German Democratic Republic
|of these articles is concerned with the German Democratic Republic. For further meanings of the abbreviation GDR, see GDR (term clarifying).|
|German Democratic Republic|
|capital||Berlin eastern part, official designation in the GDR: Berlin, capital of the GDR, in the west: East Berlin|
|system of government||People's Republic of|
|arrangement|| until 1952: 5 countries and Berlin (east)|
starting from 1952: 15 districts
|surface||108,179 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||about 16.35 million (conditions January 1990)|
|population density||of 151 inhabitants per km ²|
|existence period||7. October 1949 - 2. October 1990|
|currency|| until 1964: German Marks (not to confound with the German Mark of the Federal Republic of Germany)|
1964 renamed in Marks of the German issuing bank
1967-1990: Mark of the GDR
starting from 1.Juli 1990 (monetary union): German Mark (the Federal Republic of)
|time belt||UTC +01: 00|
|national anthem||Auferstanden from ruins|
|national holiday||7. October (day of the Republic of)|
|Kfz characteristic||to at the end of of 1973: D, thereafter: GDR|
|Internet TLD|| |
the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was a socialist German state, to 7. October 1949 was created on the area of the Soviet zone of occupation including the Soviet sector of Berlin and at the 3. October 1990 due to a resolution of its people chamber of the Federal Republic of Germany joined.
designation in not-socialist countries
the GDR became due to the claim to sole representation of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) into the 1960er years primarily as Soviet zone of occupation (SBZ), Soviet zone, east zone or colloquially simply only zone calls. Regarding the undemocratic structure of the GDR (the second D of the abbreviation stands for „democratically “) it was called in particular in conservative and right circles in the Federal Republic also „the so-called GDR “, or the abbreviation was written with quotation marks.
the GDR was established five months after establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany. Politically it was dominated from the outset by the SED and was part of the Eastern Bloc standing under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. From 1949 to 1971 walter Ulbricht was as a first secretary of the central committee (ZK) the SED the actual ruling power, from 1971 to 1989 Erich Honecker (starting from 1976 with the title Secretary-General) and of 18. October 1989 up to the resignation of the entire Politbüros of the SED at the 3. December Egon Krenz.
First the Soviet Union operated the adjustment of the GDR to the centralcommunist system less strongly, in order the chance on a politically neutral and perhaps also Soviet dominated German unit not to play. This changed however suddenly with the refusal of the Stalinnote 1952 by the Federal Government under Konrad Adenauer and by the westallied. The collectivization of the agriculture and the nationalization of the enterprises were advanced substantial. The countries of the GDR were dissolved 1952 and replaced by districts. To 17. June 1953 came it into east Berlin to demonstrations against increased work standards, which expanded in far parts of the country too partly very extensive rebellions also against the party dictatorship of the SED. These were struck down militarily by the Soviet troops stationed in the GDR; it came to victims.
1985 the economy of the GDR also due to different conditions (the GDR carried extensive reparation payments out to the Soviet Union and did without due to the pressure from Moscow the financial achievements from the Mars resounding plan for the reconstruction of Europe), in addition, due to the collectivization more slowly developed than those the Federal Republic of Germany and substantial liberties was not granted, moved from 1945 to 1961 about two million humans from free decision, by Abwerbung (usually by attractive job supply) or on the escape before Repressionen of the GDR into the Federal Republic of Germany.
Since the establishment of the GDR citizens in rising numbers emigrated into the Federal Republic. Between 1949 and 1961 left about 2.6 million humans the GDR and east Berlin, of it fled alone 47,433 still in the two first August weeks 1961.
The drift became economically threatening for the GDR, since above average many young and well trained humans left the state, although „the republic escape was punishable “. It was fled primarily over Berlin, where the sector boundary between West Berlin and east Berlin was hardly to be controlled, contrary to already since 1952 the sharply guarded German domestic border of the GDR to the Federal Republic. Since that 13. August 1961 was built the border by check plants, life-threatening mine barriers , self firing plants and aimed shooting border soldiers still more comprehensively „secured “and the citizens of Berlin wall, which became the symbol of the division of Germany and Europe. With the attempt, this of the GDR as „anti-fascist protective wall “designated Sperrsystem to overcome, several hundred humans at the German domestic border was killed. The violations of human rights, among them at the German domestic border, committed by the GDR, were documented in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly furnished centers Erfassungsstelle of the national administrations of justice in salt lattices.
In the course of the east politics of the governments of the German Federal Republic since 1966, which were formulated mainly by Willy Brandt (minister of foreign affairs 1966 69 and Federal Chancellor 1969 74), it came to an approximation between GDR and FRG. This gave its claim to sole representation up ; the GDR recognized on that the Germans are a people, who lived only in two states. Thereupon 1973 became both German states of members of the UN.
In the summer and autumn 1989 ever more citizen of the GDR over Hungary , to 2 fled. May 1989 its border to Austria had opened and starting from that 11. September 1989 also DDR-Bürgern officially the departure to Austria permitted, as well as over the messages the Federal Republic of Germany in eastCentral European states, particularly in Prague. Since the GDR guidance did not want to reconstruct the transformation politics of Soviet Secretary-General Mikhail Gorbatschow, the GDR destabilized itself increasingly from the inside out.
The degradation of the economic situation, which could not be stopped also by one of the Bavarian Prime Minister Strauss mediated credit from the Federal Republic of Germany, and on the Soviet Perestroika - politics which are based, however hopes for liberal changes, disappointed by Honecker, particularly led in the context of the peace prayers the Evangelist church 1989 to regular protest demonstrations. These expanded particularly in Leipzig very fast to large demonstrations, which remained peaceful - differently than the protest demonstrations because of the forced through journey of the message refugees from Prague and Warsaw, who led at the main station Dresden to violent excesses.
To 18. October 1989 had to withdraw Honecker under the pressure of the public protests, like few days later the complete GDR government. To 9. November was opened the citizens of Berlin wall. To 17. November selected the people chamber Hans Modrow, past 1. Secretary of the semidirect line of the SED Dresden, to the new chairman of the Council of Ministers. In its reign the rounds became tables the second democratic discussion level. On Mondays demonstrations of the population of GDR and the wall opening led finally to the collapse of the SED regime. The unarmed on Mondays demonstrators remained peaceful, and the armed organs of the GDR, which had reacted above all to 1989 still with Prügeleien and arrests to the demonstrations, done without, probably in view of the increasing mass of the demonstrators, to a large extent on the dissolution by force of the meetings. The conscious renouncement of force became clearest with the large Leipziger demonstration, in their apron it public arrangements between SED semidirect line and prominent DDR-Bürgern (and. A. Masur) gave briefly. With the first free elections to the people chamber to 18. March 1990 became the alliance for Germany, a Wahlbündnis THERE from CDU east , DSU and, with 48,15 per cent of the delivered voices choice winners. On basis of the agreement contract the German Democratic Republic at the 3 stepped. October 1990 of the Federal Republic of Germany according to the article 23 A. F. the Basic Law .
see also: Political system of the GDR
the political system of the GDR was a socialist People's Republic, which was developed according to the principles of the democratic centralism. The official institutions exercised formally power, could actually however until 1989 only resolutions confirm:
- People chamber (parliament)
- Council of Ministers (government)
- Council of State (collective Präsidial committee, whose chairman was a head of state, assigned after the death of the first and only president William Pieck)
the democratic basis was cancelled by the choice form with a single list (national front), in whose result a comprehensive claim to leadership of the socialist unit party of Germany (SED) became secured, which came to an agreement closely again in the procedure with the Soviet Union. The absolute claim to leadership of the SED was also officially in the condition of the GDR embodied since 1968 then, its paragraph only at the 1. December 1989 was painted at present the turn still by the old people chamber. In article 1 of the condition of the GDR it meant:
- The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state of the workers and farmers. It is the political organization of the workers in city and country under guidance of the working class and its Marxist-Leninistic party.
The political development was essentially determined therefore by the members of the Politbüros and secretariat of the central committee of the SED. The centralistic structures were to these at the disposal, which was present in all areas of life (Nomenklatura), including an extensive monitoring and informer apparatus (Ministry for public security), with censorship of printed media, sound broadcasting and television and Repressalien against politically other-thinking one.
The right nature of the GDR did not correspond to the standard for a constitutional state. In the GDR attorneys were not independent of the state. They were not right to file inspection. Attorneys got, like the judges, only a recapitulatory report. The possibility of letting the documents examine by an attorney (in particular in criminal procedures) did not exist. There were not political prisoners in the GDR terminology, it was kriminalisiert and as an offender designated.
Additionally a politicalization of the entire society took place. With the Ideologisierung and the associated censorship in media, literature and art with a new terminology an enemy picture was publicised at the same time, which above all the youth internal should.
- 1948 developed with the kasernierten readiness the first armed units after the war. They were transferred of 1952 into the Kasernierte people police, which was forerunners of the NVA. Parallel those was created people police lake and - air. In the course of the yearly 1956 most units were transferred into the NVA.
- The national People's Army (NVA) became at the 1. March 1956 based. Since then the 1 became. March as a day of the NVA committed. It consisted of the ground forces (LaSK), the People's Navy (VM) and air forces/air defense (LSK/LV).
- The combat teams of the working class
- the border troops of the GDR belonged not to the NVA, were however subordinated to the Ministry like the national People's Army for national defense (MfNV) and for the guard of the borders of the GDR responsible.
- German people police
- Ministry for public security (MfS)
- customs administration of the GDR
- civil defense of the GDR
the society for sport and technology (GST) was created 1952 and was one of several paramilitärischen organizations in the surrounding field of the NVA. It contributed to the militarization of the society, by accomplishing the legally prescribed before-military training at schools, vocational schools, universities and in the enterprises. The participation in the before-military training was for example a obligating component of each apprenticeship contract.
The role of the NVA with striking down the Prager of spring:
The 7. Armored division and 11. Motorized infantry division should originally march also into the ČSSR. In the reality however they rendered only logistic help and stood directly at the border GDR/ČSSR for the military security of the operation. Various liaison officers, NVA Nachrichtensoldaten and also MfS officers were direct in the ČSSR in covered or corresponding use.
a dominant party of the GDR was the socialist unit party of Germany. Their claim to leadership was fixed since 1968 in the condition and manifested themselves on all levels of the social life in the GDR.
Beside the SED were there four further parties, which unite mass organizations in the democratic block so mentioned (national front) with the SED and co-operated, the coalitions in such a way specified:
- Christian democratic union of Germany (CDU)
- a liberal-democratic party of Germany (LDPD)
- a nationaldemocratic party of Germany (NDPD)
- a democratic farmer party of Germany (DBD)
you were formally in the most committees and organs of the GDR involved, had however in fact no real portion of power. Furthermore the number of members of the coalitions was limited.
In the time of the turn 1989 numerous new parties and citizen movements were based. This were among other things:
- New forum
- democracy now
- initiative for peace and human rights
- a social-democratic party of the GDR (SDP)
- combined links
- democratic departure (THERE)
- Germans social union (DSU)
- the Green a party
- independent woman Mrs
to only free people chamber choice to 18. Also many of the again created parties and citizen movements stepped March 1990, on partly in Wahlbündnissen created in addition beside the old GDR parties, which represented usually in the meantime completely different goals.
A number of mass organizations so mentioned belonged to mass organizations beside the parties to the national front. They were partly represented with own mandates in the representative governments up to the people chamber. The predominant majority of the DDR-Bürger in the schoolable or employed person age was in or several of these organizations member.
- Free German trade union federation (FDGB)
- democratic woman Mrs. of Germany (DFD)
- Free one German Youth (FDJ)
- pioneer organization Ernst Thälmann
- society for sport and technology (GST)
- society for GermanSoviet friendship (DSF) in the league for people friendship
- German turn and sport federation (DTSB)
- people solidarity
- culture federation
the term GDR opposition is used today in different way. Very heterogeneous currents than opposition in the GDR are partly summarized.
Civil rights activist inside of the GDR to take the Ministry for public security of the GDR (MfS) in purchase for a reformation, more rarely for the abolishment of the GDR and for it monitoring and partial Repressionen occurred by had. Many of them created political parties and citizen movements during the Wendezeit (1989), like z. B. the new forum or the democratic departure. After the turn civil rights activists - depending upon different personal motives of its oppositionals attitude - followed different parties (CDU, SPD, Party of Democratic Socialism) or remained non-party.
The then largest oppositional magazine (Samizdad) telegraph (magazine) (ehem. Environmental sheets) appears until today in Berlin.
Flag and coat of arms
three horizontal strips consisting in the traditional Germandemocratic colors black-red-golden with the state coat of arms of the GDR in the center, of hammer and circle, surround by an ear ring as symbol of the alliance by workers, farmers and intelligence.
First drafts of the coat of arms by Fritz Behrendt only hammer and ear ring contained, as a sign „of the worker and farmer state “. The final version was based mainly on the work of Heinz Behling.
With law of 26. September 1955 was determined the state coat of arms with hammer, circles and ear ring, as state flag however further „only “black-red-golden. With law of the 1. October 1959 was inserted the coat of arms into the state flag. Public presenting of this flag was regarded to end of the 1960er in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin as an offence against condition and public order and prevented by police measures (explanation of the Ministers of the Interior compared von Bund and Ländern, October 1959). Only 1969 did not order the Federal Government, „that the police anywhere more against the use of flag and coat of arms of the GDR intervene should.“
Upon the request of the DSU the first freely selected people chamber of the GDR decided to 31. May 1990 that the GDR state coat of arms should be removed within one week in and at public buildings. It found nevertheless up to the official end of the republic for example on documents of far various use.
- German angler federation (DAV)
- Academy of Sciences of the GDR (AdW)
- national olympic committee of the GDR (NOC)
- German soccer federation (DFV)
- Leopoldina, resounds (Saale)
- to Urania
- federation of the small gardners, settlers and small animal breeder (VKSK)
- combination of the mutual farmer assistance (VdgB)
- chamber of the technology (KdT)
- Domowina (federation of the Sorben in the Lausitz)
- German red cross (German Red Cross)
- league for people friendship
- peace advice of the GDR
- of general German engine haven federation (ADMV)
- national advice of the GDR for the care and spreading of the German cultural heritage
- combination of the pursued ones of the Nazi regime (VVN); You belonged for example former KZ-prisoners. In the population a VVN membership was well-known as guarantor for a good, above average old-age pension.
Educational system of the GDR
major item: Educational system of the GDR
the socialist education system of the GDR was essentially as a uniform total educational system conceived, with following tertiary educational facilities. Constructing on the Vorschulerziehung in the kindergarten and starting from the 1960er years zehnklassigen poly-technical high school (POS ), obligatory on all children, followed
- a two to three-year professional training (conclusion skilled worker)
- a three-year professional training (skilled worker letter with Abitur) or
- Abitur training on the extended high school (EOS). This began already after the 8. Class of the POS and led in four years to the Abitur. Only starting from beginning of the 1980er years followed 2 years EOS the completion of the ten-year POS.
Substantial characteristics of the educational system of the GDR were
- the uniformity of education contents for all children to class 10 with increasing possibilities of a differentiation, in particular after class 10; Follow this uniformity were the identical final examinations of the 10. Class and/or the Abitur same on in each case days,
- the purposeful preparation for the later working sphere by poly-technical training and an emphasis setting on the mathematical-scientific fan, the spirit-scientific fan had a strong ideological adjustment,
- the effort around a unit of education and education with the goal of the complete integration of the graduates into the socialist society.
were religions in the GDR different religious communities. The Christian churches, in particular since 1969 the eight Evangelist regional churches united in the federation of the Evangelist churches in the GDR and, played the largest role with far fewer members, the Roman-catholic church, in addition, different free churches, for example the federation of Evangelist-freechurch municipalities in the GDR. 1950 belonged to about 85% the DDR-Bürger of the Evangelist and about 10% of the catholic church. Until 1989 the portion of the church members of the total population decreased/went back on approximately 25% with the Protestanten and 5% with the catholics. The portion of the Atheisten of the total population rose from approximately 6% in the year 1949 to approximately 70% 1989.
Beside Christian there were Jewish municipalities, as well as isolates buddhistische, hinduistische and Muslim groups starting from the 1980er years. The religious organizations were the only legal organizations independent of the state.
Freedom of religion was fixed and was formally also granted also in the GDR in the condition. The GDR with different methods nevertheless tried to extract the influence of the churches back urge and above all young humans from church influence. Their sharpest form had the anti-church policy of the GDR at the beginning of the 1950er years. It culminated 1953 in the Kriminalisierung „of the boys municipalities “. This led to numerous Relegierungen of schools and universities and to arrests, which were however again taken back in June 1953. However the possibility for church members was of studying and/or also in subsequent year tenth. a national career to hit, makes more difficult.
Consequence also this politics was it that the number of religiously bound humans in the course of GDR history decreased substantially. The policy of the GDR could not prevent however that the Christian churches remained a certain independent social factor. The history of the years 1989/90 showed then that straight in the Evangelist churches was as halfpublic assembly places a large part of humans to be partly without religious who became the carriers of the peaceful revolution in the GDR.
See also: Christian and church in the GDR
culture and art
major item: Culture in the GDR
in the GDR gave it to 10,471 general screen end schools (under it 1150 middle schools and 373 high schools, i.e. EOS), in addition 307 technical schools, 46 universities (under it 6 universities), 5 academies, 86 theatres, 40 Sinfonieorchester, 11,092 libraries, 284 homeland art and natural history museums, 803 cultural centers, 451 club houses, 6 full-time people art ensembles and 3078 cinemas (conditions 1957).
The order art of the GDR and nearly all works of art of the GDR in the government property became short before the reunification of the last culture Minister of the GDR harsh ore Schirmer from all cities, state-owned enterprises, schools, cultural centers, pioneer houses, club etc. drawn in and brought into the castle Beeskow. 23,000 works, of 1500 paintings, were consisting 12,000 graphics, 2000 designs, of photos, posters, plastics, and guest gifts to national places and enterprises. Since then these works were administered by art archives Beeskow, which arranges thereby regularly exhibitions.
the territory of the GDR consisted of the today's Lands of the Federal Republic of the Federal Republic of Germany: Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxonia, Saxonia-Anhalt and Thuringia, as well as the East part of Berlin. In addition came the municipality office new house, which had been slammed shut after the Second World War the country Mecklenburg and after the reunification became again of Lower Saxony.
- District Dresden
- district Karl Marx city
- district Leipzig
- district Gera
- district Erfurt
- district Suhl
- district resounds
- to district Magdeburg
- district Cottbus
- district potsdam
- district Frankfurt (or)
- district new Brandenburg
- district Schwerin
- district Rostock
license number see historical characteristics.
- Mountains: Fichtelberg 1214 m, breaking into 1142 m, island mountain 916 m,
- mountains: Ore mountains, resin, Saxonian Switzerland, Thüringer forest, Lausitzer mountain country, Zittauer mountains
- of rivers: Elbe, Saale, or, Havel, (Zwickauer and Freiberger) hollow, Neisse, Spree, Ilm, Peene, Unstrut, Warnow, Werra, white Elster
- lakes: Müritz, Schweriner lake, Malchiner lake,
- islands: Rügen, Usedom, Poel, Hiddensee, peninsula Fischland Darss Zingst
the north and the center are part of the north German lowlandses. Of the north ice-age formed morainic landscapes and numerous seas (Mecklenburgian sea-plate) are characteristic. Southern of hill countries extend into which large low land bays (Leipziger low land bay, Thüringer basin) project. The south is taken by low mountain ranges (resin, Thüringer forest, Rhön, ore mountains, Elbsandsteingebirge, Lausitzer mountain country)
the area of the former GDR belonged to the German linguistic area. In some circles of the districts Dresden and Cottbus also Sorbisch was recognized as the language of the sorbischen minority nationally.
In the schools of the GDR Russian was the foreign language taught first up to the turn. Second foreign language was English, it fakultativ was usually taught. Alternative, also fakultative, foreign languages was French, completely rarely Spanish (with stronger landeskundlicher orientation on Cuba), at altogether four schools Czech and into the 1960er years also latin, at individual schools also different languages. The knowledge of a second foreign language was a condition for the university-level graduation.
The German language in the GDR von Nord after south
- from Rügen at height of the capital Berlin dialects of the eastdown-German language were prevailing. (Corresponded approx. 23% the GDR inhabitant.)
- southern of a meant line, which ran from the northern resin over Stendal, Berlin, Cottbus up to or, followed the dialects of the eastCentral German language . It spoken Karl Marx city, Erfurt, Gera, Magdeburg, Cottbus, Potsdam of the majority of the inhabitants in the districts Leipzig, Dresden, resounds, and in the capital Berlin. (More than 70% the GDR inhabitant corresponded.)
- along the GDR state border in south Thuringia and detached of it east in the Vogtland and in the ore mountains the native predominantly eastFrankish dialects continued to speak. (Corresponded approx. 5% the GDR inhabitant.)
dialects in the GDR districts
- Mecklenburgian Pommersch - in the districts Rostock, Schwerin and new Brandenburg
- Mark Brandenburgisch - in the districts Frankfurt (or), potsdam and Magdeburg
- Berlin Brandenburgisch - in the district potsdam and in the capital Berlin
- Lausitzisch - in the districts Dresden and Cottbus
- Thuringian-upperSaxonian - in the districts Leipzig, Dresden, resounds, to Magdeburg, Erfurt, Gera, Karl-Marx-Stadt and Suhl
- eastFrankish - in the districts Suhl and Karl Marx city
the GDR was despite it imposed reparations to the Soviet Union economically the country of the RGW developed furthest and had a higher material standard than many of the developed states of the earth. She however nevertheless constantly suffered from shortage of foreign exchange and not lasting restaurant processes. It partly prevailed an emergency solution economy. The prevailing economic system was a planned economy with five-year plans and national enterprises and large-scale enterprises (collective combines). To very small extent also private-economical Kleinstbetriebe were waited, which were subjected not completely to planning.
The first five-year plan from 1951 to 1955 pursued mainly the goal, the consequences of the war destruction of eliminating disassemblies and reparations and production particularly the energy industry of increasing heavy and chemical industry. 1955 still existed in the GDR over 13.000 private companies, and in the agriculture the collectivization only 1960 was final.
1957 produced the GDR twice as much as before that 2. World war was produced by the area of the later GDR. In the same year 213 millions became in the GDR Tons of raw brown coal promoted (50 per cent of the Weltförderung), 32.7 millions Kilowatt river produces - about as much as Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Finland together, 2.9 million tons steel (14 times as much as still 1947), in chemistry production the GDR had world-wide the second highest production rate and was the largest machine exporter under all Eastern Bloc countries, until 1965 reached the industrial production for instance the fivefold of the Vorkriegsstandes.
Beginning of the 1970er years was based the GDR for short time the tenth-largest industrialized country of the earth, on their production achievement. At present the turn took it still another place under the twenty five strongest industrial nations.
Nearly always consumer goods were nevertheless limited in the GDR in some ranges. For example one had to announce oneself for an autopurchase and wait then depending upon model up to 15 years (at comparatively high prices). A “black market “partly one waited, so that the waiting period could be gone around by payment of a higher price.
Prices and wages were predominantly nationally specified. The uniform selling price subsidized particularly fundamental things of the daily need. Technical devices and other goods, which could be exported also against foreign exchange, were often very expensive against it in the comparison to the purchasing power of humans. The cold rent for a dwelling amounted to depending upon equipment about 30 to 80 Marks in the month, a colour television set into the 1980er years 7,000 Marks, a roll of five Pfennig, a typical car satellite 10,000 Marks for the new vehicle with waiting period and 30,000 Marks without waiting period. Among connoisseurs the rule of thumb applied - (double ex-factory price) minus (1000 Marks per use year). The building of single family houses was made possible for years a certain upswing first because of shortness of material within only close borders (there were for example regulations to the blocked quantity of stones and prescribed house types as a function of the family size), did not experience however by not sufficient national housebuilding particularly into the 1980er. Like were Schrebergärten and Dat, as well as journeys to Cuba, Hungary, Bulgaria and into the Soviet Union.
The residential areas were not as strongly after income brackets homogenized as it today in many western countries the case are. Belonging one of different social layers lived often closely together. However the Parteinomenklatura and the coworkers of many “state organs” were concentrated in certain populated areas by national housing dispatchings. The income of a shop assistant (with approximately 600-800 Marks), an engineer (about 500-1200 Marks) and a building worker (about 900-1800 Marks) differed in the height and concomitantly in the Sparpotenzial (Residualeinkommen), the income shears gaped however not as strongly as in the western industrialized countries. In demand craftsmen earned pretty often at least as well as leading physicians. One could hardly constitute these differences in the daily life at status articles, since these were hardly available because of continuing lack. They played therefore a less considered role (exceptions were for example physicians, the z. B. due to ons-call service prefers telephone connections received). Nevertheless it succeeded to many, which could afford it, to partly emphasize itself by frequent journeys within the Eastern Bloc and by western consumer goods from the broad mass.
Occupational groups with as expected small inlet of training were promoted, the training place and study place assignment were particularly planned on the basis the calculated need central and realized over the schools as guidance organ. The legally fixed education liberty was to be realized by these conditions partly only with larger obstacles for the training.
The supply of limited goods, for example a telephone connection or a building material, depended often on relations and coincidence, pretty often also on the given political attitude.
Erich Honecker introduced social reforms at the beginning of his term of office above all, the unit in such a way specified of economics and social politics, on VIII. Party Congress of the SED 1971 was decided. It left somewhat more political and cultural free space, with which also the negotiations should be carried around an international acknowledgment of the GDR, to leave and tried the national enterprises more free spaces. Honecker applied therefore at first as hope carrier. It at the same time let all enterprises put under state control however in two waves into the 1970er year with the exception of small craftsmen, by being forced to accept a national participation of the majority.
The initial reform momentum erlahmte however, because the discrepancies between political suppression and certain free spaces could not be bridged durably. As particularly awkward the first oil crisis proved into the 1970er year, since the GDR economy profited ever more strongly from improving Soviet oil and became dependent at the same time. The Soviet Union gave the oil price increases only continues to retard, shortened however because of extreme economic problems 1981/82 the delivery volumes substantially and left the oil prices in the RGW during the oil collapse of prices 1985 to a large extent invariably (regulation in the RGW: Average price of the last in each case 5 years). Thus urgently needed foreign exchange for investments, which the range commercial coordination gained aufwändig, was missing to the economy. Besides Honecker Sozialpolitik starting from 1972 economic growth torpedierte, because the social expenditures rose due to the smaller productivity constantly more strongly than the national income (comparable the gross national product). With the microelectronics program starting from 1977 for the setting up their own microelectronics industry to 1990 about 15 became billion GDR Mark invests. Thus the GDR lived to its end only initiated by the substance and credits, for example a credit over billion DM of the Bavarian Landesbank, on Bayerns Prime Minister Franz Josef bunch.
The small productivity and inefficient production costs, above all however the effects of the monetary union before the reunification brought the export trade and industry briefly 1990 nearly to succumb. Many thousands jobs were lost to more largely becoming economic difficulties of the enterprises through those.
The secret „Schürer paper so mentioned - analysis of the economic situation of the GDR “of 27. October 1989, which should contribute to the rescue of the GDR economy, drew the following conclusion over a functioning socialism:
- Altogether it concerns to one the development at the market conditions oriented socialist planned economy during optimal arrangement of of the democratic centralism, where each question is decided, where for it the necessary, larger authority is present.
In the appraisal became on the basis of the current national indebtedness, both in Marks of the GDR as well as in foreign exchange, as well as the prospective development of the raw material and world market situation in foreseeable time prognosticates a critical development of the finances of the state. In the paper for avoidance and/or. Weakening of this situation of made suggestions did not come however any longer to the execution.
1988 had already 55 per cent of all households at least their own car, while 1969 only 14 per cent and 1980 38 per cent were. In the comparison to it possessed in the year 1988 61 per cent of the households in the Federal Republic of Germany in or more cars.
Science and technology
the GDR tried to reach an autarcy as industrialized country in many industriellen and technical areas and to fulfill their technical tasks in the context of the RGW and the “socialist integration”. Thereby scientists and technicians of the GDR should play a substantial role.
In some areas substantial successes were to be registered; also within little promoted ranges like the automobile industry and the entertainment electronics GDR production was more varied and quantitatively more extensive than e.g. in Austria, Spain, Ireland, Portugal and Switzerland. The research and science in the GDR were substantially application orientated and practical.
Important products, areas, events, discoveries, developments, results and personalities within the scientific-technologic and socio-scientific range of the GDR were (including the advances in the Soviet zone of occupation):
- Space technology and research:
- Development of the “multi-spectral camera MKF 6 “for the geological earth observation and long-range reconnaissance of stores (” remote sensing of the earth "), assigned in Soviet space stations starting from the 70's
- first cosmonaut of the GDR: Victory mouth Jähn to 26. August 1978 with Soyuz 31 in the intercosmos - program of the socialist community of states as well as the USSR cosmonaut Waleri Fjodorowitsch Bykowski was a first German astronaut in the universe. Jähn was prepared together with the reserve cosmonaut Eberhard Köllner in Star City for the flight.
- Electro-technology, electronics
- development and building of microprocessors, memory chip, circuits and nearly all electronic construction units.
- Development and production of transistors and semiconductors, since these on the embargo list of the USA and EEC the GDR
- belonged to the few countries, the ICs, i.e. integrated circuits also were produced (called in the GDR IS)
- microprocessor U880 D (1-2 MHz clock frequency), UA880D (3-4 MHz clock rate)
- development and mass production of own computers, a various entertainment electronics (television, radio, etc.) and industrial electronics and - electro-technology (for example with RFT and Robotron)
- large computers: ESER (together with the RGW)
- computer and PC: PC1715 (starting from 1986), A5120 (office PC), A5105 (BIC = education computer: starting from 1989 for Universities of and so on). Everything with U880 - CCU and of Robotron produces. The P8000 as Desktop variant (8-bit Mikrorecher, chip U880, operating system OS/M compatibly with CP/M) and as Tower variant with several monitor jobs for multi-user and applications of multi-tasks (16-Bit microcomputer, chip UB8001, operating system WEGA compatibly with UNIX) produces of the EAW.
- Home computer: Z1013 (starting from 1985), Z9001, KC85 (starting from 1984), KC87 (starting from 1986). Everything with U880 - CCU.
- Industry PC MC80 (8-bit Mikrorecher, chip U880) VEB electronics Gera.
- Electric motors, gasoline and diesel engines, Düsentrieberke, turbines and generators
- radio engineering, radio communication systems
- Transceiver SEG 15 D, SEG 100, Teltow, EKN for example in the radio work Köpenick
- Funkempfänger EKV 10-13, EKD of 100, 300 and 500
- radios U 700, UFT 721, UF
- short wave transmitter KSG 1300, KN1E, KN5E, KN20
- development and building of microprocessors, memory chip, circuits and nearly all electronic construction units.
- mechanical engineering and - technology
- automatic control engineering (robot, control engineering, automat and semiautomaton)
- numerous machines, devices and plants for the industry, chemistry and oil industry and agriculture
- technological procedures (e.g. Welding method (Zentralinstitut for welding engineering (ZIS), /Saale resounds))
- Development and building of civilian vehicles: see also fire-fighting vehicles of the GDR, delete vehicles of the GDR, Tanklöschfahrzeuge of the GDR, turning leaders of the GDR
- truck such as W50, L60, G5, Z6, guarantor, phenomenon, Framo, Horch H3A, H6, S4000, IFA H3A tractor, Robur LO - to series; Penalty such as Barkas B1000, H6B
- passenger car such as satellite (newer satellite forbidden), waiting castle, Melkus, P70, IFA F8/F9, Horch “Saxonia ring” type 240, EMW 340, P2/P3
- tractors, agricultural machinery, harvest vehicles, combine, construction machines: Tractor pioneer and Famulus, ZT300 and K700, combine E512, Erdbeerpflücker T157, RS09 equipment support, Karsei, Weimar loader, Multicar (ant), Feldhächsler E294
- of locations of the agricultural machinery and building of tractors: , Their department of tractor technology, head department tractor research VEB of the TWS in potsdam Bornim, Institut for building of agricultural machineries in Leipzig the first tractors of the GDR were called
- Institut for agricultural engineering (IfL) pioneer, activist, breaking into witch and carrot number
- of tractor series R-S and blank: Resin, favorite, Famulus
- equipment support for tractors were R-S and GT-series
- chain tractors KS and KT
- the time series: Tractors time of 300 to time 423
- motorcycles and mopeds such as MZ, MZ ETZ, AWO Simson 425, EMW R35/3, IWL city scooter Berlin, IWL Pitty/weasel/Troll, UC 350, blank 125/3, IT 125/150/175/250/300, ETS 125/150/250, TS 125/150/250, Simson S50, S51, S70, SR50, SR80, SR1 /SR2, SR4, KR50, KR51, swallow, star, sparrow, Sperber, Habicht, Esser, duo 4/1; Bicycles of diamond and MIFA
- Lokomotiv and building of railroad cars: see in addition also list of the Lokomotiv and motor coach series of the German National Railroad of the GDR
- of locations: VEB Lokomotivbau Babelsberg, Institut for rail-mounted vehicles Berlin eagle yard, VEB LEW Hennigsdorf
- 1951 building for brown Kohl firing suitable of the locomotive H 45,024 of the “combination of state-owned enterprises Lokomotiv and building of railroad cars” (LOWA)
- 1961 high-speed driving locomotive 18201
- starting from 1956 advancement of the BR 50 (e.g. BR50.40; the latter steam locomotive model of this series was the 504088)
- starting from 1954 building of the rust-fired locomotive BR 25,001 and starting from 1958 the coal dust locomotive BR 25 1002
- starting from 1954 building of the passenger train tender locomotive of the BR 65 10 by VEB LEW Hennigsdorf and quantity production at VEB LKM Babelsberg (coal locomotive)
- 1956 BR 50 (coal locomotive)
- starting from 1955 building of the first large Mehrzeck diesel locomotive V180, development starting from 1953 by Institut for rail-mounted vehicles Berlin eagle yard, the Lokomotivbau “Karl Marx” Babelsberg and the German National Railroad, late development of the V240 and V300
- 1958-1990 building of the first small diesel locomotive V60 1001 to the models V60 1003 to 10009 (1961), V60 1201 (1964), V60 of 106,0-1 (1974) etc. in the VEB Lokomotivbau “Karl Marx” in Babelsberg and later in the LEW Hennigsdorf
- starting from 1960 building of electrical locomotives (E11 or BR11 of late E11 10 and E11 20, E42, starting from 1985 E211, E242.3, E109, E250, E243 (today 143) e.g.
- six-oh-triumphs streetcars. Steering rubbing car G4-65, Rostock #721 from 1959 to 1967
- building of double stick railroad cars
- scientific tool-making: MKF of 6
- military equipment
- swimming tank, armored bridge-launching vehicle, frigates
- shipbuilding: Building of trade ships, passenger ships, Fischlogger, military ships, catch and processing ships and marine engines
- of locations: To Neptunwerft, Warnowwerft, VEB shipbuilding collective combine Rostock, Wismar, Peenewerft Wolgast, Elbe-threw, to Damgarten, Brandenburg, Rosslau and Magdeburg, Institut for shipbuilding technology, people-threw Stralsund, dockyard Rechlin, shipyards in Barth and Boizenburg, ship electronics Rostock, message electronics grab forest, Klement Gotthard works Schwerin
- Peenwerft in Wolgast:
- 1949 to 1952 building of Loggern, Seinern and tractors in Wolgast: together 178 ships, those as Reparationslieferungen were supplied to the USSR
- starting from 1951 these threw of the GDR government as “enterprise of the national defense” begun. 73 per cent of the ships of the People's Navy were developed here and built.
- 1951 building of a new coastal protection boat for the sea-police
- 1950 to 1990 built threw first mine putting, mine search and clearing vehicles, later here Reede mine countermeasures boat project 415 developed
- starting from the 60's building of submarine defense forces (the 2 generations shark, Parchim I/II), from landing ships (the generations Labo Typ46, seal type 47, frog type 108), torpedo speedboats. 1950 to 1990 245 new naval units were built, 19 converted or part-manufactured and for 3 hull without equipment. Beside it about 35 ships were repaired annually and waited about 30.
- Neptunwerft Rostock: End of the 70's building of 7 high sea-servicers for the People's Navy of the NVA (Jasmund class)
- aircraft construction. (the GDR possessed about 5000 military and civil aircraft and helicopters. They were in the possession the national interflight, and/or. its forerunner German Lufthansa. It used of the NVA, GST, German people police and the aircraft industry of the GDR)
- of locations:
- VEB of aircraft plants Dresden (FWD): Development, testing and quantity production of airliners
- VEB building of developments Pirna: Development and testing of PTL and tl engines
- VEB of industrial plants Karl Marx city: Quantity production of hydraulic building groups and on-board devices for B 152. Quantity production of aircraft engines, propellers and chassis for the IL 14
- VEB machine and apparatus engineering Schkeuditz: Quantity production of tail units and Bestuhlung (for the 152 and Il-14), building of aviation ground support equipment such as radar facilities
- VEB apparatus engineering Lommatzsch: Development, testing and quantity production of gliders
- VEB of industrial plants Ludwig field: Quantity production of jet engines
- building of jets: Jet airliner B 152, 13. July 1961 GDR Council of Ministers resolution for adjustment building of joining things, formed from the aircraft plants Dresden the VEB airplane-threw Dresden and VEB Elektromat
- gliders, a gliding flight witness, 1972 to 1990 (Ogar, junior, spirit level, favorite),
- military aircraft (MIG, Suchoi), passenger planes (Ilyushin IL, DO) and helicopters (Mil Mi) were imported from the USSR, work airplanes of multi-purpose fighters and agricultural aircraft like the PZL Kruk, PZL Wilga and PZL Dromader from Poland, sport and passenger aircraft, a training flight witness such as Zlin, aero) from the CSSR. They were only reequipped, repaired or waited in the GDR.
- of locations:
- optical instruments
- of cameras (Pentacon, Exa), binoculars, telescopes, movie cameras, optical measuring technique, Planetarien, navigation technology for example at VEB Carl Zeiss Jena
- biological, medical and agricultural research and industry
- intensive research in the range epidemiology
- of research results into physics, astronomy, mathematics, nuclear technology, geology, geography, particle physics, hydrology
- historical research, philosophy, linguistics and art science
acquaintance scientist and technician of the GDR
- Manfred von Ardenne (1907-1997), physicist, physician
- Heinz bar-yielded († 1966), core physicist
- Friedrich Behrens (1909-1980), economist
- Arne Benary (1929-1971), economist
- Klaus fox (1911-1988), physicist and feeler gauge
- Werner Hartmann (1912-1988), physicist and founder of microelectronics in the GDR
- Gustav Hertz (1887-1975)
- Karl Lanius
- victory mouth Jähn (* 1937), cosmonaut, flighter pilot, physicist
- Victor Klemperer (1881-1960), literature scientist
- Jürgen Kuczynski (1904-1997), historian, economist
- Nikolaus Joachim Lehmann (1921-1998), mathematician, Wegbereiter of the small computer
- Jens realm (* 1939), molecular biologist, physician, Essayist
- max of Steenbeck (1904-1981)
- Hans Jürgen Treder, physicist
- Heinz Kautzleben
further persons with list of the scientists, technicians, inventors and researchers of the GDR
- refuge Hintersdorf: Type compass GDR tractors and agricultural machinery. Engine book publishing house, publication date: July 2005, ISBN 3613025698
- Achim bishop: Tractors in the GDR. Publishing house Podszun, publication date: March 2004, ISBN 3861333481
- franc Rönicke, W. Melenk: Hero of the work. Penalty, reading and delivery van of the GDR. Engine book publishing house Stuttgart, publication date: July 2001, ISBN 3613872269
- franc Rönicke: Earned activists. Tractors, self drivers and agricultural machinery of the GDR. Schrader publishing house, ISBN 3613872331
- Achim Gaier: Commercial motor vehicles in the GDR, Bd.1 and 2. Engine book publishing house, publication date: September 1999, ISBN 3613871939 and ISBN 3613872102
- Achim Gaier: Passenger vehicle in the GDR, Bd.1 and 2: Engine book publishing house, publication date: November 2001, ISBN 3613872021
- Detlef cheap, Manfred Meyer: Airplanes of the GDR, volume 3 - military and civil aviation. A type book, ISBN 3613022850
the text Auferstanden from ruins of the national anthem of the GDR comes from Johannes R. Cup, the melody of Hanns Eisler. Since beginning of the 1970er years the text of the hymn was not to no more sung due to the passage “Germany united native country” however.
- George Fülbert: Berlin - Bonn - Berlin. German history since 1945. Papyrossa, Cologne 1999, ISBN 389438168X
- Olaf Klenke: Did the GDR fail because of the globalization? Self-sufficient economic policy versus international world economy. The example microelectronics. Long, Frankfurt/Main (among other things) 2001, ISBN 3-631-38204-9
- Hermann webers: History of the GDR. AREA publishing house, Erftstadt 2004, ISBN 3-89996-026-2
- Karl-Heinz red ago: Party procedure for Marx. Here briefly Hager and others erred. Dietz, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-320-01590-7
- Siegfried Wenzel: What was worth the GDR? And where did this value remain? New Berlin, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-360-00940-1
- Stefan wool: The sound world of the dictatorship. Everyday life and rule in the GDR 1971-1989., Munich 1999, ISBN 3612266500
- Stefan wool: GDR Fischer, Frankfurt/Main 2004, ISBN 316161223
- Ulrich meal ore: Small history of the GDR, C.H. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3406475507
- André Steiner: From plan to plan. A restaurant history of the GDR, DVA, Munich 2004, ISBN of 3-421-05590-4
- of documents of the Soviet zone of occupation (SBZ) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) for the period of 1945 to 1990 with dokumentarchiv.de
- documents for the state and administrative law of the German Democratic Republic with verfassungen.de
- documents of oppositional movements of the GDR starting from 1989
Web on the left of
- summary of the turning events
- the GDR in the WWW. Facts, data, reports
- Biografien from the GDR
- memory and documents to a past State of
- the liberty in the sense, the GDR before eyes. Young humans and their fight against the SED dictatorship.
- GDR Wiki
- TV-Doku with stories data base
- was pre-programmed the fall of the GDR?
- GDR photo archives with 70.000 s/w photographs from the GDR from 1949 to 1973
- everyday life articles in the GDR
- Bürokraten, intelligence and worker: Class warfares in the revolution 1989
- the privatisation of the GDR state property: The bureaucracy brings its dowry
- to thesis to living and everyday culture in the GDR
- a review on a myth to the GDR fall