Commonwealth OF nation

this article describes the confederation of states „to Commonwealth OF nation “; other meanings of the word „Commonwealth “under Commonwealth (term clarifying).
Flag of the Commonwealth OF nation

the Commonwealth OF nation (until 1947: British Commonwealth OF nation) is a confederation of states,primarily by the united kingdom and its former colonies one forms.

The designation „Commonwealth “ (English: Public interest) means here a freiwilligen federation of independent, sovereigns States of, the common goals carries out itself or to a political communityor unite to a superordinate state.

Table of contents

history

with the Commonwealth OF nation acts it overa federation of independent states, which can be seen today as successors British of the Empire. Institutionalizing British the Commonwealth OF nation was at the beginning 20. Century a reaction of Great Britain to the autonomy efforts of its Dominions (Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand) and should bind these thereby to the Empire. In the Commonwealth there was no determined statutes and no condition. Irregularly taking place imperially Conferences characterized the relations between the motherland and the Dominions. The Balfour definition of 1926 and that Statute of Westminster 1931 regulated the autonomy of the Dominions. Purely constitutionally seen existed the only connection between Great Britain and the Dominions in the loyalty to the crown.

With the pickling rides of India (1947), Pakistan (1947) and Ceylon (1947) developedthe modern Commonwealth (new Commonwealth). 1957 joined the Commonwealth for the first time with the former British colony gold coast/Ghana an African country. It became finally a “catchment basin” for the former British colonies, whereby it since proclaimingthe republic in India it is no longer compelling that a member state recognizes the British king also as its own head of state. Within few years the number of members doubled itself. If the organization still consisted 1955 of eight members, then were it already 1964 twenty. Due to this extension 1965 the “Commonwealth Secretariat” were created. From the Commonwealth OF nation became in the course of this development the multi-ethnical and multi-cultural organization, which represents it today. Since the entry of Mozambique for the first time also is inCountry represent, which never belonged to the British realm, but a Portuguese colony was.

Commonwealth today

the Commonwealth OF nation covers at present 53 member states, from those 16 (the so-called Commonwealth Realms) the British monarch as itHead of state recognize. In order to stress the own sovereignty, becomes however for the 1970er years z. B. in Canada, Australia and New Zealand with reference to the own head of state no more of the British queen, but officially of the Queen OFCanada, Queen OF Australia, Queen OF new Zealand spoken.

Today 30% of the population of world (1.7 billion live Humans) in member states of the Commonwealths: India is the most densely populated member also over a billion humans. Also Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nigeria have in each case onePopulation of more than 100 million humans. In addition, states like for example the island chain Tuvalu, on which only about 11,000 humans live, belong to the federation.

In practice it looks in such a way that the states, if itto a republic, formally from the federation will withdraw. Subsequently, they place simply a request for resumption, to which automatically one grants. The Republic of Ireland did not apply after the withdrawal for the resumption. Until today is the entry of Ireland toCommonwealth a topic in the Irish policy.

The Commonwealth Office in London is the center of the confederation of states. Similarly as at the UN in New York each member country sends a representative there, so that a constant information exchange can take place. Additionally meetitself the state and heads of the government of the Commonwealth countries twice annually to an one-week summit. Here important political and economic questions as well as the world situation are discussed. Also sanctions against individual states, like 2002 against Simbabwe, are last decided here. The summiteach year in another member country takes place and becomes traditionally current by the British monarch, queen Elizabeth II., when head of the Commonwealths opens.

members

member states of the Commonwealth OF nation, the earlier British Commonwealth.

53 statesat present members are in the Commonwealth OF nation (the years show the entry year)

under it: Commonwealth Realms

see also: Commonwealth Realm

former members

see also

literature

  • Darwin, John: A Third British Empire? The Dominion Ideain imperially Politics, in: The Oxford History OF the British Empire. Volume IV: The Twentieth Century, hrsg. of Judit M. Brown and Wm. Roger. Oxford 1999, S. To 64-87
  • resound, Hessel D. and Menzies, Robert: Commonwealth. A history OF theBritish Commonwealth OF nation. London and others 1971
  • Hamilton, W.B. among other things (Hrsg.): A Decade OF the Commonwealth 1955-1964. Durham/N.C. 1966
  • Judd, Denis and Slinn, Peter: The evolution OF the decaying Commonwealth 1902-80. London 1982
  • Mansergh, Nicolas: The British Commonwealth. Emergence -History - structure. Zurich 1969
  • May, Alex (Hrsg.): Britain, the Commonwealth and Europe. The Commonwealth and Britain's applications tons join the European Communities. Basingstoke among other things 2001
  • Wheare, K.C.: The Constitutional Structure OF the Commonwealth. Oxford 1960

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