Data processing

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Data processing one calls the purposeful transformation of generally large data sets by humans or Machines in a given procedure.

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forms of the data processing

already for a long time gives it the manualData processing by humans (with the head or a note pad the old Romans already counted).

During the data processing by machines is first the mechanical data processing (e.g. with a typewriter) mentioned. The electrical followed the mechanical data processing (e.g. with an electrical cash register or electrical typewriter).

To good the latter the electronic data processing ( EDP) of special importance is, there it for the technology thrust 20. Century is considerably responsible. In this connection computer science is also concerned with the systematic processing of dataAssistance of computers.

data processing by humans

data processing is actually already a human topic, not only since the Romans, but since then it organizations gives (in the trade, with storing, etc. keep account) or structures exist (realms, temple, companies, taxand many more).

Origins of the data processing lie in functions of the administration, those already in pre-Christian company forms necessarily were and among other things also to the development of cuneiform script, clay/tone boards among other things contributed.

In particular the development of the writing, the different language systems, the writer and messenger natureas well as smoke, fire and signal telegraphy had thereby as data media high meaning for politics, military and economics.

Within a rather peaceful range the painting information transfer makes, - storage - therefore processing possible and can also as data media be interpreted.

Data processing by humans is basedtoday mostly on the execution of bureaucratic procedures. Forms or other standardized documents in by laws or work instructions of prescribed way are worked on. Disadvantage of the human data processing is the throughput small opposite machines. A direct treatment by humans is today only meaningfully, where complex decisions must be made.

data processing by machines

important drivers for the development of machine data processing were

the Inkas have already special data processing means for the control of stock quantities etc. used, this becomes as Quipu designated.

When one of the pioneers of the machine data processing applies for Herman Hollerith, which used punch cards, in order to master the data sets of the census 1890/1891 in the USA. The tabulating machine developed for it became in the course of the time around further machines like thatSorter, the mixer, the punch, the printer etc. supplemented. Finally a large Firmenimperium, IBM developed from the extensive paragraph of these products. These techniques became in companies and authorities as organizational resources to approx. 1980 applied.

As a pioneer of the electronicData processing applies for Konrad Zuse, which manufactured first electromechanical calculating machines in relay technique. With the introduction of the semiconductor technology electronic calculating machines (computers) in consequence became broadly available and revolutionized thus the data processing. The computer can due to its high speed of operation very muchlarge data sets master.

techniques of the data processing

unit operations of the data processing are according to the EH principle:

  • Input
  • processing
  • expenditure

in addition task-dependent e.g. come. storing, Parallelisieren, sorting.

see also

 

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