The DEFA should help according to the request of its founders “to restore in Germany the democracy to release the German heads from fascism to and also toosocialist citizen educates ". As a result of the “Entnazifizierung “in the SBZ and the GDR should also the film industry and the culture life from “reactionary elements and from undemocratic anti-human National Socialist ideology and their Protagonisten be released ".
The main topic and example of the SED and the DEFA filmswas anti-fascism, therefore many anti-fascist and anti-war films standing in the tradition of the working class and the LV ideology exposing films were turned.
Example of many films was also socialist realism. Ways of thinking and glorification of Nihilismus, Dekadenz, formalism, Spiessertum and civil behaviors should inFilm-create to be criticized and avoided and by socialist ideals replaced. Therefore many films were produced, which reflected socialist, human and communist values as well as the love for the GDR.
Table of contents
immediately after the end of the Second World War begins Soviet crew power the propaganda means film again operationally toomake. Thus gives to 28. May 1945, three weeks after the signing of the surrender by the German armed forces, the Soviet commander of city of Berlin colonel general Nikolai Erastowitsch Bersarin permission for the opening of theatres and light play places in Berlin. The Soviet film rental business Sojusintorgkino (soot. Союзинторгкино) assignsto 6. June 1945 the order, the film Ivan Grosny (soot. ИванГрозный, dt. To synchronize Iwan the terrible one) from Sergej iron stone; the German text version and direction take over Wolfgang Staudte. The Afifa (corporation for film production) in Berlin Köpenick places to 14. June 1945 underSoviet line 1000 color copies of the original negative of the Soviet fairy tale film the stone flower ago. Sojusintorgkino takes over to 4. July 1945 all cinemas belonging to the earlier Ufa - possession and makes their restarting operation possible.
In addition, the Germans would like to turn again films. Thus takes to 25. August 1945 the central administration for national education under her president Paul Wandel as an advisory body of the SMAD the work up. Department manager for art and literature (and film) becomes harsh ore people man. To him the cameraman Werner Krien, the Filmszenenbildner Carl Haacker and Willy Schiller announce themselves,der Chemiker und FilmtechnikerKurt Maetzig, der Schauspieler und Produktionsleiter Adolf Fischer, der Kaufmann, Elektrotechniker und Beleuchter Alfred Lindemann und der Schauspieler Hans Klering, um bei dem Aufbau einer neuen Filmproduktion mitzuarbeiten, und bilden ein Filmaktiv.
Around full influence on thoseProduction from films to to have, seizes the boss of the SMAD to 30. October 1945 with instruction No. 124 all the German Reich in the area of the Soviet zone of occupation (SBZ) of belonging net assets. The film enterprises become Ufa, Tobis, Tesch and Afifa in particularas under this instruction falling explains. These companies are combined into the Sojusintorgkino in Germany, through of the SMAD used trustees administered and may receive orders of mechanisms, which possess a license of the SMAD only.
To 22. November 1945 finds first in the citizen of Berlin hotel AdlonConsultation of culture functionaries, film-creative and writers over the structure of a new film production in the SBZ instead of. Under the direction of Paul Wandel the members of the film asset meet as well as under other Boleslaw bar log, Hans Deppe, Hans Fallada, Werner high tree, Gerhard Lamprecht, Harsh ore Maisch, Peter Pewas, Wolfgang Staudte, Günther way fount and Friedrich wolf. The former patent and public prosecutor Albert Wilkening takes over on instruction of the Soviet commander of urban district of Berlin Treptow to 28. November 1945 the kommissarische line of the Tobis film art AG. In January 1946 the film active is registered officially after civil right as a society integrated into the central administration for national education and takes its seat in Berlin at the DO hoping place in the former administration rooms of the Ufa, creasing route 38/39. Becomes responsible to leaders and production boss Alfred lime tree man, first deputy and for economics andAdministration Karl Hans's miner, responsible for the Wochenschau will Maetzig, responsibly for technical questions is briefly Willy Schiller, contact man the Soviet crew serving places becomes Hans Klering. The department manager for art and literature (and film) in the central administration for national education harsh ore people man is for thosepolitical and artistic work responsibly. Order of the film asset is it to bring “a German film industry within the range of the SBZ into being.” To 19. February 1946 comes as new Wochenschau the eye-witness for the first time into the cinemas.
To 17. May 1946 becomes in potsdam - Babelsberg those German fall-likes (DEFA) i. Gr. based. The suggestion on the short form DEFA comes from Adolf Fischer, the Logo by Hans Klering is sketched. The director/conductor of the office for information of the SBZ, Colonels Sergei Tulpanow, presents the license for the “production of films of all categories” (not fortheir selling). License carriers are Hans Klering, Alfred lime tree man, Willy Schiller, Karl Hans's miner and briefly Maetzig. Present also the Soviet culture officer is Alexander Dymschiz.
To 13. August 1946 takes place the entry the German film GmbH in the trade register in Berlin center with seat in Berlin SW68, creasing route 38/39. Partners are Alfred lime tree man, Karl Hans's miner and harsh ore people man, the capital stock amount to 20.000 realm Marks (RM). Alfreds lime tree man and Karl Hans's miner will appoint as a managing director, Hans Klering as the attorney. The German film GmbH shifts to 14. June 1947their legal seat from Berlin to potsdam. The four Filmateliers of the Tobis Filmkunst GmbH/Tobis syndicate GmbH in Berlin Johannisthal form however further the production basis of the DEFA.
Soviet crew power expanded 1947 their influence. The instruction No. 174 the SMAD of 23. October obligates the breaking citizensFederal state government for delivery of the former Ufa area into Potsdam-Babelsberg “for satisfaction of the claims for reparations of the USSR from German possession”. The DEFA is not available the area thereby any longer. Control of the Filmgelände exercises the Soviet technical office for Kinematografie, a mechanism at the advice thatPeople's commissars of the USSR. Also the Soviet corporation Linsa, to whose jurisdiction all film enterprises belonged in the areas occupied by the Soviet Union, including rental business, Kopierwerke and play places, takes its seat in Potsdam-Babelsberg. Linsa is subordinate to the line of the Soviet corporations (SAY) in Berlin white lake.
The German film GmbH becomes at the 11. November 1947 converted into a Soviet-German corporation, whereby the trade mark remains DEFA. The capital stock of the GmbH is taken over by the SED party enterprise VOB Zentrag and of 20.000 to 10.000.000 RM increased and belonged to 45% of the Germans andto 55% of the Soviet side. The executive committee of the common society becomes from the former partners the German film GmbH, the German harsh ore people man, Alfred lime tree man and Karl Hans's miner and by the Soviet side from Alexander cloud stone, the general manager von Sojusintorgkino and Sovexportand the film director Ilja trusting mountain in an educated manner. The supervisory board consisting of nine members is occupied according to the relationship of the stock shares. On the same day the SED secures itself comprehensive influence on the East German film production: At the central secretariat of the SED a film commission (DEFA commission) is educated. Their belongunder other Anton field man, Otto Meier, Erich Gniffke, Paul Wandel and Gustav von Wangenheim on. Had to be submitted to the DEFA commission the production planning of the DEFA, and raw cut and final version of all films for permission. In the special agreement to the articles of association it was fixed that “the personnel policythe DEFA (...) in agreement with the responsible department at the central executive committee of the SED " becomes accomplished. The shareholders of the DEFA had themselves to obligate to only exercise and adhere “in the context of the partner contract to their instructions” their partner function without opposition “irrevocablly” as trustees of the SED. EverythingQuestions of fundamental meaning were along-decided of the SED as Treugeberin.Albert Wilkening becomes as Permanent Representatives a director of the DEFA technical of Alexander cloud stone.
Günter moulds becomes successor of Karl Hans's miner in the DEFA executive committee. Miner works first as a director/conductor of the department for press and information thatDEFA; starting from that 1. It leads December 1948 to 9. July 1947 created German film publishing house, in which the magazines new film world and picture and clay/tone are published. The German film publishing house comes up 1952 in the Henschel publishing house .
To 24. March 1948 points the central secretariatthe SED the DEFA executive committee on to dismiss DEFA general manager Alfred lime tree man because of alleged financial manipulations with immediate effect. Thereupon Alfred lime tree man lays down his function as an acting member of the board of the DEFA. Its function as a production boss takes over Dr. Albert Wilkening. Successor of lime tree man in the DEFA executive committee becomes Rudolf angel, thatso far president of the central administration for resettlers was. Already at the 1. June becomes Rudolf angel vice-president of the central administration for national education and delivers its office as a member of the board of the DEFA; walter Janka , which worked up to then in the central secretariat of the SED, at the same time becomes member of the DEFA executive committee. ThatCentral secretariat of the SED decides to 6. October, the DEFA partners Herbert people man to recall Alfreds lime tree man and Maetzig briefly and deletes the SED functionaries Grete Keilson , Alexander and William Meissner as new shareholders to use.
After the return of the rental business rights for own films to the DEFA through Sovexport becomes at the 1. November of the DEFA Filmverleih based.
The Soviet director Alexander N. Andrijewski takes over at the 1. February 1949 the posts of theto 18. December the 1948 deceased Ilja trusting mountain as directors/conductors of the DEFA executive committee. To 19. April becomes a director at the German theatre Dr. Falk Harnack successor of briefly Maetzig as an artistic director of the DEFA Studios for features, after this had asked for its recall. Alexander deletes becomes to 15. June successor of Günter moulds leader and attorney of the DEFA Filmvertrieb S. At the 1. July becomes Sepp Schwab deputy of the director/conductor of the DEFA executive committee Alexander N. Andrijewski. The operating newspaper “DEFA screen” appears starting from at the 1. October.
1992 are sold the DEFA from the trust establishment. The DEFA Filmrechte and documents however were not denationalized, but the non-profit “DEFA donation “transferred. The DEFA donation co-operates with different partners. PROGRESS film rental business makes the world-wide commercial and not commercial evaluation of the DEFA Filmstocks and assigns licenses for the performance of DEFA films in cinema and television. Icestorm Entertainment is exclusive worth of the DEFA Filmstocks on DVD, video andother carrier media. Federal file copy archives keep the cinematic raw materials and see themselves obligated to the durable preservation of the DEFA Filmstocks.
important DEFA directors
- Carl Balhaus (1905 - 1968)
- franc Beyer (* 1932)
- Jürgen Böttcher (* 1931)
- Heiner Carow (1929 - 1997)
- Lutz Dammbeck (* 1948)
- Slatan Dudow (1903 - 1963)
- Roland count (* 1934)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Groschopp (1906 - 1996)
- Egon Günther (* 1927)
- iris Gusner (* 1941)
- Martin light mountain (1905 - 1999)
- short young Alsen (1915 - 1976)
- Ralf Kirsten (1930 - 1998)
- Gerhard small (1920 - 1970)
- peoples Koepp (* 1944)
- Gottfried Kolditz (1922 - 1982)
- Siegfried bold (* 1935)
- Rolf Losansky (* 1931)
- short Maetzig (* 1911)
- Günter Reisch (* 1927)
- Ingrid Reschke (1936 - 1971)
- refuge sailor (1937 - 2000)
- Rainer Simon (* 1941)
- Wolfgang Staudte (1906 - 1984)
- Erwin Stranka (* 1934)
- franc bird (1929 - 1999)
- Lothar Warneke (1936 -2005)
- short Weiler (* 1921)
- Konrad wolf (1925 - 1982)
- gentleman Mr. Zschoche (* 1934)
selection of films of the DEFA
- the murderers are among us (1946, of Wolfgang Staudte)
- trace of the stones (after Eric Neutschs novel),from the censorship rotation
- (film) forbade
- the Jakobs of the liars (the only GDR film production, which was nominated ever for the OSCAR)
- the adventures Werner gets (2.Weltkiegserfahrungen of a young person)
- I was nineteen
- naked under wolves (KZ - experiences)
- the divided sky (experiences with the division in 2States of)
- the subject (after Heinrich of man novel)
- the rabbit I am
- Berlin, corner of beautiful houses
- solo Sunny
- the witches of Salem
- the advice of the Gods
- the children of Golzow (the longest long-term documentation of the international cinema, 1985 in the Guinness book of the records)
- Effi Briest
- carbide and Sauerampfer
- The Glatzkopfbande (1963)
- my hour of zero (1970)
- Thälmann - son of its class
- Thälmann - leader of its class (over the KPD - chairmen Ernst Thälmann)
- the song of the sailors (over the sailor rebellion 1918 in the German empire)
- the legend of Paul and Paula (1973)
- the war thatMummies (Doku over the dictatorship in Chile)
- the naked man on the sports field
- of brothers and sisters (cinema Doku)
- for Silvesterpunsch
- the reserve hero
- discotheque 77
- seven summer rungs
- of one carry other load
- the For Eyes only (top secret), espionage film
- Anton of the Zauberer
- affair Bluem
- the hatchet ofWandsbeck
- the rabbit I ( forbidden film) am
- your unknown quantity brother
- loving white mouse (comedy)
- the chin hook
- hare heart (child film)
- enterprise playing the violin box (child film)
- think only not, I howl (forbidden film)
- Moritz in the advertising pillar (child film)
- Gritta of to rat-house-with-us (child film)
- the red chapel, anti war file chapel =Transmitter
- two diagonal birds (1989, comedy)
- fairy tale films
- the cold heart
- history of the small grumble (fairy tale film)
- the golden Jurte (fairy tale film)
- Schneewittchen (fairy tale)
- Sechse come by the whole world (fairy tale) 1972
- Jorinde and Joringel (1986)
- of three Haselnüsse for ash-bubble (1973) (CO production DEFA and Barrandov)
- The dress (after the emperor new dresses)
- DEFA Indianerfilme
- DEFA Science Fiction films
- the being silent star (1960, Science Fiction =” utopian film “, after Stanislaw Lem)
- the man with the objective (1961, a film over a time journey to the present at that time)
- signals - a space adventure (1970, after motives of the novel “Asteroidenjäger” of Carlo's rapid)
- Eolomea (1972, utopian film)
- in the dust of the stars (1976, utopian film)
- attendance with van Gogh (1984/1985)
series and film series
- Spuk series (of television films)
- Erika judge/Ralf give (Hg.): Apropos film. The yearbook of the DEFA donation for the years 2000 to 2005. Berlin: Bertz + Fischer publishing house 2000 u.ö. ISBN 3-360-00926-6 (2000), ISBN 3-360-00955-x (2001), ISBN 3-929470-23-3 (2002), ISBN 3-929470-23-3 (2003), ISBN 3-929470-29-2 (2004), ISBN 3-86505-165-0 (2005)
- GünterJordan/Ralf give (Hg.):Black-and-white and color. DEFA documentary films 1946 - 1992, Berlin: Bertz + Fischer publishing house 2000. ISBN 3-931321-51-7
- Ralf give/Sabine Scholze (Hg.): The trick factory. DEFA animated films 1955 - 1990, Dresden: Dt. Inst. for animated film 2003. ISBN 3-929470-27-6
Web on the left of
- DEFA donation
- DEFA great moments (private fan side)
- defa fan.de (stories and background to the DEFA)
- faces of the DEFA (exhibition project over DEFA actors, Portraits and interview)
- GDR search machine, search results to the term “DEFA”
- GDR in the Web (general information to the GDR)
- private film list as pdf document