Sublim (lat.; dt. raised; Nomen: Raisedness or the raised) means something in the everyday linguistic usage that only with sufficient feeling for the fine and unusual ones understanding and/or. is perceptible; in this sense the Sublime of large projecting ability and understanding witnesses.
As aesthetic category however it means something perceptible, its substantial characteristic a seeming of size and raisedness, gfs. even holyness is, which usually transzendiert that “beautiful ones”. The Sublime and/or. Raised one is connected therefore always also with the feeling by unattainableness and immeasurability. It releases astonishment, which is connected with reverence and/or fright.
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antique ones to Burke
already with Aristoteles plays the raised (Sublime) a large role in his tragedy theory. Decidedly it is mentioned in the antique one in a paper, which is usually attributed Longinus. In the philosophy of the modern times it becomes prominent particularly by Edmund Burke (A philosophical enquiry into the origin OF our ideas OF the sublime and beautiful, 1757; German: Philosophical investigation on the origin of our ideas of the raised one and beautiful one). Its British compatriot Henry Home tried a psychological and physiological interpretation of the Sublimen in its element OF Criticism. After Burke the Sublime, which he distinguishes expressly from the beautiful one, solves a “form from frights or pain” out; it produces one “delightful for horror”: “Whatever is fitted in any sort ton of excite the ideas OF pain and more danger, that is tons say, more whatever is in any sort terrible, or disconversant about terrible of object… is A SOURCE OF the sublime. “
Kant: the raised as “collection” over the Sinnlichkeit
Immanuel Kant, who justifies the aesthetics in its criticism of the judgement again, defines the beautiful as what is introduced indifferent, from itself out, “without terms, as object of a general well-being favour”. The beautiful causes a desire feeling, although it is neither necessarily useful nor morally good. In the resort to Burke Kant distinguishes the raised likewise from the beautiful one. For Kant an object is raised, if it causes raised ideas in the perception. He finds such articles particularly in nature, whereby the mental condition of the viewer plays the crucial role: “In such a way the far can, by storms infuriated ocean to be not raised called. Its sight is grässlich; and one must have filled the mind with various ideas, if it is to be tuned by such an opinion to a feeling, which is raised. “- In view of the infinite sea humans recognize according to Kant his faint. It can oppose however the realization to the supremacy of nature that, “although humans would have to be subject to that force”, its “mankind”, which remained unaffected consciousness of the “own raisedness of the regulation”, by it. Evenly that mental overcoming of the sinnlichen nature of humans distinguishes the raised: “Beautiful is what pleases in bare evaluation (thus do not arrange after terms of the understanding for the feeling of the sense). From this it follows automatically that it must please without all interest. What pleases directly by its resistance against the interest of the senses, is raised. “Relevant for the raised is “a movement of the mind”. Is raised for Kant, “which is absolutely large”, “which over all comparing is large”. The “inadequacy of our fortune of the size estimation” arouses the feeling of a “übersinnlichen fortune in us”.
Schiller: the raised as “exit from the sinnlichen world”
Friedrich Schiller attaches to Kant and differentiates the raised (Sublime) of the beautiful one thereby, which is the latter within human nature expression of the liberty; in contrast to it from the sinnlichen, contactable world independent raised ones raise it over his nature. The beautiful binds us to the sinnliche world, the raised however frees us from it. According to Schiller the raised consists “on the one hand of the feeling of our faint and delimitation to cover an article on the other hand of that feelings of our supremacy, which frightens, submits that mentally, to which our sinnlichen forces are subject” before no borders and. With the raised one we felt free, “because the sinnlichen impulses on the legislation of the reason no influence have, because the spirit acts here, as if it would stand under no different than its own laws”. The raised “provides an exit from the sinnlichen world” for us and is at the same time “a mixed feeling. It is a composition of Wehsein… and of glad its… “- with the raised one “reason and Sinnlichkeit are not correct together, and evenly in this contradiction between both the charm lies, with which it seizes our Gemüth”: “The raised article is from double kind. We refer it either to our version strength and succumb with the attempt for forming for us a picture or a term from it to; or we refer it to our vitality and regard it as a power, against which the unsrige in nothing disappears. But whether we receive the embarrassing feeling of our borders directly in the one as in the other case by its Veranlassung, then we flee it nevertheless not, but rather with irresistible force by it are tightened. Would this be probably possible, if the borders of unsrer fantasy were the borders of unsrer version strength at the same time? “Schiller sees the expression of a raised convicition in that became.
Adorno and Lyotard: the limitness and demarcation of the art
among the philosophers 20. Century the Sublime plays and/or. Raised in particular with Theodor W. Adorno and Jean François Lyotard an outstanding role. The latter proceeds from also the experience addressed with Kant that the raised in the art can copy nature only inadequately. Also for Hegel the raised was “the attempt to express the infinite without finding within the range of the features an article, which suitably for this representation would prove”. Both Lyotard and Adorno insistieren on the fact that a transposition of the raised one must remain impossible into the sphere of the political one, because this flows either into terror or fascism.
- Longinus/Schönberger, Otto (Hrsg. and. Over.): Of the raised one. - /Dt Gr. - 157 S. Stuttgart: Reclam. - ISBN 3-15-008469-5
- Burke, Edmund: Philosophical investigation on the origin of our ideas of the raised one and beautiful one. Hamburg: Mine, 1989. - ISBN 3-78730-944-6
- Kant, Immanuel: Criticism of the judgement. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1974. - ISBN 3-518-27657-3 (Bd. 10 of the expenditure for work)
- Adorno, Theodor W.: Aesthetic theory. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 2003. - ISBN 3-518-29307-9 (Bd. 7 of the expenditure for work; here as paperback)
- Lyotard, Jean François: Analytics of the raised one - Kant lessons. Munich: William finch, 1994. - ISBN 3-77052-885-9
- Aguado, María Isabel Peña: Aesthetics of the raised one: Burke, Kant, Adorno, Lyotard. Vienna: Passages publishing house, 1994. - ISBN 3-85165-088-3
- praised, Christine: The raised. Weinheim: VCH, Acta humaniora, 1989. - ISBN 3-527-17664-0 (essay collection)
Web on the left of
- Longinus, on the Sublime (English one. Translation with Peithô's Web)
- raised (the raised) (Rudolf Eisler, dictionary of of the philosophical terms)
- Immanuel Kant, Kritik of the judgement (project good mountain)
- Friedrich Schiller, over the raised (project good mountain)
- G.W.F. Hegel lectures on the aesthetics II. Development of the ideal to the special forms art-beautiful second chapter. The symbolism of the raisedness (textlog.de - historical texts and dictionaries)