German Mark

German Mark
to 31.12. 2001
expenditure country Germany
partitioning 100 Pfennig
of ISO-4217-Code
abbreviation DM, D-mark
rate of exchange:
(1.1.1999)
1 EUR = 1.95583 THAT

the German Marks were of 21. June 1948 up to 31. December 2001 legal tender in the Federal Republic of Germany. First only in West Germany and West Berlin legal tender, solved it at the 1. July 1990 in the GDR also the Mark of the GDR off.

The D-mark became first from the bank of German countries, off 1957 of the German Federal Bank given change. Beside the official expenditure the German Federal Bank from 1960 to 1988 with the Federal Treasury lights held ready a secret spare money for crisis periods.

In the Soviet zone of occupation at the end of gave June 1948 the “ German issuing bank at that time in east Berlin likewise a new “German Mark” out. The official designation “German Mark” for currencies valid in the GDR became there to beginning of the 1960er - years maintained, then them became as “Mark of the German issuing bank” (MDN) and stilllater than “Marks of the GDR” designates.

Since the introduction of the euro at the 1. January 1999 does not exist the D-mark as independent currency any longer, but only as non decimal subunit of the euro, the coins and cash notes kept its status aslegal tender however up to 31. December 2001 . Since the euro introduction D-mark at the Federal Bank as well as its addresses in the Lands of the Federal Republic can be exchanged temporally for an unlimited period and free of charge. From large parts of the trade and banks it became after introductionthe euro of cash in the context of a freiwilligen self obligation up to 28. February 2002 still accepted. Isolated however starting from also in this transition period area no more D-mark was accepted, while also nowadays gives still occasional actions, with those individual business it thatCustomers make, goods possible to the official (or a 1 to 2 rounded) rate of exchange with their reserves and/or. To pay residues at D-mark.

DM was more in demand also in the Kosovo and in Montenegro official currency, as well as in entirely Eastern Europe as unofficial currencyas the dollar. The convertible Marks in Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Bulgarian Lew are tied up in the relationship 1:1 to the German Marks, possess thus today the same exchange rate to the euro.

The German Federal Bank communicated at the end of September 2005 that tothere 45% of the coined money yet not exchanged were and with collecting tanks remain probably to a large extent. The nominal value of these Mark and pieces of Pfennig amounts to 7.24 billion DM. Were from the notes at this time still 3% and/or. 7,59Billion DM not exchanged (most of it, 76.5 millions Piece, 10-DM-seems).

Table of contents

output formats

the D-mark in coins and notes one gave change.

coins

indication Emissionszeit* embossing place
of to
A 1948 1952 Berlin
1990 1996
intending coins until 2001
D 1948 2001 Munich
F 1948 2001 Stuttgart
G 1948 2001 Karlsruhe
J 1948 2001 Hamburg
*Frühere German coins were coined/shaped also in
other embossing places.

DM coins existed in the nominal values
1 Pfennig
2 Pfennig
5 Pfennig (Sechser)
10 Pfennig (groschen)
50 Pfennig(Fox)
1 Mark
of 2 Marks (Zwickel)
of 5 Marks (Heiermann)


with the production of the new 50-Pfennig-Münze the embossing institutes had begun 1949 - with the inscription „bank of German countries “-. Karlsruhe (G)let keep running the machines 1950 briefly, although the transcription had been changed in the meantime on „Federal Republic of Germany “. The 30,000 false coinages with the old transcription were not drawn in from cost reasons. Thus looked for pieces of collecting tank developed, for approx. in each case. 700 € to be acted.The kneeling woman illustrated on the coins is Gerda Johanna Werner.

On the back of the 2-DM-Münze the following personalities of German history were illustrated:

Max Planck
Max Planck
the first coins to 2 DM and 5 DM, front.

A 2-DM-Münze was from 1951 to 1958 in the circulation, which the 1-DM-Münze was very similar. It was replaced by the coin with the image by Max Planck, thoseagain 1973 except course were set, but until last still in the circulation was.
In Southern Germany Zwickel is a usual name for the 2-DM-Münze, for those 5-DM-Münze however is in north Germans the area the designation Heiermann common.

From 1951 to 1975there was a 5-DM-Münze from silver, which was replaced, when the metal value exceeded the Münzwert.

The 10-DM coin was not regularly coined/shaped, but only as special coin. It was considered nevertheless as legal payment means, even if it in the trade so well hownever emerged.

See also: German coins

notes

first series

the first series of notes to the currency reform 1948 by the bank of German countries under the sovereignty of the western allied ones one gave change. The organization of the notesoriented yourself very strongly at the US Dollar.

second series

the second series (the German Federal Bank speaks of the third series) notes was spent by the German Federal Bank between the years 1960 and 1965. Their organization differed clearlyof that rather like an interim solution working preceding expenditures. In order to actually avoid political discussions over shown persons and the motives, one was limited consciously to the representation of very old paintings on the front and traditional symbols on thatBack - like the coat of arms animal, oak sheets or admitted symbol-pregnant buildings. By the long scan time of this series and their conservative and willful organization these notes for many humans embodied the value of the D-mark.

third series

Bettina von Arnim auf der 5-DM-Note
of Bettina of Arnim on the 5-DM-Note

the third and last series (the German Federal Bank speaks of the fourth series) appeared starting from 1989 and became necessary by the technical progress. The falsificationthe old notes became ever simpler, so that numerous new security characteristics were trained into the new lights. The conscious balance is remarkable regarding sex with the choice of the motives, which illustrated again persons, (alternating woman and man - whereby the sex relationshiptemporarily one discussed; the brothers Grimm are for example too second), religion, sphere of activity of the person (literature, music, natural science, Geisteswissenschaft). The back shows a motive from the sphere of activity and living environment of the person on the front.

Annette of Droste Hülshoff
Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann

intending coin 2001

1-DM-Goldmünze of 2001

to 26. July 2001 gave the German Federal Bank, authorized by the Federal Government with the lawover the development of a 1-DM-Goldmünze and the establishment of the donation “money and currency” of 27. December 2000 “in the memory of the German Mark” the last edition of the German Marks out. The coin consists of 999er-Feingold and corresponds in the appearance to thatlast spent 1-DM-Münze with the exception that the transcription is not expressed in the written undertaking Federal Republic of Germany, but German Federal Bank.

conversion currency D-mark

the D-mark remains for humans also after the euro-introduction to memory and serves above allas conversion currency. One in November 2004 published tns Emnid - study came to the result that in the Federal Republic the amounts of euro- converted 66 per cent of all citizens still into D-mark. With the men there was 54 per cent, with the Mrs. even 74 per cent.Related to the age younger people still converted those in the year 2004 to 41 per cent into D-mark, over 50-Jährigen even to 71 per cent.

legal

the sovereignty over the notes and the definition of the total circulating quantity was attachedthe Federal Bank. The coins were spent however by the Treasury and the incomes were assigned to this directly.

literature

  • Holger rose mountain: The German notes starting from 1871. ISBN 3924861730 (rose mountain catalog so mentioned, standard work for collecting tanks of German notes, all notesshown, including test prints and to not spent military currency of the GDR)

see also

Web on the left of

 

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