Dan (combat haven)
as Dan (jap. 段, stage) is designated in Japanese combat arts (Budō, partial also in Korean combat arts) a progressing degree. The lowest degree (the 1. Dan) follows after the 1. Pupil degree (Kyū). The 1. Pupil degree is the highest, thoseOrder of rank with teacher and pupil degrees is thus exchanged. The highest Dan is usually the 10. Dan; partly - e.g. in the Aikikai - Aikidō - to time becomes however no higher degree than the 9. Dan lent.
Table of contents
on Japanese the Dangrade is counted designated as follows/:
- 1. Dan - 初段 Shodan
- 2. Dan - 二段 Nidan
- 3. Dan - 三段 Sandan
- 4. Dan - 四段 Yondan
- 5. Dan - 五段 Godan
- 6. Dan- 六段 Rokudan
- 7. Dan - 七段 Nanadan
- 8. Dan - 八段 Hachidan
- 9. Dan - 九段 Kudan
- 10. Dan - 十段 Jūdan
thereby is called shodan literally initial degree, the remaining contains the appropriate number word as prefix and is called thereby second degree, Third degree of etc.
the Kyū/Dan Graduierungssystem originated in in Japan toward end 19. Century and one made popular by Jigorō Kanō, for the founder Judo. Starting from 1880 Kyu (Judo) became about contemporaneous and Dan (Kendo) with equal standing uses. In the Judothey served the ability stage for the documentation. In the Kendo oriented yourself the payment of the Kendo teachers at its hiring wheel. Since 1895 the Budo in the controlling body was summarized „Dai Nippon Butokukai “(1945 dissolved). The Kyu and Dan systematics became of the Butokukai in the years until 1920 inseveral steps in summary and also to the other Budo applied. First there were only Dan up to the fifth, later sixth stage. Only end of the twenties 20. Century higher Dan was introduced. After the Second World War finally that has itself in most Budo10. Dan as highest degrees result in. The Kyu degrees became following German educational system 19. Century production. The old class hierarchy (Sexta, Quinta, Quarta, Tertia, Sekunda and great) expressed into Latin nothing else as 6. , 5. , 4. , 3. , 2. , 1. Class. (The JapaneseWord Kyu means class.) in the modern times individual Budo the traditional number of six Kyu their conceptions accordingly changed.
In most „belt-basic “kinds of combat haven become „the black belts “(1. to 4. or 5. Dan) due to technical examinations lent. In many kinds of sport the higher degrees of the championship apply also than „mental “championship, with the carrier of an appropriate Dan, which background intellectual, values and insights, the one combat haven begins and/or. a combat art obtain, to internal.
A hiring wheel is marked in recent Budō systems with the carrying of a black belt with the lower Dan degrees (Yūdansha). The higher Dan degrees (Kodansha) partial becomeby a red-white, red or again white belt, characterized according to the lowest pupil degree. The latter justifies itself in asiatic philosophy and is to symbolize that the pupil and master degrees a closed circle, a harmony to form. However often only theoretically, because in most kinds of combat haven those becomehighest Dan degrees hardly or not at all it as completion to be regarded assigned there. Some Budō schools and systems do without outward characteristics of the graduation.
Against landläufiger acceptance reaching the 1 means. Dan level still by no means the perfect championship. The meaning of the word Dan, i.e. stage, putsclose that also that is hiring wheel only one step. In some systems it applies rather that the 1. Dan only the capability represents to learn the actual combat art i.e. the conclusion of only preparing training.
International point fighters in the kinds of combat haven, which deliver competitions, have usually at the mostthe third Dan. This arises as a result of the minimum preparation times between the Dan examinations and thus also from the age of the fighters, who are usually limited by the defaults and requirements of the achievement sport for active ones.
- Irie Kohei: Budo