in a Comic text is contained, then this stands either over/under the pictures or by means of speech blisters in the pictures. Additionally often also noises are integrated loud-pictorial into the pictures (e.g. Schepper!!; Technical term: Onomatopoetika).
Comics appear either as Comicstrip, Comicheft or Comicbuch.
relationship to the film
when reading Comics develops a “head cinema in such a way specified “. The reader adds the individual panels in its Fantasie howto a film together. In contrast to the pure text literature the head cinema is usually more strongly visually pronounced with Comic vintages.
So that the head cinema experience succeeds as well as possible, the Comic production requires itself beside texter- and graphic also abilities, strongly with thatRequirements of the film art overlap. For example typical dramaturgische techniques are used, how one knows them from the film. The individual panels show attitude sizes like total ones or halfnear. Nearly all techniques of the film art have its counterpart in the Comic. SoEstablishing mentioned of SHOT corresponds for example in many Comics a “opening panel”, which shows the scenery.
The close relationship shows up also in the production of Storyboards during the production phase of a film, those the process of the film and in particular the camera focusingin a Comic outline and the director and cameraman as suggestion or collecting main serve. Turned around the “film script “is called there for a Comic” script “(a Comic finally does not become “turned”). The author of the Comics writesplanned history as such script, which serves the draughtsman afterwards as basis for its part of the work.
forms of the Comics
Originally the Strips was printed only in the American Sunday newspapers, where they filled first a whole side. As first Comicstrip is considered The Yellow Kid of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Felton Outcault, which started 1893.
After due to thateconomic necessities with the pressure of the Sunday Strips the optical conditions of the individual pictures became ever more rigid, fallow only Bill Watterson in Calvin & Hobbes the formal structure of the Sundays Strips and implemented with the fact the insight that the patternalso with other Strips the necessities for individual history to adapt is.
1903 appeared the first work-daily DAILY strip on the sport sides Chicago American, starting from 1912 for the first time a regular series were printed. The Tagesstrip, that of beginningto only was on black-and-white limited, should also from his place be economical. Since it should cover only one border, the length was limited to three or four pictures. Frequently certain motives are varied and them thereby new perspectivesgained. Only in absolute exceptional cases long-term changes result, usually concern it the introduction of new Nebenfiguren. If stories appear daily, they are frequently used, in order to determine in the run of one week a kind action elbow, in the nextWeek is replaced from a new.
Therefore increases practice sat down through that sunday the pages independently of the action elbow had to function, since there was on the one hand a reader trunk exclusively for the Sunday newspapers, which did not know preceding storiesand in addition the Sundays Strips was driven out partially separately.
Also in Germany many authors from Comics in magazines and magazines bring it to book collections.
For examples compares: Category: Comicstrip
to center of the 30's - years appeared allComics as Comicstrip, thereafter was only established the selling of Comics in the USA the first time in booklet form. This happened first as Werbegeschenk of companies for its customers, then in the regular trade. These became due to the format Comic Bookscalled and represent to today the usual selling method. They began their triumphant advance owing to the figure The Shadow .
In Europe set themselves beside the Comic booklets in Micky mouse - style, which different stories of persons from rolling Disney - the universe presented, alsothe magazine and the album through. The magazine unites different contributions of different authors and draughtsman, who take over it more frequently than continuations. To differentiate here for instance to young people arranged the Yps is, in that imported rows such as Lucky hatch and Asterix and Obelix beside German contributions to find are and their opening a booklet character possess, from the collections addressed to adults such as heavy metal or U-Comix, whose cover consisted for instance of pasteboard and whose format resembles the DIN-A4.
In the 50'sand 60's-years were very successful the Piccolo - booklets. Mainly the Lehning publishing house brought the small querformatigen Heftchen, at that time straight times 20 Pfg. cost, to the juvenile reader. Title such as Akim and Fulgor, the space driver (both of the draughtsman Augusto Pedrazza), Sigurd, Falk, nod and Tibor (draughtsman: Hansrudi scrubbers), in addition, Tarzan were the absolute racers under the school table.
The album summarizes a history of a Comic row in the DIN-A4-Format in each case, thus z. B. Tim and Struppi or Prince Eisenherz. If it consisted in Germany first of a Softcover, the Hardcover already usual in France became generally accepted last also here.
Meanwhile still successful magazines and booklets in Germany hardly exist. Many Comics appear therefore immediately in Buchformat.
aspects of the Comics
was subject Comics strict playedRegulations concerning structure and extent. They were spread in newspapers and received from these defaults concerning the size of, the number of the pictures and also the duration. Until today it has itself receives that the Comic Strip possesses a being certain length, thoseover a long side to go should. Therefore it covers between three and five pictures, which usually end with a punchline. Besides the Sundays Strip possessed likewise an exact indication it the available of the place, frequently also a uniform definition,which concerned the arrangement and respective size of the panels. These borders were lately again given up, so that the draughtsmen can leave free run within the size of the Strips of their Fantasie. Also here history had at the end of the sidean end find.
A further delimitation concerned the number of sides in Comic booklets. These covered originally for technical reasons 48 sides, since on a sheet four sides were printed. Tim and Struppi about appeared first in continuations and reached oneTotal extent from over 100 sides. For the selling in booklet form Hergé had to reduce its stories to the standard size of 62 sides. Only Hugo Pratt produced its stories into the 70ern around Corto Maltese in each volume to the extent, thatit needed. This trend became generally accepted finally with the ascent of graphics Novel, when the Comic the novel became formally on an equal footing, because to it the same artistic requirement and thus it own an individuality were granted. This trend became generally accepted,Comics are published meanwhile also in book form with several hundred sides, so for example with the expenditure for complete by From bright.
Comics are bound to no category, although determined category within the Comic are far common.In former times Comics were only understood as instrument of the shallow maintenance. For this also the restrictive formal restrictions play a role. No artistic meaning was awarded to a Comic Strip with four or five pictures. In addition the alleged restriction comes on one usuallysuperficial joke. Therefore Comics were understood frequently as pure humor stories, even if the humor of the Peanuts for children were often too melancholich and low intimate. The Sundays Strips however opened adventures (Tarzan), crime films (thick Tracy) and Science Fiction (Flash Gordon).
Withthe occurrence of artists such as Moebius also the borders of the Sundays Strips were finally overcome. Following the term of the author film coined/shaped by the directors of the Nouvelle Vague at that time also the term of the Autorencomic developed, contrary tothe arbeitsteilig developing conventional Mainstreamcomics not as order work, but when expression of a personal artistic and literary handwriting, which pulls itself continuously by the entire work of an author, develops. In the 60's the Comic with draughtsmen became such as Robert Crumbto the expression of the Gegenkultur in the USA. It remained for a long time disputed nevertheless to what extent the Comic for serious topics was suitable - to kind Spiegelman itself in that 1992 with the Pulitzer price distinguished mouse - the history of a survivor to the representationthe Shoah dared. Historical topics like the first world war and those Paris municipality are located in the center of the work brought up for discussion by Jacques Tardi , Marjane Satrapi in Persepolis their childhood in Iran during the Islamic revolution.
one of the largest misunderstandings concerning the Comics is the plate, it for childlike and juvenile men is made. This results already from the early period of the kind, as first Comic Strips around The Yellow Kid or The cat misery Kids turned. It was surveyed that Winsor McCay in Little Nemo of influences of art nouveau finished and the recognized artists Lyonel Feininger The Kin that Kids drew. In addition nearly forty years became long Comicsonly in newspapers drove out - and the adults bought.
Also bark , Hergé, Charles M. drew Carl. Schulz, Morris or Uderzo partially nearly forty years long and reached their readers also still, when this adult were.Comics, which addressed themselves expressly to a grown-up public, developed for end - of the 60's with the Underground Comix.
For a long time one understood such by “adult Comics” with erotischem or pornografischem contents. Only gradually many Comics straight contacted adults asReaders and tried, to reflect whose life experiences. Done in these stories without Sciencefiction - and Fantasy - elements, frequently personal experiences will become connected with social reflections. However there are also Science Fiction Comics with erotischen to pornografischen elements, like e.g. the series Disease grave (lat.: serious illness) around the main figure Druuna of the Italian draughtsman Paolo Eleuteri Serpieri.
lately also female Comiczeichner knew advancement such as Marjane Satrapi with their auto+biographic - she calls it autofiktional- Persepolis of successes celebrate. Satrapi applies beside their likewise in the publishing house L'Association resident artist colleague Joann Sfar among experts as the most important representative of the current Comickultur and disproves through it the common prejudice, female Comicautoren is only insignificant edge features. Also as Comicheldinnenwin women and girls at operational readiness level, as for instance in Alan of moorland row Promethea, in which a pupil transforms into the mythische Kämpferin against the bad.
Last Joe Sacco for its drawn reports invented the term “Comicjournalismus”. ItPalestine and Gorazde describe journeys into theaters of war and obtain thereby a deeper effect in its books, than it could a written text.
Straight Sacco and Satrapi present new points of view of the storyteller and the author. They seize in the modelthe reporter back: also Tim and Micky mouse are reporter, their stories thus reports. While however sometimes Tim is interpreted as age Ego Hergés, the border between the literary and the material I blurs with Sacco and Satrapi.
Beside thaterzählerisch aligned Neuerern of the Comics such as Satrapi and Sacco tries to plumb young Comickünstler like the group of Le Frigo from Brussels with their experimental Comicprojekten the borders between Comic and established art enterprise, created of former students Institut Saint Luc, and toosmear. ComicautorInnen from the surrounding field of Le Frigo participated actively at art Comic Crossoverprojekten like the magazine FEAR FOR!, which was published together up to its attitude by the renowned French art magazine Beaux kind magazines and the Comicverlag Casterman.
long one Comics were made for teachers and other social groups the reproach by literature scientists, them practiced on juvenile readers one rawend influence out, which leads to a superficial, plateful perception of their environment. High point were the efforts in the America that 50's to forbid the EC - horror - to Comics such as stories from the Gruft what led to the introduction of the Comics code, a self censorship of the Comic industry. In certain circles of the literature science the Comic still until recently that becameReproach of language depletion made, what should be proven by the more frequent use by incomplete sentences and colloquial expressions in Comics in relation to the youth literature. It was misunderstood that the text consists one in a Comic almost exclusively of dialogues, and ratherthe cinema and the theatre as the literature comparable function possesses. The criticism of language depletion can become outdated also for the reason and call ahistorisch that the use of handling and Vulgärsprache in the literature for a long time no quality criterionmore represents (see Charles Bukowski).
history of the Comics
- prehistory of the Comics
- history of the American Comics
- history of the European Comics
- Comic outside of Europe and North America
- wants Eisner: Comics & Sequential kind,Poorhouse press, 1985.ISBN 0961472812
- Scott McCloud: Comics read, Carlsen , correctly Hamburg, 2001. ISBN 3551748179
- Scott McCloud: Comics invent again: like imaginative power and technology, Carlsen, Hamburg revolutionize an art form 2001. ISBN 3-551-74793-8
- Michael Hein, Michael Hüners,Torsten Michaelsen (Hg.):Aesthetics of the Comic, Erich Schmidt publishing house, Berlin, 2002. ISBN 3503061320
- Francis Lacassin: Pour un neuvième kind: la gang dessinée, coll. Essai, Folio, Paris, 1971. To ISBN B0000DORBE
- portal: Comic
- Comic - graphic telling strategies
- Gutter (Comic)
- Kunstfestival Comic
- of general of German Comic Preiskatalog
- Comic salon attaining
Web on the left of
|Commons: Comic - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Comic - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- further ones left to the topic „Comics and caricatures “ in the open directory Project
- Lambiek Comiclopedia extensive data base over Comickünstler and - authors (English)
- ICOM - the syndicate Comic e.V - syndicate of draughtsmen, publishing houses and readers
- Comicforum.de, the probably largest German on-line forum about Comic
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