as deuterokanonisch (of Greek: deuteros = second) above all catholics call some writings of the old person of will, which are for the catholic church an integral component of the Bible, thus canonically to be regarded, however from Jews and Protestanten for apokryph to be held. As protokanonisch (of Greek: protos = first) against it also the writings of the old person of will contained in the Jewish and Protestant canon are designated.


and protokanonisch go to definition the designations on Sixtus of Siena(1520 - 1569) back, it in the first volume of its” Bibliotheca Sancta “(Venice 1566) for the first time used. The designations allude it to the history of the canon development, in that after a initial equal treatment to doubts about the canonical characterthe deuterokanonischen writings came. Since there were no such doubts for the protokanonischen writings, these came to a certain extent as first into the canon, of the deuterkanonischen against it as second to overcoming these doubts (for latin church in 4. Century after Christ).

With the deuterokanonischen writings acts more exactly around books or additives to books, which in the Septuaginta were delivered, not however in the masoretischen text tradition.

In detail it acts over:

the remaining parts of the Septuaginta, which are not in the Jewish and Protestant canon (3. Esra, 3. and 4. Makkabäer, the prayer of the Manasses and the Psalmen Salomos),against it of the catholic church as apokryph are regarded.

historical development

the first Christians had a completely unabashed relationship to the Septuaginta. Most altestamentarische quotations in the new will originate from the Septuaginta. Several times becomes also on placesalluded, which are only in the text of writings, which only in the Septuaginta. The apostolischen fathers and early church fathers quote from these writings, without making a difference to writings, which are only in the Hebrew canon.

WithMelito of Sardes († around 190) changed the situation. It had caught up in the holy country inquiries, and came to the conclusion that only the books of the Jewish canon belong to the old person will. In the consequence have a row -above all more east - church fathers itself this position (with small variations) attached. By them later above all Hieronymus should become influential, however, although he regarded not in Hebrew writings present than except-canonically, it nevertheless into its Bible translation, those- in latin church later over several centuries obligatory - Vulgata, took up and also from them (partially as holy writing) quoted. Influential also its use of the term should become” apokryph “: It did not name Biblical status stressingbut when häretisch outstanding books (as before it Athanasius), but evenly the deuterokanonischen writings, which can be quite read” for building the people “, even if they did not belong to its view after the Bible.

In the west it gave altogether onlyvery few doubts about the canonical character of the deuterokanonischen writings. Determining became the position of the holy Augustinus, which insisted on its canonical character also against Hieronymus. Its position became in a set of African Plenarkonzilien, in which Augustinus participated, (beginningwith the Plenarkonzil in Hippo 393) and to some papal letters confirms.

Thus the discussion was around the canon of the old person of will around the center 4 in that latin, western church. Century in the reason finally and up to the reformation(except for completely few exceptions) like naturally also today the valid canon one presupposed.

Also in the eastern churches the conviction of the Kanonizität of the deuterokanonischen writings became generally accepted later (it there Anaginoskomena mentioned). However become thereby partially.still additional writings of the Septuaginta, above all 3. Makkabäer and 1. Esra (of catholic authors 3. Esra mentioned), and in case of the äthiopischen church even into the Septuaginta not contained books Henoch and 4. Esra.


In the resort to Hieronymus the Reformatoren rejected the canonical status of the deuterokanonischen writings. Here the influence of the human on the Reformatoren made itself valid. The tendency was to arrive at the original sources (Ad hair dryer width unit) to that extent becamethe Hebrew tradition rediscovers. Some, like above all Luther, Hieronymus followed their quite positive estimate also in the use of the term” apokryph “and. Thus it added it - would one-eat with the prayer - its Bible translation with the following headingas appendix to old persons the will on:

Apokrypha: Those are books: so the holy writing not equivalent held, and nevertheless useful and well to read are.

The refusal became later more radically and the apokryphen books in Protestant Bible translations no moreprinted. In modern ones in co-operation with the catholic church provided ökumenischen translations are again contained it.

Particularly in reaction to the position of the Reformatoren became on the council of Trient to 8. April 1546 for the catholic church thatCanon - including the deutorokanonischen writings - obligatorily fixed. It was also gotten straight that they are to be regarded the remaining books of the holy writing as of equal standing.


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