Concorde

the Aérospatiale BAC Concorde 101/102 (of lat. concordia, unity, agreement) was of the French and British aircraft industry on basis of an intergovernmental agreement of 29. November 1962 together developed supersound - airliner, that maximally Mach 2.04 (2330 km/h)reached. A Parallelentwicklung is Soviet Tupolev Tu-144.

The Concorde was placed after 15-jähriger development time 1976 into the airline service, up to the misfortune 2000 never came it into their 27-jährigen service to larger accidents or problems. It was considered as „a queenair “. The cell became from Aérospatiale (today EADS) and that British aircraft corporation (today BAE of system) develops and built, the engine Olympus 593 of Rolls-Royce (Bristol Siddley) and SNECMA. The flying time over the Atlantic amounted tofor about 3 to 3.5 hours, the flight altitude was appropriate with 15 kilometers after the start and rose thereafter gradually to 18 km.

Starting Concorde
detail opinion Concorde

table of contents

history

the Concorde in the sixties and woke large interest was developed with the airlines of this time. 1967 ordered also German Lufthansa three machines. Not least because of a substantial number of orders of allthe development of the Concorde of the two States of involved Great Britain and France was released to considerable airlines.

Important dates of the Concorde:

2. March 1969 first flight of the prototype 001 (in Toulouse)
1. October 1969 Mach 1 for the first time exceeded
4. November 1970 Mach 2 is reached and 53 minutes is long held
21. January 1976 contemporaneous two Concordes start to the first commercial flights (*)

(*) Paris - Dakar - Rio de Janeiro and London - Bahrain

against all expectations and considerablyby the oil crisis of the early 70's caused supersonic aircraft proved for commercial aviation due to the exorbitantly high operating cost as uninteresting. All orders were cancelled, only air France and British Airways had to remove the Concorde. There one obtained uplast excluding flown routes Paris/London - New York before the disaster in July 2000 even clear profits in this luxury segment. End of the 70's - the Concorde flew years to co-operation with British Airways also on the distances of two furtherAirlines, i.e. Singapore airlines and Braniff international. A machine carried even on its port side painting of Singapore airlines. 1979 were adjusted the building of the Concorde after 2 prototypes, 2 pilot lot models and 16 production aircrafts.

At the beginning of its assignment flewthe Concorde also after Rio de Janeiro or Singapore, finally remained however only the line enterprise between Paris and/or. London and New York remaining: On the one hand the range of the Concorde with approximately 6000 kilometers for longer non-stop flights is too small,on the other hand the machine on many airports did not get a landing permission, because it was too loud (contrary to airplanes with turbofan - engines). In the charter operation the Concorde (usually for prestige reasons) approached also different airports.

the Concorde inGermany

to 22. April 1972 landed for the first time a Concorde on German soil. On the occasion of international air and space driving rope position on the airport Hanover presented those British to aircraft corporation the public the British prototypes. To 22. and 23. April was the Concordeto see there both at the soil and with several presentation flights in air.

Into the early 1980ern British Airways, followed from air France began to offer regularly charter flights from Germany. Starting point were at the beginning of the airports Hanover and Cologne/Bonn,later also Berlin Tegel, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Munich and Münster/Osnabrück. Additionally it gave special flights regular into the late 1990er to large meetings like the Hanover Fair.

The first landing of a Concorde in the GDR found 1986 on that Airport Leipzig/resounds on the occasion of the Leipziger fair instead of. To 18. March landed for the first time a Concorde of the air France, two days later also one British Airways. As usual is the case for intra-European presentation flights of the Concorde, the machines flew a detour over north andBaltic Sea, in order to make for the passengers possible a supersonic flight, since breaking through of the sound barrier over the mainland was not permitted. The attendance of the Concorde had with priority diplomatic reasons, whereby both the prestige of the GDR and that the Concorde a roleplayed. The Concorde became in the following years a regular guest of the Leipziger fair.

At the 1. May 1998 was the Concorde on the occasion of 35. To admire anniversary of the signing of the Elysée contracts on Stuttgart airport. The last flight movement on GermanSoil was the landing on the bathing air haven on the occasion of the transfer into the technique museum Sinsheim, where the airplane can be visited now.

end of the Concorde

British Airways Concorde
Queen's golden Jubilee: Overflight/flyover of the Buckingham Palace
Heckansicht einer startenden Concorde mit British-Airways-typischer Heckflügellackierung
tail opinion of a starting Concordewith British Airways typical tail wing lacquer finish

the end of the Concorde approached with the crash of 25. July 2000: When starting in Paris Charles de Gaulle a tire of a air France Concorde by a metal part lying on the runway one zerfetzt, that by the engine of onea short while before started DC-10 Continental Airlines had dropped.

High-hurled rubber parts of the exploding chassis tires split an energized cable of the left main landing gear, before they impacted with large force on the lower surface of the left bearing area and partially pierced these and therebyfurther lines damaged. The pressure surges caused further leakages resulted from the impact in the tank. The running out fuel caught fire from the mentioned cable and from directly the jet engine current beside it and set the fuel of the left bearing area in fire. ThatStart could not be broken off at this time no more, the machine was already too fast for an emergency braking. The pilot alarmed by Tower and instruments had the attempt of a forced landing as only possibility.

One minute after the start fell approximatelythe machine on a hotel in Gonesse with Paris. All 109 humans on board and four inhabitants of the hotel died (see also: Disasters of aviation).

The machine was due to the damage to bearing areas, control surfaces andEngines no more been in air not to hold. One with the start tried forced landing had become impossible, the result deadly. Determinations resulted in that a similar damage to another airliner would have likewise led to the same catastrophic exit. The determinationsconcerning the causal debt assignment persist.

Rumor-half the tire damage should be due also to an overheating, which resulted from a trace deviation of the wheels in the left chassis. With previous maintenance of the chassis a construction unit (more spacer) is, that the wheelsin the same distance to hold should have been forgotten.

Air France placed thereupon the flying operation of the Concorde in, the British supervision of flight extracted the Concorde the certificate of flight fitness, which attained her only after numerous modifications again. In particular the British developed a reinforcement thatTank consisting of inserted mats, of kevlar, while the French manufacturer Michelin sketched a sturdier tire, which was to be used now also with the airbus A380. By the changes, which are to have cost approximately 100 million euro, those becameConcorde more heavily, which let its economic application become more improbable.

To 7. November 2001 became the line enterprise between Paris and/or. London and New York again taken up. Due to being missing passengers and new safety lack France and British Airways explained air however to 10. April 2003 the fact that the line flying operation with the Concorde in the course of the yearly 2003 is stopped whereby is also not to be neglected that the spare part manufacturer EADS wanted to adapt the prices for the spare parts to the actual costs. The last flightto a air France Concorde found to 24. June 2003 instead of, British Airways terminated the Concorde flights to 24. October 2003. The all-last Concorde flight, with the machine of the identification G-BOAF, found to 26. November 2003 under the direction of chief pilot Mike Bannister instead of: of London Heathrow in the museum after falling clay/tone.

records

of 15. to 17. August 1995 succeeded to a Concorde with 31 hours, 27 minutes and 49 seconds the fastest flight around the world. Here the entire time, those was measuredfrom the start in Paris up to the landing on the departure terminal had passed, including all intermediate stops. To 7. February 1996 put a Concorde back British Airways the distance New York - London in 2 hours, 52 minutes and 59 seconds.This is to today record for fastest Atlantic crossing in civilian aviation history. At the 11. Two British Airways and a air France Concorde flew August 1999 during the total solar eclipse with double speed of sound with the moon shade over the North Atlantic. So those could approximately300 passengers a 3 to 4 times longer total solar eclipse see than the viewers at the soil. A similar enterprise before already gave it during a solar eclipse 1973. Also flights were offered for the turn of the year, with which one two times New Year's Eveto celebrate could. Once in Paris and few hours later again in New York. Phil Collins could arise with the help of the Concorde with the original live Aid on both sides the Atlantic.

meaning for aviation

the development of the Concordeexclusively by high subsidies one made possible. During operation the Concorde flew only partial profits. Apart from the record performances, which were obtained by supersonic flights, above all the progress is, that in the aviation technology by the development of the Concorde and alsothe TU-144 was obtained, so meaning that to today all airplane manufacturers of it profit.

In memory remains above all a peaceful supersonic development, which of different countries in unit (see. „Concorde was advanced “) and brought to the conclusion. The optical impression one technicallysuperior, peaceful „white swan “may have contributed to it.

Also in the industrial-economical sector the Concorde project was away-preparing for co-operation for instance in the airbus - range.

technology of the Concorde

the Concorde had compared with other airliners due to their highTo exhibit speed and the construction exerted by it some characteristics.

structure and control systems

the Concorde maintained an essentially white lacquer finish, since other related colors as for example grey too fast would heat up. The Concorde is to a large extent from an aluminum alloy designs and in the smaller part from a heatproof nickel alloy as well as high-grade steel and titanium within critical ranges. The bearing areas consist of a torsion box, in which many cross-beams are, during the trunk in oneconventional semi-monocoque structure is implemented. The Concorde, one of it possesses two hydraulic systems is responsible for the air conditioning system and the pressure systems.

Since the Concorde has no horizontal stabilizer, the control surfaces are exclusive at the outline edges of the bearing areas. The conventional rudder becameby combined height and aileron (elevon) supports. These can be used in the parallel operation for altitude control. In the differential enterprise those of elevon steer the roll attitude of the machine; these affect themselves like the usual ailerons. The combined height and aileronscan be used at the same time for movements around the crosswise and around the longitudinal axis. The entire system is several times secured for the potential loss.

equipment and travel comfort

Innenraum der Concorde
interior of the Concorde

up to 144 passengers can take up the Concorde.The seats can be arranged differently in Viererreihen. The cab is equipped with toilets and two kitchens. Under the front and rear cabin floor there are reservoirs for luggage. The passenger cab doors are on the port side, the supplying cab doors on that Starboard side. British Airways operated the Concorde with a 40-sitzigen front cab and a 50-sitzigen Hinterkabine, which was cared for by a sechsköpfigen crew. There was only one class, and the tickets were about 20% more expensively than tickets for firstClass in subsonic aircraft. For the naturally closer space conditions stood consents armchair with grey leather pad, an excellent kitchen, erlesenes porcelain and opposite Champagner.

flight path and flight altitude

on the flight from London to New York flew the Concorde up toa height of 8.400 m with subsonic speed, before it switched on south of Bristol the afterburners and continued to rise, in order to accelerate to supersonic speed, which was reached for instance over the island Lundy. So the acoustic waves and the sonic boom of the soil could are kept away. The Concorde accelerated far on Mach 1.7, switched the afterburner off and reached on a height of 15,000 meters Mach 2. During the cruising it rose gently further up to approximately 17,700 meters, those briefly before beginning of theDescending flight for landing were reached. Conventional radiate-driven airplanes fly in the comparison for this on a flight altitude of approximately 12,000 to maximally 13,500 meters.

cockpit and visor

the point of the Concorde form a hydraulically lowerable nose with hinged transparent Visor. At speeds of over 460 km/h the nose and the shield for reasons of the aerodynamics were completely pulled up. In this position the pilot had a reduced view during the regular flight forward. At heights under 3,000 metersat a speed of approximately 460 km/h the nose was counterbored around 5°, which ensured a good view forward. During the approach flight the nose was lowered on 12° and made for the pilot possible with driven out chassis an optimal view. The positionthe pilot of the Concorde 11.4 m before the nose gear wheel lies, so that when giving in on the runway the cockpit projects the far over adjacent lawn. Pilot and copilot fly next to each other in the cockpit, during the flight engineer on a rotation UHL behind thatCopilots sits.

technical data

  • of engines: four Rolls-Royce/SNECMA-Olympus-593-Mk-610 turbojet - engines with afterburner thrust reversing chassis installed by in each case 19,312 kp 4*189,39 kN = 757.56 kN
  • and: Main landing gear of Messier Hispano with dual wheels as well as Dunlop - carbon disc brakes with SNECMA SPAD anti-skid system - units
  • Cruising speed: 2,179 km/h
  • flight altitude: up to 18.000 m
  • range with maximum loading: 6667 km
  • empty weight: 78,900 kg
  • maximum takeoff weight: 185,000 kg
  • maximum landing load: 111,130 kg
  • of span: 25.50 m
  • length: 62.10 m
  • of seats (British Airways): 100
  • tank volumes:119,500 litres
  • fuel consumption: 25,680 Liter/h
  • take-off distance: 3600 m
  • landing distance: 2200 m

the whereabouts of the Concordes

air France

Number characteristic place country
001 F-WTSS (prototype) Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace Le Bourget France
101 (02) F-WTSA (pilot lot) airport Paris Orly France
201 F-WTSB Aerospatiale Headquarters Toulouse France
203 F-BTSC (F-WTSC) crash with Gonesse, Paris Le Bourget France
205 F-BVFA Smithsonian air and space museum Dulles air haven Washington DC the USA
207 F-BVFB auto and technique museum Sinsheim Germany
209 F-BVFC airbus Headquarters Toulouse France
211 F-BVFD 1994 divided, Paris Le-Bourget France
213 F-BTSD (F-WJAM) Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace Le Bourget France
215 F-BVFF (F-WJAN) airport Charles de Gaulle of Paris France

British Airways

Number characteristic Place country
001 G-BSST (prototype) Royal Naval air station Yeovilton England
101 (01) G-AXDN (pilot lot) imperial was museum Duxford England
202 G-BBDG Brookland museum England
204 G-BOAC Manchester air haven England
206 G-BOAA museum OF Flight Edinburgh Scotland
208 G-BOAB airport London Heathrow England
210 G-BOAD USS Intrepid air and space museum, New York the USA
212 G-BOAE airport Grantley Adam Barbados
214 G-BOAG (G-BFKW) museum OF Flight Seattle the USA
216 G-BOAF (G-BFKX) British Aerospace Headquarters falling clay/tone England

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Concorde - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)