Fertilizer

fertilization in the Mostviertel

fertilizer or fertilizer is a comprehensive term for materials and material mixtures, which serve to obtain higher yields or faster growth with cultivated plants. A basic principle of the fertilization follows the liebigschen minimum law.

Most important components of a fertilizer are usually the main feeding elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (C), since a lack of these nutrients limits plant growth many soils. These fertilizer components are separated or offered in mixtures, which should become as fair as possible the requirements of the respective cultivated plants.Fertilizers, which nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contain, are called NPK fertilizers. In second line fertilizers contain also sulfur, calcium and magnesium. Finally plants need also trace elements, which can occur in fertilizers.

Simplified one can say that nitrogenthe production of sheet mass serves, phosphorus serves the bloom and fruit formation, potassium strengthens the wood formation and plant statics, magnesium promotes the nutrient admission.

The occasionally circulating expression artificial fertilizer is frequently wrongly used. Linguistically it refers organic to synthetically manufactured fertilizers, like mineral.However sometimes the term is used as synonym only for mineral fertilizers, synthesized in which wrong acceptance, only mineral fertilizers.

Table of contents

One

fertilizer at the kind differentiates between kinds of fertilizer, how the fertilizing material is bound:

mineral fertilizers

in the inorganic fertilizer or mineral fertilizer are present the fertilizing elements in the form of salts. Inorganic fertilizers are synthesized usually, speak chemically manufactured,or more rarely in the mining industry won. They made a large productivity progress possible in the agriculture and were today frequently used very. The synthetic fertilizers are problematic considering the enormous energy expenditure with the production. Mineral Phosphatdüngung leads besides to an enrichmentthe poisonous and radioactive heavy metal uranium in the soil and thus in the food chain, since phosphate and uranium are chemically closely together bound. Besides it comes to an enrichment of the likewise poisonous heavy metal cadmium, that over the plants into thosehuman food chain arrives. There are today procedures to remove cadmium from phosphate ores however this from cost reasons and lack of legal defaults are only isolated used.

The use of mineral fertilizers can in granulates or powder form, frequently as phosphate or sulfate orin liquid form take place. Even an admission over the sheets is limited possible.

Inventor of the mineral fertilizers and/or. Artificial fertilizer is Justus of Liebig.

The fertilization with gaseous carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an important application in the Unterglasgartenbau. Reason is thatby photo-synthetic consumption developing CO 2 - lack with insufficient supply at fresh air, particularly in the winter when closed ventilation, because plants need CO 2 as basic substance. The carbon dioxide becomes either direct as pure gas (relatively expensive) or as Verbrennungsproduktfrom propane or natural gas brought in (coupling of fertilization and heating). The possible yield increase depends on how strong the lack of CO is 2 and how strong the light offer for the plants is.

organic fertilizers

with that organic fertilizers are or were bound the fertilizing elements at carbon. In addition, organic fertilizers are normally animal or vegetable origin, can be synthesized (z. B. Urea). They unfold their effect more on a long-term basis and are less fast washed than mineral.A characteristic number for the effect speed is the C/N - quotient, the relationship from carbon to nitrogen. The larger the characteristic number is, the more slowly works the fertilizer.

Organic fertilizers are usually waste materials from the agriculture, which can be reused; this can to closed cycles lead.

Examples of organic fertilizers:

of advantages of fertilizing

by fertilization the agricultural yields necessary for the nutrition of the Menschens are increased clearly. By thoseFertilization the Bodelebewesen and micro organisms are fed, which are the mineral materials in the soil make plant available.

the danger exists

dangers of the over fertilizing in the case of to strong yield of fertilizers that the soil over-fertilizes (Eutrophierung) and therebythe Bodenfauna is unfavorably changed, which goes again debited to the yields and the quality of the harvest.

Besides the fertilizer components not taken up by the plants are out-washed into the groundwater and can endanger its quality thereby. Besides the feed-salt-rich leadsWater, if it arrives in surface waters, to an offer in excess at mineral materials, which can lead oxygen deficiency in the depth water to alga blooms and so caused by lakes.

This problem exists particularly in areas of intensive agricultural use with high cattle trimming (e.g. in the cathedral countryand in southwest Lower Saxony) and the water supply places there before substantial problems. Purpose of the yield of liquid manure and muck is the increase of the yield here less, than a disposal of the mast enterprises.

If the cultures are too strongly fertilized, the yields can sink,it applies to fertilize thus the plants optimally. The farmers can let their soil examine, and on the basis the soil sample analysis the fertilization standard correct.

fertilization influence on the soil

of influences on chemical and physical soil characteristics

a rowfrom fertilizers (in particular N-fertilizers) contribute to the soil acidification . This can lead without compensation measure to an impairment of structure conditions in the soil. By well-planned fertilization measures can be worked against however to dropping the soil reaction, so that unfavorable effects to nutrient dynamics, soil organism and soil structureto fear are not.

influence on soil organism

the sinking of the pH value and a superelevated salt concentration can impair the soil life. In addition the activity of N-binding bacteria decreases/goes back with rising N-fertilization. Altogether a sufficient soil supply of organic promotes andmineral fertilizers the quantity and variety of the soil organisms. These affect crucially the soil fertility. With normal mineral fertilization the earthworm density remains to a large extent stable. The earthworm trimming is promoted by economiceconomics fertilizers.

enrichment with heavy metals

over the enrichment of the soilwith heavy metals by mineral fertilization there are frequently wrong conceptions. Of in the agriculture and in the horticulture used mineral fertilizers some Phosphatdünger contain a small natural cadmium content. The cadmium load of the soil by Phosphatdünger is however with usual fertilization like thatsmall that the enrichment is analytically hardly provable after 100-jähriger mineral fertilization. To an unwanted enrichment with heavy metals fertilization of many years and intensive with secondary raw materials can (e.g.Sewage sludge) lead. For this reason must during sewage sludge yield on agricultural surfaces both the sewage sludgeand the soil to be examined. The influences of the fertilization on the chemical and physical soil characteristics are correctable by certain field and plant-structural measures. In the comparison to it an enrichment with heavy metals is unchangeably, there heavy metals to be hardly washed and thatWithdrawal by the plants is only small. The soil fertility is damaged by too high heavy metal contents in the soil on a long-term basis.

fertilization influence on the water

a degradation of the water quality by fertilization can take place during

  • nitrate enrichment of the groundwater via N-washing,
  • nutrient enrichment,in particular phosphate enrichment, in surface waters e.g. by Abschwemmung of soil, with the consequence of a Eutrophierung Gewässers.Also the nutrients in the soil rise.

nitrate pollution of the groundwater

nitrate (NO 3 -) is unwanted in the drinking water, because it undercertain circumstances into health precarious nitrite one converts. It can with secondary amines (ammonia cousin), which in the food occurs or with digesting develops, rivet pink mine to form. From these rank some among the krebserregenden materials. Around the health risks to a large extentto exclude, the nitrate contents are to be as low as possible in the drinking water. The limit value for the nitrate content in the drinking water was determined 1991 with the EEC guideline 91/676/EWG at 50mg NO 3 - /Liter. This limit value can with inappropriate fertilization, in particular on light, permeable soilsare exceeded. Groundwater contains by nature mostly less than 10mg NO 3 - /Liter. As a cause for in the post-war period partially. nitrate contents risen strongly are among other things to call:

  • Closer settlement with increasing waste water quantities from households, trades and industryand lack in the sewerage system.
  • Intensive agricultural use of land; here economiceconomics fertilizers (liquid manure, liquid manure ) are more critical of rating than mineral fertilizers, since they are not used as often purposefully as mineral fertilizers and so that the nitrogen utilisation rate is worse. In additionit comes that regionally by heightening of the animal existence, possibly. also by concentration of animal husbandry, the problem of the nitrate washing one intensified. However is N-washing, to determine with lysimeter plants or deep wells, not automatically a consequence of rising fertilization quantities. The applied fertilization quantities are inthe last years clearly decreased/gone back. The cause is to be looked for rather in the inappropriate use from fertilizers to.

The following measures for the reduction of the nitrate pollution are recommended:

  • N-supply of the soil with the fertilization consider. In the spring can depending upon crop rotation, Soil type, type of soil, organic fertilization and autumn and/or. Winter weather very different quantities of mineralized, i.e. plant-available nitrogen, in the soil available its. They can be seized by the Nmin method and be considered with the determination of the N-Düngebedarfs.
  • N-quantities the nutrient needthe plants adapt. Überdüngung with special cultures, like wine, hop and vegetable, in addition, with fastidious field fruits such as corn, avoid.
  • Fertilization in due time and if necessarily allocation of the fertilization quantity in partial gifts.
  • Purposeful employment of the Wirtschaftsdünger.
  • N-connectionby as all-season a plant vegetation as possible, so that by the Vorfrucht did not use as well as the nitrogen set free by mineralizing is biologically bound. So cultivation of intermediate fruit is with high N-Spätdüngungsgaben for the production of quality wheat or with the cultivation of Körnerleguminosen by plant-structural measures, like crop rotation organization,or straw fertilization, which N-washing are decreased.
  • Paging of fodder impacts of several years with Leguminosen (clover, Luzernegras) not in the autumn, but in the spring make.

Water is a precious and property indispensable for humans. It cannot be replaced. ThoseSupply of the population with high-quality drinking water must be guaranteed in sufficient quantity. Endangerments of the water quality must be avoided so far as possible.

phosphate load of the surface waters

Eutrophierung one designates a waters condition, by high nutrient content and thereby a causedsumptuous occurrence of aquatic plants and algae is characterized. The Eutrophierung is due mostly to high phosphate supply, since phosphate natural-proves in surface waters is hardly present. A strong P-supply increases the growth of algae and aquatic plants. The dismantling of the died alga andPlant mass excessively uses much oxygen of the water. Therefore it can come due to oxygen deficiency to the fishing inheriting. Phosphates arrive to washing of phosphate into

  • the waste water by settlement waste water (
  • detergents), and/or. Abschwemmung of soil and fertilizers.

Since fertilizer phosphate is usually bound in the soil,washing of phosphate on loam and clay soils can be practically neglected. Differently the P-Abschwemmung is to be evaluated:

  • In connection with the soil erosion by water erosion,
  • with inappropriate use of economiceconomics fertilizers.

Here it can fast to substantial supplying onP into waters come. By yield of liquid manure and liquid manure on a Schneedecke of over 5cm thickness (in particular in hängigem area and on frozen soil) can do it with the thaw and/or. with strong precipitation to a upper-laminar Wasserabfluss come.With the Wasserabfluss also the nutrients contained in the liquid manure are abgeschwemmt. Phosphate and further nutrients can arrive in such a way in surface waters.

fertilization influence on air

after the yield more organically (stable muck, liquid manure) and more inorganically (Mineral fertilizers) fertilizers can appear substantial gaseous nitrogen losses as ammonia.

organic fertilizers

the height of the ammonia losses is from the kind and composition of the organic fertilizer, its treatment, like e.g. Training into the soil, and of thatWeather with the yield dependently. The following sequence with the height of the ammonia losses results regarding

  • the kind of the Wirtschaftsdünger: Low stable muck< Gang muck< Normal liquid manure (pig liquid manure< Cattle liquid manure)< Fermentation gas liquid manure and/or. Fresh muck;
  • the TS (Trockensubstanz) content: water-rich liquid manure< Liquid manurewith high TS-content.

as a function of the TS-content of the liquid manure, the time of training, the animal species and the weather is with losses of approx. to count 1% (with liquid manure injection) and almost 100% (gleaning gift without training) of the ammonium ticking material existing in the liquid manure.Apart from the kind of the storage and yield the time of training has large influence on the height of the losses. Immediate training reduces the ammonia losses completely substantially.

mineral fertilizers

the ammonia losses of nitrogenous mineral fertilizers rise as follows: Kalkammonsalpeter< Compound fertilizer< Diammonphosphat< Urea< Lime ticking off< Ammonium sulphate.

At the entire ammonia nitrogen losses of the agriculture the portion of the mineral fertilizers is small.

mineral nutrients and its employment

nutrient admission of the plants

with the mineral material admissionfrom the soil is to be differentiated between the nutrition by summer and kinds of winter as well as from plants of several years to:

  • With kinds of summer (e.g. Potatoes) the need at nutrients according to accumulating rises depending upon the length of the growth period fast up to onecertain point before the ripe one on and drops then or stops completely.
  • With kinds of winter (e.g. Winter grain or - raps) interrupts the winter growth peace (frost) the nutrient admission.
  • Plants of several years with persistent underground organs, e.g. Grasses, kinds of clover, hop and wine,store in the roots nutrients and accelerate with these reserve materials the development in the following spring.

nutrient admission from the soil solution

the plant takes up the feeding salts with the roots from an aqueous solution. They lie in the soil solutionas electrically charged mineral particles (ions) forwards. Additionally the plant nutrients iron, manganese, copper and zinc with organic materials water-soluble Chelatverbindungen, with difficulty available in the soil , can be entered and be taken up in this form by the plants. Of thatthe plant covers its need of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen for 16 indispensable feeding elements with priority as carbon dioxide from air and water from the soil. Become in special cases in addition, (for example out with inorganic pollutants loaded soils) for humansand animal poisonous heavy metal ions into the plants stored (e.g. Cadmium content in mushrooms). A plant nutrient is taken up strengthened by the roots and enriched in the plant organs beyond the need (luxury consumption), if it by strong mineralizing (e.g. Nitrogen release in humosen soils)or on one side high fertilizer gifts in larger quantities is contained in the soil solution. The quantitative nutrient admission of the plant depends on the achievement of the root respiration. Easily warm upable soils offer the best conditions with favorable air water regime in the Krumenbereich for the nutrient admission.

nutrient admission via the sheet

the mineral nutrient admission effected particularly by the root. But also the sheets can take up water and the materials loosened in it by small pores. Theoretically one could nourish the plant completely by the sheets. InThe purposeful nutrient supply (squirting or spraying procedure) in certain growth sections with diluted fertilizer salt solutions wins integrated crop farming as sheet fertilization increasing meaning. By the sheet fertilization becomes quantitatively smaller with suitable yield devices, but highly effective nutrient lining on the green plant parts applied. Since years works satisfactorilyitself in the practical cultivation with priority the supplementing supply of nitrogen, magnesium and trace nutrients by the sheet. The advantage of this procedure of a purposeful nutrient supply exists in the high utilisation rate, the disadvantage in only limits possible nutrient quantity with a gift. Overdevelopment restraining sheet burns to avoid, are to be considered during the sheet fertilization the correct concentration of the solution and a consideration on sensitive growth periods of the plant existence. Sheet fertilization comes today with priority, if a short term nutrient satisfaction of requirements is necessary in a certain growth stage, from thatSoil subsequent delivery so easily to satisfy is not (N-Spätdüngung with wheat, P-supply to corn or recovery of suddenly arising nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. by boron - splashing against heart and dry rot with sugar beets). (see also the section exchange of material over the surface inArticle sheet)

fertilizer consumption

world-wide consumption of fertilizers amounted to 1999 141.4 millions Tons (source: FAO). The largest consumers are (in millions Tons):

these numbers is in as much relevant as thoseProduction of nitrogen fertilizer is very energy-intensive. They give however no information about pro head and/or. Pro hectare relationship.

the largest fertilizer producers

the most important manufacturing country of nitrogenous fertilizers China is followed, of India and the USA. In Europe are the fourmost important producers Poland, the Netherlands, Germany and France.

Die wichtigsten Produzenten von Düngemitteln
The largest fertilizer producers world-wide (2002)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
rank country production
(in millions t)
Country struggled production
(in millions t)
1 China 23,6 9 Egypt 1,5
2 India 10,6 10 Saudi Arabia 1,3
The 3 USA 9,4 11 Poland 1,2
4 Russian Föd. 6,0 12 Bangladesh 1,1
5 Canada 3,8 The 13 Netherlands 1,1
6 Indonesia 2,9 14 Germany 1,0
7 Ukraine 2,3 15 France 1,0
8 Pakistan 2,2


Further tablesto production data one finds here:

history of the fertilizer

since the minoischen time agriculturally used fields were already covered for the increase of the harvest with animal and human Fäkalien. In 19. Century began one also ash, lime and To use Mergel as fertilizers. Around 1840 could chemist Justus von Liebig the growth-promoting effect of nitrogen, phosphates and potassium prove. One kept to nitrogen particularly by the employment from Guano, a substance, from thatExkrementen of sea-birds formed. Since the Guanovorräte was however limited and had from South America to be introduced to a large extent, one reflected upon a method to produce nitrogen synthetically. Between 1905 and 1908 the chemist Fritz Haber developed catalytic ammonia - synthesis. ThatIt succeeded to Industriellen Carl Bosch thereupon to find a procedure which made the massive production of ammonia possible. The Haber-Bosch-process formed the bases of the production of synthetic fertilizer, for the so-called “artificial fertilizer” (to the problem of the term S. o.). Since the Second World Warthe industry brought then ever more effective and more purposefully applicable chemical fertilizers at the market. In the last quarter 20. Century came the synthetic fertilizer however increasingly into the criticism, there its excessive use for different ecological damage like the fatiguethe soil, oxygen deficiency and fishing inheriting one made responsible.

Web on the left of

see also

alga juice | Gründüngung | Guano | Haber-Bosch-process | Humus | Agriculture | Urgesteinsmehl

 

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