the technology of the steam engine
under the steam engines givesit variety of most different types and detail variations. For an overview the most common remarks are represented in the following here. Of it deviating remarks are to be found in the article steam engine (design ).
Constructional total structure
|building groups of a steam locomotive wheel arrangement 2 ' C1' type „Pacific “with Schlepptender (here oneAmerican type)|
the most common design consists in principle of a Dampflokomotivkessel, a steam engine or a steam turbine, a chassis with thatWheels, a leader house to the operation as well as mechanisms to providing the fuels coal/oil with stock and water. Steam engines have generally a steel framework, on that the steam boiler, the Feuerbüchse cultivated to it, the piston steam engine as well as the leader house to be.
ThisFramework is carried by the driving wheels and often additional supporting impellers. The piston steam engine consists of usually several (to 4) cylinders, which are arranged within the framework laterally outside or. Reciprocating (reciprocating) movements of the piston rods become with oneTransmission linkages to the crankpins of the wheels and thus in a rotary motion transfer. With the unreeling of the wheels on the rails the movement is produced, which is the main function and the application goal of the locomotive.
Steam generation and energy conversion
beaconing and water heating
Steam engines refer their primary energy from the burn of the mostly carried fuels (wood, coal, coal dust, peat, fuel oil or also recently with steam locomotive new buildings mineral oil). The Dampflokomotivkessel heated thereby produces out for likewise carried water steam forthe steam engine. Most steam locomotives have a rust firing with flat fire bed. When using coal dust, fuel oil or mineral oil a burner is used. Special fuel oil burners preheat here the fuel oil, which is then sputtered with a steam jet. As individual case became inSwitzerland some Rangierlokomotiven with electrical boiler heating re-tooled, as during 2. World war the coal was limited.
Steam is formed, as on the one hand the Feuerbuchse completely surrounded by a water jacket becomes affected by the fire „“- the fire-affected heating surface -,others the flue gases by pipes the whole boiler up to the front smoke chamber flow through - the so-called radiation-affected heating surface. Depending upon size of the locomotive up to 50 so-called Rauchrohre drew in, the so-called Stephenson `sche tube boilers. Additionally it gives approx. 50-100Heat pipes. The Rauchrohre have larger diameter, their task are it by course the fire in the Feuerbuchse at burning to be held. The heat pipes smaller in the diameter are to hold the hot heating gases as for a long time as possible in the boiler and so as much as possible for energyto the surrounding water to deliver can.
The Frischluftzuführung for the burn is made by chokes at the Aschkasten. Fora perfect Feueranfachung is indispensable the Blasrohr already developed by Trevithick. This is arranged at the soil of the smoke chamber. That exhaust-evaporate by a close nozzle to the fire-place one leads. The developing negative pressure pulls the flue gases by the pipes and facht thatFire on. Because evaporate from the engine only while driving is available, still another Hilfsbläser is inserted to that, from a Rohrring with blowing holes around the blowing tubing head exists and directly with live steam out for the Feueranfachung with stopthe boiler one supplies. Before the introduction of the Hilfsbläsers the steam engines are partly uncoupled with longer downtimes and driven on the parallel track and, in order to kindle the fire and to achieve the desired Kesseldruck. To heating a coldly turned up offSteam locomotive can be used an external suction blower, if the procedure is to be accelerated.
Steam overheating and compression
In modern steam engines steam is passed on by the Dampfdom into a superheater. This existsfrom numerous u-shaped bent pipes, which stood in earlier design in a box in the smoke chamber, later however all into the Rauchrohre of the boiler projected (smoke chamber superheaters or smoke tubing superheaters). By the contact with the incineration gases steam becomes inevaporate to the superheater pipes on close 400 degrees Celsius heated up and also the last fine water droplets. The result is called superheated steam . Without further increase in pressure thereby steam contains more energy, besides goes through on the way to the cylinders less warmth Condensation in the pipings lost. The newer steam engines work with a pressure between 15 and 20 bar. The pressure limited by a safety valve, which discharges the too high steam pressure with exceeding of the maximum pressure.
Piston steam engine of the steam locomotive
Becomes in place of of theSaturated steam automatic controller a superheated steam automatic controller uses, then the overheated steam of the superheated steam chamber of the steam collecting box arrives over the superheated steam automatic controller valve at the main flowing in pipe of the steam engine. In the cylinders of the piston steam engine steam expands and moves thereby the pistons. Thus those becomesconverted in steam stored heat energy into mechanical energy.
The pistons in the cylinders of the steam engine are subjected alternating from the front or in the back with steam. Reciprocating movement of the pistons is transferred over the Treibstangen to the driving wheels andthus converted in a rotary motion.
So that the steam locomotive can start also with dead center situation of a Kurbelstellung, the crankpins of the opposite wheels of an axle are against each other transferred. The disalignment angle amounts to with two and Vierzylindermaschinen a quarter-turn and/or. 90°, with Dreizylinder-Maschinen oneThird turn and/or. 120°.
The adjustment of the achievement, and thus the steam consumption, to which changing operating conditions realized with an additional control. Main part of this control are onthe actuator set slidegate valve cylinder and their slidegate valve piston (6). With these the wechselseitíge Dampfzufuhr and their quantity are steered into the actuator (7). In the enterprise the valve spools of the working piston movement hurry ahead changing in each case. The slidegate valve opens the cylinder, steam flows in.After approximately. 1/3 plunger lift locks the slidegate valve flowing in off. The energy expansion existing in steam continues to drive the piston up to its dead center. The sequentially changing slidegate valve movement is caused by a tax linkage, which is attached to the driving linkage. Throughvariable adjusting of the control leaves itself to z. B. a high starting tractive power by long steam filling over the plunger lift achieve. By reduction of the filling times at high speed the steam consumption per piston stroke is reduced to the necessary measure, the utilization of energy improves, therethe steam stretch is more strongly used.
The engine driver stops the control from flight compartment with a crank handle (8), whereby at the rocker (1) the pivot of the control linkage and thus the way to work of the slidegate valve are adjusted. The second control member beside thatSlidegate valve adjustment is the automatic controller valve on the flight compartment, which stops the steam pressure to the cylinders.
The control has thereby two terminator points of the attitude: on the one hand that the fully laid out control (with a steam pressure, with that the wheels of the locomotive straight stilldo not rev up - when starting importantly), on the other hand that for the only minimum laid out control (with full steam pressure to manufacture over with the maximally possible expansion in the cylinders the economic optimum).
Between them numerous operating conditions are appropriate, in those it for the experience andis left to the intuitive feeling of the engine driver to meet with the control attitude the optimal point for utilization of energy. The driving direction can be turned around by steering round the filling sequence. One used a against-steered steam pressure also as Gegendampf brake.
reciprocating masses thatPistons, piston, driving and Kuppelstangen cause substantial Unwuchten, which lead to a twitching run of the locomotive during the conversion to the rotating motion. The piston movements of a zweizylindrigen machine do not adjust themselves thereby mutually because them not around a halfseparate around one quarterly period transferred work. With counter balances at the wheels these forces become partly balanced, which is however not completely possible.
Only the imbalance resulting from the Kuppelstangen and crankpins can be completely waived by counter balances, so that thatProblem of z. B. with older electric locomotives with Stangenantrieb does not arise. For the reconciliation reciprocating masses of the piston steam engine must be increased the counter balances however, which leads again to an imbalance of the wheels, those the rails loaded and with highNumbers of revolutions even to the loss of the wheel rail contact („jumping “the wheels) to lead knows. A practice-suited compromise during the design of the balancer was important therefore with the construction of fast driving locomotives. Usually only about 30 to 50% becameand working masses balanced. With low driving speeds and small requirement for comfort z. B. with pure goods traffic one did partly also completely without it.
The problem of the balancer can be reduced by the building of locomotives with more than two cylinders. Nearlyall high-speed driving locomotives had therefore engines with three or four cylinders.
express train locomotives are with each wheel revolution as long a way as possible to put back, since the maximum number of revolutions is clearly more strongly limited with steam engines than with modern kinds of traction. This causes (in the comparisonto a goods train locomotive) larger wheels - until 2.30 meters of diameters -, by which then however not as many can be accommodated as with a goods train locomotive under the framework (two to four on each side). As consequence therefore express train locomotives are during same Kesselleistung less course-strongly, while goods train locomotives with small dome wheel diameter are comparatively slowly (with the unit series of the German National Railroad usually maximally 80 km/h), but course strong.
By the reduced mobility of the one behind the other coupled axles the curve executability of the chassis suffers. That becomesby easy side relocatability of the axles within the framework and by weakened flangeson the internal wheel sets worked against.
the traction power of onePiston steam engine with wheels cannot be brought only then to the maximum effect, if between wheels and rails sufficient static friction is present, with it the wheels to centrifuges (rev up). A means in addition is, the load on the wheel and/or. to increase the axle.This possibility is however because of that track - load-carrying capacity limits, therefore several wheels at taps are interconnected by Kuppelstangen, in order to increase the entire friction weight for the drive.
Therefore particularly the picture of many results for course-strong goods train locomotivesrelatively small wheels (four to six on each side), which are connected with Kuppelstangen. In addition, exactly the same as the maximum wheel load the number of domable axles is limited, in this case by the size of the locomotive. With special solutions such as z.B. with break frameworks or Mallet locomotives one tried, as much driving wheel sets as bringing possible to the employment.
the brakes of steam engines consist mostly of Klotzbremsenat the large driving wheels, those first by hand, later with steam or off approx. 1900 with compressed air were only operated. For the compressed air provision with stocks a steam engine has a compressed air pump or a compressor to the compression as well as compressed air tank. To the latters those becomesBremsluftleitung of the cars of the attached course attached. The entire brake assembly of the course can be steered thereby from the flight compartment.
Steam for the course heating
In the cold season the need exists for the heating of passenger vehicles. But steam pipes became into thoseCars inserted, which were attached when coupling to the steam engine to their heating steam pipe. This on the locomotive mainly with live steam from the steam boiler or from cylinder-evaporate fed.
Electrical current supply
with the introduction of the electrical Zugbeleuchtung became on steam enginesalso electricity with own, steam-driven generators produces.
Supply of fuels
there in driving steam from the cylinders, produced in the boiler, over the chimney or when starting over, Must the store of water in the boiler will dismiss Zylinderventile into the environment be constantly refilled. But a store of water is carried in auxiliary tanks in the framework, laterally the boiler in tanks or with larger quantity in Schlepptender.
For Non stop travels like for examplewith the Flying Scotsman from London to Edinburgh or with that New York cent ral Railroad drawing pipes were used, which were lowered while driving into special Wasserrinnen between the rails. The stagnation pressure resulting from the driving speed overprinted the waterthe pipes into the tank of the tender.
For the travel over far, water-poor distances in Argentina, during the Second World War and in South Africa with Kondenstendern one experimented later, in which large parts of the Abdampfs were again condensed. This supplieda water saving of z. T. over 90%, was however rarely economical because of the high maintenance expenditure.
In the early period feeding the boiler with water happened usually with plunger pumps or driving pumps. These became over an eccentric shaft or a crankshaft duringthe travel of the locomotive operated. The advantage of this method is that the delivery behaves approximately proportionally to the put back way. The regulation of the quantity was done via an adjustable bypass. With lengthy downtimes had to uncouple the locomotive of the course and upa free track and drive, until the water level had achieved again the desired height.
Modern steam locomotives must have two independently working food mechanisms, in order to always ensure the correct water level in the boiler. For the replenishment under pressure of the standingBoiler piston pumps and injector pumps are used. With piston pumps a steam piston propels a small water piston, which presses the water into the boiler. In the injector pump a steam jet water in the injector chamber tears along and presses it into the Kesselraum.
Particularlyfeeding with cold water is unfavorable into the boiler, without each preliminary heating with all kinds of the pumps. In the range of the feed-water inlet into the boiler it came by it to large thermal stresses in the material. Off approx. 1900 became the cold feed waterthe tender by so-called preheaters led and on approx. 80 to 90 degrees preheated the boiler supplied.
The correct water level in the steam boiler becomes - again with two independently working sediment bowls as well as trying cocks of the heater of the locomotive controls. Too lowerWater level can lead to a Kesselzerknall, a too high water level saves the danger of dragging along liquid water with following heavy damage to the superheater and in the cylinders. Particularly in the cylinder the smallest quantity water already causes the water hammer:The free space between cylinder end and piston is so small that the moving piston by the not compressable water in the cylinder the cylinder cap proper blown off.
In order to ensure the working reliability and economy of the steam engine, the boiler feeding water is prepared accordingly. In particularone prevents to the boiler scale formation, as the Kesselsteinbildner sinks by chemical additives in the boiler to soil (precipitate) and there a mud-like layer form. This sediment in the operating work can be out-washed by the clean-out valve. Additionally the boiler in larger distances is washed.
the used fuels (predominantly coal, partly also wood, coal dust, peat or mineral oil) are carried just like the store of water in supplementary containers or in Schlepptender. With the first locomotives and up to a certain size coal becomesand other firm of fuels of the heater by hand and/or. with a shovel at the storage vessel taken up and by the fire hole into the Feuerbüchse carries.
With large locomotives there is Stoker so mentioned, those for the coal oh thrust of auxiliary drives, the coal from that Tenders directly into the Feuerbüchse carry. The Stoker consists of an auger, which runs from the coal container of the tender with piping to the Feuerbüchse. The auger is propelled by a steam turbine.
During oil and coal dust firing promotion elements are used, the one fuel jet inthe Feuerbüchse blow. Red-hot pig iron became occasional with memory steam engines in iron works - slab in the locomotive deposits. With this heating warmth the locomotive could shift about 2 hours under the blast furnaces the torpedo cars. Memory locomotives could under the blast furnace also directlywith steam „“become refuelled.
Guidance of the locomotiveContinental Europe is this usually right, on which British islands was also the left side common. It observed from there the distance and the signals and steers the run of the locomotive and the course. The heater supervises and operates above all the firing and steam generation (fuel and water supply, compression) by thatBring from fuel into the fire box. The heater supports the engine driver during the signal observation by messages and confirmations. For the latter function the heater has (seat) a place on the engine driver facing the side of the leader house.
Initially engine driver and heaters stoodon an unprotected platform behind the Feuerbüchse. At increasing speeds it became essential to cultivate before it a wind protection and at least the beginning of a roof. The introduction of the closed leader house with steam engines decreases/goes back to the railway pioneer max Maria von Weber, thatthe strains of the Lokomotivführers and the heater before all in the winter season from own opinion knew and in his literary work described. Seats were detrimental regarded however also thereafter first as „outrageous comfort “and as the attention for distance observation.
For the formation of Wendezügen with signalling devices between tax cars and pushing locomotive one experimented. Successfully this 1936 with the streamline courses of the Luebeck Büchener railway one practiced. This required however a firm course composition, those the generous use of the locomotives did not limit and thereforeone further pursued.
Standard, development borders, special designs
the most common and simplest design of the steam engine had in front to two an impeller - sentences and on itfollowing three to five coupled with one another Treibachsen as well as possibly still another impeller set under the leader house. The steam engine consisted of a boiler with saturated steam or superheated steam production and two doubles working cylinders with simple steam stretch.
Into the 1920er years developed in GermanyELNA steam engines. The abbreviation ELNA stands for closer Lokomotiv standard committee. The locomotives should be able to be operated by standardization more economically produced and.
Under the name unit locomotives became starting from 1925 under the direction of the German National Railroad, under line of the former National Railroad departmental head smelling pool of broadcasting corporationsPaul Wagner, develops and built. One had itself to replace decided proven land course locomotives by new developments. Principal reason was the use of uniform construction units and a standardisation. Uniform camps, feed pumps, Rauchrohre, cylinder blocks, armatures made the exchangeability simpler and the maintenance more favorable. Thosefirst unit locomotive was the series 01 as 2 `c1 `h2. Later locomotives of the German Federal Railroads were built also than standard types in large series.
the achievements of the steam engine certainly by piston diameters, steam pressure, number of cylinders, number of driving wheels and theirDiameter. All these parameters are however only limited changeable.
Der Raddurchmesser ist entscheidend für die Höchstgeschwindigkeit. It can be increased however not at will, without impairing the size of the boiler and thus the traction power. The Unwuchten of the moved masses inCrank gear cannot become also completely balanced. They lead at higher speeds to jerky travel.
With the steam pressure is very common 16 to 20 bar operating pressure. Steam locomotives with higher steam pressure (up to 60 bar) required on a long-term basis more complex maintenance work and became therefore notdeveloped further.
The number of cylinders can structurally conditioned be increased with standard types only up to four pieces. There were locomotives, which tried to use the work ability of steam with high pressure cylinders and subordinate low pressure cylinders (group machines) particularly well. These were particularly inFrance and South Germany spread.
Since the maintenance cost rose thereby, in the long run by the majority locomotives became generally accepted with two or three cylinders and only one Expansionsstufe. Above all the USA, England and Northern Germany were here leading.
under the Central European conditions developedLocomotives, to 200 km/h the top speed reached (German National Railroad locomotive 05,002, and which British LNER locomotive Mallard). With group machines achievements up to 5300 HP became and/or. reaches 4000 KW (SNCF - series 242 A1). Related to thatWeight per horsepower (HP per kilogram) was considered the 240P of the French SNCF converted by André Chapelon as the most efficient locomotive.
The world-wide largest steam locomotives were the Mallet - and Triplex - locomotives of American courses. They had inclusive tenders under their framework and up tothree independent chassis with own in each case piston steam engines. Practically all large and modern US-American steam locomotives lay in the capacity range from 5000 to 8000 HP, which was made possible by comparatively very large permissible dimensions and weights.
The series S-1b („Niagara “) that New YorkCent ral carried 22 Pullmann Schnellzugwagen in the daily enterprise also over 1600 t weight in the level with 161 km/h. With trial trips with this load even 193 km/h were reached. Today's German IC and input clutch courses are in contrast to this comparatively about half so heavy.The series S-1b regard also the record of the monthly run achievements as steam locomotives - to over 44.000 km, with courses like mentioned the above, those were reached on the 1485 km-stretch from Harmon, N.Y. to Chicago without locomotive changes were carried.
Thatvery personnel-intensive maintenance of the steam locomotives (2 men on the locomotive, washing personnel etc.) the very intensive and complex examination and maintenance of the locomotive (2-tägliches to maximally weekly washing of the boilers), the investigations of the steam boilers prescribed by the TÜV because of the danger thatBoiler explosions and the parallel concerning perfection of the electrical locomotive and/or. the diesel locomotive led approximately into the 1970ern with nearly all courses of the world to the retirement from service of the proven technology. In addition, the small efficiency, usually with approximately 8 to 10Per cent lay, and it led the contamination due to coal soot to the fact that the steam locomotive was replaced ever more from Diesel and electrical locomotives. However are - as above mentions - the constructional possibilities of the steam engine to this time not yet completely used.
higher requirements, favorable or more unfavorable conditions, led to special designs of steam engines. Here above all Crampton locomotives the very common at the beginning in France and Germany are, the appearing later Mallet - and Garratt locomotives as well as propulsion variants to call. Oneextensive overview is listed under steam engine (design ).
the steam engine was the original and is enough time prevailing Lokomotivbauart. It was first drawing means, larger achievement with compact design to unite could and so the successful spreading of the railway system caused.
the development of the steam engine relied on several forerunner developments. The first stage was the steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen, with which a flywheel returned the cylinder to each working stroke into the initial position. The next step took place, as James Wattsteam alternately both sides pistons to affect left. Up to then the steam engines with only small positive pressure worked in relation to the atmospheric ambient pressure. When smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Trevithick developed a steam engine, with a three to four times higher than the atmospheric pressure, became possible it worked to build an efficient machine which was sufficiently compact, in order to fit on a vehicle. For the first time Nicholas Cugnot accomplished this 1769 and 1802 and 1803 also smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Trevithick , which built a road steam car in each case. Thusbecame possible with the help of the steam engine a spatially unlimited movement and it had then only a short step to replace the steam-claimant push pull cable plants already existing in the mines by a steam car placed on the rails.
First steam engines on rails
1804 built then smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Trevithick the first steam engine driving on rails. It proved as functional, but the cast-iron rails not laid out for their weight broke under this locomotive.
Over this time gave it in English mine plants in Cornwall and around the northeastEnglish coal-mining region around Newcastle upon to Tyne repeated development attempts to steam engines, among other things by Timothy Hackworth starting from 1808, John Blenkinsop 1812, William Hedley 1813, George Stephenson 1814 and other one. In the year 1825 the railroad line between stick clay/tone and Darlington, England, with a locomotive of George Stephenson, initiated by Edward Pease , one opened and at the same time first passenger transport with a lokomotiv pulled course was accomplished.
For the planned coursebetween Liverpool and Manchester in October 1829 famous running of Rainhill was accomplished, with which the bestgeeignete locomotive should be determined. From the five participating „genuine “locomotives won The Rocket of Robert Stephenson a running, on the 50km are enough for distance a maximum speed of 48 km/h reached and - that was the crucial - when only running without loss projected. „The Sans Pareil “of Timothy Hackworth, also in the competition , had cylinder, those in the workshop of Robert Stephenson were poured and by those one briefly after the start for running exploded - at that time rather „more regularly a “loss. To 15. September 1830 was opened the course between Liverpool and Manchester, whereby both the victorious „Rocket “and„the Sans Pareil was transferred “to the enterprise.
In the USA Colonel John of Stevens demonstrated 1826 a steam-claimant Lokomobile on a circular lane in Hoboken, new jersey, the USA . 1830 built Peter Cooper with the Tom Thumb firstSteam engine in America for a public railway and with the DeWitt Clinton took to 24. September 1831 the first regular US locomotive between Albany (New York) and Schenectady with approximately 50 km/h their service up. Not unmentioned should also inEngland manufactured and John bulletin (locomotive), supplied to America , remain. Also it was placed 1831 in service, superseded 1866 and taken last to 1981, meanwhile 150 years old, again under steam. It is one of the last original delivered machines thatSteam locomotive early period.
Into Germany a machine drove, those to Blenkinsop' design from Johann Friedrich Krigar into as the first steam engine in June 1816one built for the royal iron foundry to Berlin, on a round course in the yard of the factory. It concerned around the first locomotive built on the European mainland and the first steam-led passenger traffic, since look-merry ride along against payment in attached carscould. To 7. December 1835 drove for the first time between Nuremberg and Fürth on the Bavarian Ludwig course the locomotive of the eagles. Them were already the 118. Machine from the locomotive factory Robert Stephensons and stood for godfather dte with the type name „“under patent protection.
1838 developed the third steam engine Saxonia built in Germany at the mechanical engineering company Übigau with Dresden, built from Professor. Johann Andreas thrust ore. 1848 were thosefirst of the Henschel works in Kassel produced locomotive, the Drache, delivered.
The first railroad line over Swiss Landesgebiet was the 1844 open distance Strasbourg - Basel. Three years later, 1847 than first Swiss railroad line the Spanish Brötli becameCourse from Zurich to bathing opens.
Further development steps
first attempts, successes and erring ways
despite the pioneer achievements of the machine-builders often still unverstandenen at that time connections between mechanics, thermodynamics and power transmission often led with improvement attempts to constructions, those a certain characteristicstrengthened, however the general context by heat production, Kesselleistung, wheel arrangement and weight distribution from the view lost.
The following overview concerns itself more with the developments, which led to in the long run successfully spread standard building method. The constructions deviating from it are substantial in steam engine (design) specified.
The first machine of Trevithick had two wheel sets, which were propelled both by an enormous gear wheel. After German wheel arrangement - the designation and/or. Number system was this one „B “- locomotive. Also Stephensons later „Locomotion “was with 2 propelled axles one„B “- type, contrary to Trevithick built however crankpins for Stephenson to the wheels, which were connected with Kuppelstangen. This became then the most common multiple wheel set drive, which later also with the first electrical - and diesel locomotives one took over.
Timothy Hackworth understood already in former times the connection between friction weight and traction power and already built for 1827 „the Royal George “as Dreikuppler (wheel arrangement C). Goods train locomotives with three coupled wheel setsstandard remained for many decades.
The 1835 from Robert Stephenson to Germany supplied machine, which was as „the eagle “first on German tracks, had with one impeller set each before and behind the driving wheel set appropriate centrically under the boiler (wheel arrangement1A1) only modest traction power and maximum speed. This simple construction probably proved as reliable in the enterprise, because steam engines with only one driving wheel set were built for different German land courses still into the late 1860er years; thus above all those remainedBavarian state railway „of the 1A1 “long time faithfully.
America takes over the pioneer role of locomotive type
a speciality of US-American courses was the long and railways zusammengelaschten with small care, those to a jerky run of the locomotives alsothe building method of the rigid four-wheeled chassis taken over by England led. In order to meet these difficulties, already 1836 of Henry Roe Campbell became a locomotive with the wheel arrangement 2' B (American designation way 4-4-0), thus with two impeller corroding in front and two coupled driving wheel corrodingbehind it, develops and patents. With track unevenness this building method ensured that the driving wheels had a better contact with the rails. Until 1884 was sixty per cent of all US steam engines „4-4-0 “it and became known as „American standard “or briefly „American “. As the Zuggewichte more largelyand the speeds more highly were increased and strengthened, the proven „American “simply in all construction units, in order to meet the increased requirements.
It is reported by „the New York Central-4-4-0 “number 999 driving wheels high with their 2.15 m that it to10. May 1893 with „the Empire State express “between Batavia and Buffalo, New York (state), consisting of four cars, a speed of 112,5 mph (= 181 km/h) reached. Up to the end of the century variations „of the American became “in the USA about 25,000 times built. Transferred to Europe this design with more or less long time delay, usually first as „1B “- type with an impeller set in front and two coupled driving wheel corroding.
The end „of the American “- era came into the 1880er yearswith the increasing spreading of the 1875 air pressure brake invented by George Westinghouse. In place of the handbraked courses these efficient brakes made longer and heavier courses possible, for which it was not sufficient any longer to build „the 4-4-0 “simply more largely. This carried to locomotivesthree and quadruple one behind the other coupled driving wheel corroding.
In Europe at first for faster locomotives prefers a deep and stable boiler situation aimed at, which was however unfavorable for the arrangement several more largely driving wheel-corrodes. Substantial impulses for the overcoming of this fear of the high emphasiscame from the USA. Thus developed soon also here new locomotives with ever higher boiler situation, which permitted the use of several dome wheel sets.
A further development step was the introduction group machines - of the principle in the Dampflokomotivbau, after this already works on steam shipshad. Here the expansion tendency of steam is used after the discharge opening from a first work stage again in a second stage in a low pressure cylinder. Swiss Anatole Mallet announced for this 1874 a patent for the use on locomotives.
ThatPrinciple was used first on locomotives with two separate driving and engines („Malletloks “) by serial connection of the Zylinderpaare. Later the group principle was applied also to locomotives with only one chassis. With these locomotives the first driving wheel axle was as crankshafttrained and by two high pressure cylinders lying within the framework one floated. Outside because of the framework were the larger low pressure cylinders, which worked in the usual way on the crankpins of the second driving wheel set. The usually existing third driving wheel set was with the two frontby the usual outside lying Kuppelstangen connected.
With larger locomotives the problem of the Kurvenläufigkeit of rigid framework locomotives resulted. In the year 1884 again Anatole Mallet left itself the circle-usual Lokomotivbauart with two engines, of those, today well-known under its name, oneis swivelling or laterally adjustably stored, patent. In the consequence 19 became with many German land courses toward end. Century altogether about 150 Malletloks built. The Malletlok principle was however only led in the USA to its highest bloom. Instead of mostlysmall secondary line locomotives as in Europe here with the help of the Mallet construction the true steam locomotive giants - however usually without the group circuit of the engines - were built.
if the requirements of the curve freedom of movement was not so high, became forthe better curve freedom of movement the flanges of the outside driving wheel-corrodes in weaker form implemented, so that track curves will drive on could, without the locomotive jumped out of the rails. Toward preliminary investigations of Helmholtz Austrian Karl Gölsdorf turned one with large rigid framework locomotives alsoShift of the Treibachsen on. Thus the problem of the Kurvenläufigkeit of large efficient rigid framework locomotives was solved.
The last missing component for the modern steam locomotive was the development of the superheater, which made it possible to increase the steam temperature so far that during the expansionin the cylinder no losses by condensing developed. Here German engineer and machine-builder William Schmidt (superheated steam Schmidt) did the crucial step with the invention of the superheater, with which the superheated steam with temperatures of 350 could be manufactured °C operationally in the steam engine boiler.Thus the thermal efficiency of the steam engine could be improved around half. Thus 1897 for the KPEV the first two locomotives (S a 3 and a P 4) with flame tube superheater were supplied.
High points of the development
a furthersalient and successful development was the “Pacific” - steam locomotive type with the wheel arrangement 2' c1' and/or. the American designation 4-6-2. It developed again in the USA and particularly was spread, as the Zuggewichte around 1910 by steel railroad cars increased and from the successorsthe 4-4-0-Type any longer to be mastered could not.
After 1901 had been supplied for the first time by Baldwin in the USA a locomotive with the wheel arrangement 2' c1' to New Zealand, 1902 of Brooks, a later daughter the ALCO became a 4-6-2-Type to the MissouriPacific railway delivered, to which from now on the Kenname was due „to Pacific “. Favouring for the development and spreading „of the Pacific “it was also that the application of the superheated steam superheater principle began at the same time, which with this type as well as the larger Feuerbüchse and the longer boiler tooa precipitous increase in output led, which put aside long time further developments particularly with Schnellzuglokomotiven. It is said that by locomotives with „the Pacific “- wheel arrangement world-wide about 6500 pieces were built.
into the late 1930erand the 1940er years technical high points of the steam traction reached with both the strongest and largest and the fastest machines, the enormous US-American Mallet locomotives and high-speed driving steam engines as for instance the German series 05 or the English „A4 “, ever built,Trial trips scarcely in each case over 200 km/h reached.
Modern US-American goods train steam locomotives had continuous duties of up to 8000 HP (C&O series H-8, PRR series Q-2), express train locomotives came on up to 6700 HP (NYC series S-1b, „Niagara “). They were extremely durably built, there with the highCourse loads (regular 10,000 to 15,500 tons in the heavy goods train service, 1000 to 1800 tons in the heavy express train service) „flat out “(„full Pulle “) - enterprise at the agenda was. Since an express train locomotive up to 2840 km before its course remained (RK &SF - Series 2900, on the distance Kansas town center - Amarillo - Los Angeles), were reliability and easy maintenance highest requirement.
The usually-built locomotives in Germany were „the series 55,25-58 “and „the war locomotives “of the Germans Series 52. The series 55,25-58, Prussian G8.1 were built for P 8 “with the wheel arrangement 2 ' C in 4995 copies and were followed thereby the usually-built land course steam locomotive, of the passenger train locomotive „, since 1906 of the citizens of Berlin mechanical engineering AG and that Left Hofmann works in Breslau in approximately 3800 copies was built, about which about 500 pieces abroad were supplied. Most of these locomotives were finished placed in the years 1919 to 1924.
The German series 52 were a substantially simplified versionthe goods train locomotive series 50 with the wheel arrangement 1 ' E, by which between 1942 and 1945 about 6500 pieces for the increased transportation need in the Second World War were built. The series 50 and 52 together reached a number of items of approximately 10.000. Beside thatPrussian state railways were it only the railways of the Soviet Union, different locomotive series in numbers of items over 3000 let which build.
|Jahr||Land / Bahn||Lok Bezeichnung|| Geschwindigkeit|
|1769||Frankreich / Paris||Dampfwagen von Cugnot||3,5 - 4|
|1825||England / Stockton and Darlington Railway||„Locomotion“ von George Stephenson||24|
|1830||England/Liverpool Manchester||„The Rocket “of Robert Stephenson||48|
|1835||England/Liverpool Manchester||locomotive of Sharp & Robert||over 100|
|1890||France||„Crampton No. the 604 “||144|
|1893||USA/ New York cent ral Railroad||new one York cent ral No. 999||,181|
|1901||Austria Hungary /test track with Vienna||locomotive of Praga||140|
|1907||Germany/ K.Bay.Sts.B.||S 2/6||154|
|1935||USA/Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad||class ANo. 1||,181|
|1936||Germany/ German National Railroad||05,002||200.4|
|1938||England/ LNER||class A4 No. 4468 „Mallard “||201.2|
particularly from the USA, where opposite Europe over approx. 50% higher permissible axle load the building more efficiently andaccording to durable locomotives favoured, are not isolates speeds admits become, which went beyond the records specified in the table, however for lack of an official confirmation were not recognized.
The steam engine probably fastest with distance at all was the class S1 No. 6100 that Pennsylvania Railroad, a 3 ' BB3' duplex locomotive, which is to have reached 1,400 according to data of testers the inter+done Commerce Commission (ICC ) in the year 1946 with an t-express train with the Aufholen of a delay 227.2 km/h (141.2 mph). The officials of the ICC supervised in a random sampling way thosepermissible maximum speeds, whereby on the distance concerned between Chicago and Crestline (Ohio) only 120 was certified mph (193 km/h). The course thereupon with a penalty occupies and guarded therefore also against it, the irregularly obtained record admits to give.
Even if a measurement with stop watches (the time interval between passing two mile posts was measured) is not very exact, this speed appears in view of an achievement of the S1 of approx., measured on the test stand. 8,000 HP not at all unrealistically. Thatresembles applies to those for the class A that Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad after-said speeds of up to 209 km/h, although the maximum speed of this most modern and largest Atlantic locomotive per built (wheel arrangement 2 determined with a test van ' B1') onlywas appropriate for 181 km/h.
Other unofficial records appear less convincing against it. So a ' C-locomotive of the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway with a driving wheel diameter of only 1,854 mm a speed of 120 is to have reached 2 mph (193 km/h) in the year 1901.Also the 127.1 mph (205 km/h), which an Atlantic locomotive of the PRR class E2 in the year 1905 to have reached is, appear improbable. This value of the PRR was published nevertheless and applies in the USA sometimes as the highest speed, evera steam engine reached.
End of the steam locomotive era in Europe and the USA
in the USA for the 1940er years increasingly diesel locomotives were used, which could be adapted by domes of several units more flexibly to changing requirements of course size and distance process. Besidesthe diesel locomotives were faster ready for launch, where with steam engines preheating for hours was necessary. Thus Baldwin already drew in the USA in the time between the world wars with the last Dampflokomotivlieferungen for some railway company and with the fall of the largest Dampflokomotiv producers, LIMA and ALCO in the 1950er and 1960er years the end of the steam locomotive era off.
After in Germany the steam engines were already 1939 ago on the retreat and should by modern Diesel and electric locomotives be particularly replaced, came them intocompletely destroyed postwar Germany again a higher meaning too. Forwards and during the war developed Streckenelekrifizierungen was to a large extent useless, which made a surface covering use of E-Loks impossible.
In middle Europe the diesel locomotive was not so large competition for the steam engineas in the USA. Here were however in the alpine countries Austria, which already displaces Switzerland to a large extent as well as in German Bavaria the steam engines into the 1960er years from the electric locomotives. For the electric locomotives the alpine countries with their electricity production offeredfrom the hydro-electric power plants more favorable operating conditions and offered the electrical locomotives in reverse by the overload capacity of their engines of advantages on the upward gradient-rich distances. With increasing electrification of the Flachlandstrecken also into Central Europe the steam locomotive was less and less inserted.
The Soviet Union announced 1956 completely surprising,to adjust the Dampflokomotivbau. One justified this with the problematic water supply in certain regions as well as with the presence of own oil fields. While the steam enterprise was stopped officially into the 1970er years, thousands steam engines stood as strategic reserve conserved turned off, and due to variousEnergy problems flashed the steam enterprise until approximately always 1999 again regionally.
As a first European state railway company the Netherlands state railways terminated the steam enterprise in the year 1958.
The German Federal Railroads in West Germany adjusted 1977 the Dampflokomotiv enterprise; last employment operating works (German Federal Armed Forces) were: German Federal Armed Forces Emden and German Federal Armed Forces Rheine, German Federal Armed Forces Emden with the actually last travels to 26. October 1977 with twoLocomotives of the row 043, whose last, 043,903, at 16.04 o'clock was turned off. With the German National Railroad in the GDR its employment on standard gauge ended to 29. October 1988 with the German Federal Armed Forces half with a locomotive of the row 50.35.
Outside of Europeand the USA the steam engines were still longer operated and replaced mostly by diesel locomotives. Partial they today still are in the use, like z. B. in China the locomotives of the row QJ.
Steam traction up-to-date
duringinto the 1970er years the chapter of the steam engines, delivered Swiss engine works SLM (Dampflokomotivfabrik today DLM) seemed final to 1992 three new light oil-fired steam engines for narrow-gauge railways. With the help of technology up-to-date in particular during the thermal insulation steam engines could be built, regardingEconomy, fuel consumption and exhaust gas values Diesel-driven vehicles are equally, partly even superior. They are used in particular, where steam engines promise clearly higher incomes due to higher attractiveness for tourists with comparable operating cost.1996 could be sold three further locomotives, since that time are no more sales admits. In the summer 2004 transport Montreux Vevey Riviera the bought locomotive sold its 1992 for lack of profitability to the Brienz Rothorn course, which already possesses several DLM machines.
There is still a regular enterprise with steam engines in the German-speaking countries at the following course companies,all together schmalspurig:
- Oh sea-course (Tirol)
- Chiemseebahn (Bavaria)
- Fichtelbergbahn (Saxonia)
- Lössnitzgrundbahn (Saxonia)
- Harzer narrow-gauge railways (Saxonia-Anhalt)
- bath course Molli (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- Rügen Kleinbahn (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- Saxonian Oberlausitzer railway company (Saxonia)
- sheep mountain railway (upper Austria)
- white cutting valley course (Saxonia, because of flood damages at present only partial enterprise)
- forest railway mash-chew (Saxonia)
- Zillertalbahn (Tirol)
a list thatat the German Federal Railroads used steam engines is here. In Germany about 135 normalspurige steam engines ready for operation are received. Many further copies are not set up ready for operation in museums or than monuments.
The locomotive with the serial number 18,201 inProperty of the private society „steam plus “with a maximum speed of 180 km/h was for long time the fastest ready for use steam locomotive. Their fate as museum locomotive ready for operation is at present in the Schwebe.
In Europe become only in Poland rule trace - steam engines inPlan service assigned, i.e. of the engine shed Wolsztyn /Wollstein. At present daily three machines stand in the service. Due to large attractiveness for tourists the enterprise until today will keep upright.
Up to now (1/2006) also in China still steam engines held themselves. Reasonare the favorable coal supply, the simple maintenance as well as the still existing infrastructure for the steam engines. Besides the existing steam engines mostly only some years are old. However China partly plans the complete abolishment of the steam traction for prestige reasons up to the olympia year 2008.The last regular passenger train with steam traction on a main route in China drove to 10. December 2005 on the Ji - Tong - line.
Today a regular enterprise of steam engines is well-known outside of Europe from China, India and Thailand; Zimbabwe hasthe steam enterprise in the year 2005 resumed. Each year for some months to the Erntezeit flashing sugar tubing traffic with steam locomotives in Cuba drastically decreased/went back.
- to steam engine (design)
- unit steam engine
- war locomotive
- steam locomotive prohibition
- wheel arrangements - representation
- history of the railway
- history the stick clay/toneand Darlington Railway
- list of the steam engines literature Heym,
- in Germany, Rudolf, how it functions actually, the steam locomotive?, Bridging man, 2004, ISBN 3765472557
- Endisch, Dirk, then functions the steam locomotive, Transpress, 2003, ISBN 3613712210
- Bufe, Siegfried, parting fromthe steam locomotive input clutch publishing house, 1985, ISBN 3882555009
- Erhard fount, 2C 1, Franckh, 1965, ISBN B0000BGQ9U
- fount, Erhard, Herrmann Maey, the rule steam engines of the German National Railroad and the German Federal Railroads, Verkehrswissenschaftl. Lehrmittelges. 1953, ISBN B0000BGQ9S
- Messerschmidt, Wolfgang, Lokomotiven of engine worksEsslingen 1841 to 1966. A chapter international Lokomotivbaues., A. Riser, Solingen, 1984, ISBN 3921564670
- Messerschmidt, Wolfgang, Taschenbuch German Lokomotivfabriken. Their history, their locomotives, their technical designers. To cosmos, Stuttgart, 1977, ISBN 3440044629
- Collias, Joe G., bend Boy and cost. The endthe steam locomotive era in the USA. Heel Vlg., king vienna., 1995, ISBN 3893654313
- Haas, Arnold, steam engines in North America. The USA and Canada. Franckh' publishing house action, Stuttgart, 1978, ISBN 3-440-04493-9
- Drury, George H., Guide ton of North American Steam Locomotives. History and development OF steam powersink 1900. (Railroad reference series; No. 8). Kalmbach Books, Waukesha, 1993 (Third printing: 1999), ISBN 0-89024-206-2
in art and culture
- the course (1963) with Burt Lancaster
- the general (1926) with Buster Keaton
- El último tren/German title „thatlast course “, feature, Argentina/Spain/Uruguay 2002, direction: Diego Arsuaga
- The Adventurers/German title „the Playboys “, feature, USA/Colombia 1970, direction: Lewis Gilbert
- The Great Locomotive Chase, feature, production: Roll Disney, the USA 1956
- The Titfield Thunderbolt/German title „Titfield express “direction CharlesCrichton, Great Britain 1952
- briefly Pierson: Old timer in the film. In: Locomotive magazine No. 40 (February 1970), pages 69 to 73.
Screen end art
- of Vilém Kreibich in national the Technical museum in Prague, in the Internet: 1, 2, 3
- Lyonel Feininger „wind play “,Farblithografie 1906 
Web on the left of
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