Danzig

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Danzig (term clarifying).
Danzig
base data
state: Poland
Woiwodschaft: Pommern
district: Circle-free city
surface: 262.0 km ²
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 54° 22 ′ N, 18° 38 ′ O
54° 22 ′ N, 18° 38 ′ O
height: m and. NN
inhabitant: 459.072 (1. January. 2005)
Postal zip code: 80-009 to 80-958
telephone preselection: (+48) 58
Kfz characteristics: GD
economics & traffic
of branches: Tourism
road:
Railway:
Next int. Airport: Airport Danzig
municipality
kind of municipality:
Municipality arrangement:
Surface: km ²
inhabitants: ()
Administration
city president: Paweł Adamowicz (2006)
address: ul. Nowe Ogrody 8/12
80-803 Gdańsk
Web operational readiness level: www.gdansk.pl


Danzig (Polish: Gdańsk [ˈgdanʲsk] - Tondokument ? / License/ kaschubisch: Gduńsk) is a Polish port and a former Hanseatic city. It lies west the Weichselmündung in the historical landscape Pommerellen and is capital of the Woiwodschaft Pommern. The city has 459,000 inhabitants (2005) and forms together with Gdingen (Gdynia) and Zoppot (Sopot) a population centre (three-city) with more than 1.035.000 inhabitants.

Flagge von Danzig

Table of contents

history

see in addition the articles: History of the city Danzig until 1878 and Danziger post office history

antique one and people migration

the areas around Danzig and the Weichsel at the Baltic Sea were called of Tacitus , Ptolemäus Magna Germania. They were inhabited at the time west the Weichsel of Goten (therefore it the designation Gotiskandza, Gotenküste). East the Weichsel up to the Memel lived the Prussen, which spoke the old-Prussian language. Tacitus called it Aestier and praised at them their diligence in the agriculture and their interest in the amber production. The amber was until Egypt and beyond that very much desired in the antiquity in the Mediterranean area. The age-old amber route connected the Weichseldelta with the mediterranen world. And this very day Danzig is the center of the artistic processing of amber.

the early Middle Ages

997 are mentioned Danzig “Gyddanyzc urbs” the first time of Johannes Canaparius as settling. It is however disputed whether settling at that time to the location of the today's Danzig is identical. the Prager bishop Adalbert baptized 997 after an one-day lecture many heaths. This heath baptism and the fact that in the year 1000 with the donation of the ore diocese Gnesen Danzig (when principal place Pommerellens) did not become bishop seat, do not speak for a firm affiliation Danzigs to a Polish duchy.

The Samboriden, those toward end 12. Century as a ruler family in Danzig, was indisputable no Piasten becomes documentary recognizable. Their origin is discussed.

Duke Subislaw created the monastery Oliva around 1185. It was occupied by Cistercians from the pommerschen Kolbatz. It served among other things also as house monastery and grave-puts for the ruler family.

Around 1224 duke lent Swantopolk II. the Lübi right to the German buyer settlement, which had developed for today's being enough of the market in the area.

To 13. November 1308 was attacked and conquered Danzig by the German medal. The old slawische city went down thereby. The citizens of the German city had to destroy their houses and lay down the attachment. Only after two years they were allowed to return and develop their city again.

In the following years the Zuwanderung of Germans rose strongly, released by the economic Prosperität of the Hanseatic city. Since the establishment of the German buyer settlement the traffic language was German in the city. It remained it until 1945.

Hans time

Danzig was important member of the Hanse and participated since 1361 at the Hans floors. However since the end the 15 remained up to the last Hans day in the year 1669 part of the Hanse . Century ever became insignificant. Together with Elbing and Thorn Danzig was the prominent Prussian Hanseatic city.

1466 in the second peace of Thorn had the defeated German medals at Poland the whole duchy Pommerellen with free Hanseatic city Danzig as well as the area of the Hanseatic city free Hanseatic city Thorn as Lehen transfer. The German medal withdrew itself back to East Prussia. In peacetime of Thorn the Polish state guarantees however a weitghende political, economic and cultural autonomy to the two Hanseatic cities Danzig and Thorn.

1470 were equipped those Peter von Danzig, originally a French ship, as the first large Kraweel of the Hanse for war purposes.

1522 began the reformation in Danzig with the Evangelist Prediger Jacob Hegge.

1612 came it to the controversy between Lutheranern and reformed around the building of a high altar in the church too sank Johann. This excites the protest of the reformed ones, everything in front minister Jakob Adam.

1615 stated the city secretary Reinhold small field in a controversy of the city Elbing advice relatives the delegation Danzigs to the ermländischen bishop as well as the mayor and. Main point at issue was the demand of the bishop on the Evangelist ones after publication of a church. In the last moment 1616 a war were turned away.

1701 were begun in Danzig and king mountain with the work on the amber room.

Prussian time

1793 in the context of the second Polish division came Danzig to the Kingdom of Prussia. It lost however its (reduced) autonomy status. 1807 to 1813 were independent the city on operation Napoleon and had the status „free city Danzig “. At the beginning 19. Century the city was inhabited to a large extent by Germans as well as a kaschubischen and Polish minority.

1815 was confirmed the divisions of Poland by the Viennese congress, that was dominated by the division and winner powers over Napoleon Russia, Austria, Great Britain and Prussia. Danzig remained with Prussia and became capital of the province west Prussia.

Long market and city hall around 1895
Langer Markt und Rathaus 2004
long market and city hall 2004

1831 the Prussian administration accomplished for the first time a collection over the native language of the inhabitants of the governmental district Danzig. According to the collection 24% were the inhabitant Polish and/or in the governmental district Danzig, which covered the city Danzig and the surrounding countryside. kaschubisch and 76% German-language.

1852 receive Danzig in the course of the building of railways connection to since 1842 the Prussian east course (Berlin king mountain), in the structure. First dirkte rail connection open via Berlin the entrance to the Central European Eisenbahnnetz.

1866 become the free Hanseatic city Danzig as part of the province west Prussia member north Germans of the federation and the German customs union. As consequence of the omission of the tariff barriers a rapid industrialization begins in Danzig.

The economic upswing continues after the establishment of the second German Reich 1871. The cities Danzig and the nahegelegne eastPrussian Elbing become centers of the modern building of ships (Schichauwerft) and centers of the industrialization in west Prussia. The industrialization is accompanied by a rapid population rise.

free city Danzig

with the contract of Versailles 1919 was separated Danzig with its surrounding areas from the German Reich and to 15. November 1920 to an independent state, which explains free city Danzig. This state stood however under supervision of the Völkerbunds; Polish and English troops ensured the new status of the city. Since this decision was not made dependent on a popular vote, the German Reich and the by the majority German inhabitants of the city saw of US - president Wilson demanded right of self-determination of the peoples hurts.

To 6. December 1920 assembled the first Danziger people day, which had come out from free elections. It consisted of 120 delegates. Mayor Heinrich Sahm was selected to the president of the senate of the free city Danzig. The parties placed the following delegates: German national people's party 34, free one economic combination 12, a Germandemocratic party 10, central party 17, a social-democratic party 19, independent Social Democrats 21, a Polish party 7.

1923 gave 96% the citizen German and 3% to a census in the framework Polish and/or. kaschubisch as native language on. Against the census result Polish historians Drzycimski estimated the portion of Polish citizens of the Danziger total population in the year 1923 on 16%.

Result of the census of the 1. November 1923
nationality entire German German and Polish Polish and Kaschubisch Russian, Ukrainian Jiddisch no instruction
city Danzig 335.921 327.827 1.108 6.788 99 22 77
district Danzig 30.809 20.666 521 5.239 2.529 580 1.274
entire 366.730 348.493 1.629 12.027 2.628 602 1.351
per cent of 100% 95.03% 0.44% 3.28% 0.72% 0.16% 0.37%
Krahnthor around 1895
Krantor im März 2005
crane gate in March 2005


The free city Danzig consisted at that time of the cities Danzig and Zoppot as well as the small cities Tiegenhof, new pond, Oliva and Ohra, whereby new pond and Tiegenhof in the Danziger Werder and/or. in the circle large Werder lay. The Polish minority possessed own schools and clubs and societies, however by the German population of the Öftern with disfavor was regarded and discriminated against; in addition lived in Danzig before 1939 Kaschuben and Russians. Among the inhabitants were also numerous Jews, who were expropriated and deportiert after 1938 to the predominant part.

Danzig had substantial economic problems, under the customs borders to the German Reich, in intermediate wartime after a initial economic recovery the global economic crisis and a little developed industry.

The port and the tariff as well as the international railway connections - however not the streetcar and Kleinbahnen in the Free State area - were placed under Polish administration. The Republic of Poland put on a ammunition camp in the Danziger port (Westerplatte) and stationed there its military. The moreover one it was permitted to the Polish state for connection of the dockland with Poland, a post office and a Telegrafenverwaltung to furnish „the Polish post office in such a way specified “in the dockland.

Problematic conditions, the cause for many - remained unconsidered - complaints of the free city Danzig to the Völkerbund, were, created under the population of resentment against Poland.

In the middle of 1933 therefore (also) into Danzig the national socialists (NSDAP) came to the power, which however because of international control of the area until 1936 /37 had to resign themselves to opposition parties, which could prevent a two-thirds majority of the national socialists with the people tag elections of 1935 (despite tried undue influencing of the electorate) clearly. While Hermann Rauschning 1933/34 tried an approximation as a president of the senate to Poland, successor remained being Arthur Greiser in addition on distance and led the free city Danzig in increasing (also financial) dependence to the German Reich. At the end of August 1939 explained themselves the gau leader Albert Forster as the head of state and ordered at the 1. September 1939 contrary to international law, after realm-German armed forces had attacked the Polish ammunition depot on the Westerplatte, the connection Danzigs to the German Reich. The German attack on the Westerplatte becomes today as beginning 2. World war seen.

Special stamps 1939

the Second World War

in the times of the Second World War became in particular the Jews, in addition, extracted the substantial citizen and human rights from the small Polish minority in Danzig; many lost their life. Others again could be registered on the so-called people list than Germans and escaped so pursuit by nationality changes. In addition many of these humans in concentration camps (like the KZ supporting yard east of Danzig) were deportiert and died there.


At the end of March 1945 Danzig by the Soviet army (the Red Army) one included and one conquered. By the fighting large part of the city center (consisting of right city, old part of town, suburb and Niederstadt) were destroyed. During and after the invasion the still received houses of the city center of the Soviet soldiers were geplündert and been into fire. Altogether a very high portion of the land development was destroyed.


Already in the first Nachkriegsmonaten most Germans remained in Danzig were driven out by the Russian and Polish authorities. Back a minority remained of approximately 5% of the original urban population with mostly (also) Polish ancestors. Driving out had been prepared systematically by Polish authorities. Assistance of the so-called Bierut decrees all mobiles and immobiles private Eingentum were remunerationless expropriated by persons of German nationality, German language or German origin in favor of the Polish state. Criminal offences against the German civilian population were committed in particular rape, robbery and murder by Nichtverfolgung of these criminal offences on the part of the Polish state defacto were legalisiert. A legal and moral processing of these events today nearly did not take place until. However there are itself zubeschäftigen since end of the neuenziger increasing readiness younger Poland with the war crimes of the own Vorväter.

post-war period - Poland

the Danziger right city as well as numerous architectural monuments of the old part of town were reconstructed following earlymodern models. Beginning of the 80's again moved the city into the view of international attention: The Polish trade union Solidarność, aforementioned of Lech Wałęsa, began in the Danziger threw its resistance against the dictatorship of the communist rule.

Blick vom Langen Markt auf das Grüne Tor 2004
View of being enough market of the Greens the gate 2004

presence

with the case of the iron curtain changed the situation of the national minorities in the Republic of Poland, also the German minority. In Danzig in the year 1990 the federation of the German minority was created (member strength: 5,512 members; Source: Federation of the German minority, Danzig, 2005). Soon thereafter younger Polish Danziger began to discover the traces of the German Danzig hidden so far; this search for local identity also today still is under way. Among the most important persons of this identity discourse the liberal politician Donald Tusk as well as the writers Paweł covering and Stefan Chwin rank.


Günter Grass seized the Blechtrommel history Danzigs in the novel lapidary so together (before he after-draws it in more detail):

First the Rugier came, then the Goten and Gepiden , then the Kaschuben , came from which Oskar in direct line descends. Soon thereafter those sent the Adalbert of Prague to Poland. That came with the cross and by Kaschuben or Pruzzen with the axe was killed.
That happened in a fishing village and the village was called Gyddanyzc. From Gydannyzc one made Danczik, from Danczik became Dantzig, which late Danzig was written, and today is called Danzig Gdańsk. (The Blechtrommel, Luchterhand 1959, S. to 379)

see also

population growth since the year 1000

tourism

Danzig is the starting point of the cycle track EuroVelo 9 (the Baltic sea - Adria or amber route), which runs from Danzig by Poland, Tschechien, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. EuroVelo 10 (the Baltic sea-round or the Hanse round) runs also by Danzig.

education

Danzig possesses ten universities with 60.436 students and altogether 10,439 graduates (conditions: 2001).

  • University of Danzig (Uniwersytet Gdański)
  • technical University of Danzig (Politechnika Gdańska)
  • medical academy (Akademia Medyczna)
  • sport academy (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego in. Jędrzeja Śniadeckiego)
  • music academy (Akademia Muzyczna in. Stanisława Moniuszki)
  • academy of arts (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych) [1]
  • Instytut Budownictwa Wodnego PAN
  • Ateneum - Szkoła Wyższa
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Administracji
  • Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa
  • Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno Ekonomiczna
  • Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Hotelarstwa w Gdańsku
  • Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania

objects of interest

Schiffsmuseum
ship museum

of twin cities

personalities

to the personalities Danzigs most well-known in Germany probably belong to Andreas Schlüter, Arthur Schopenhauer, Günter Grass, Lech Wałęsa, Dariusz Michalczewski, Andrzej Grubba and Donald Tusk.

A complete list of the most important honour citizens and the personalities born in Danzig is under list of the personalities of the city Danzig.

Web on the left of

Commons: Danzig - pictures, videos and/or audio files


 

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