German Bundestag

the German Bundestag is the parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany with seat in Berlin. He is selected directly by the people and is in the political system of Germany the only constitutional body of the federation with direct democratic authentication.

The legal number of its members amounts to 598. A legislative period of the Bundestag takes in principle four years, it can however in certain situations shorten or extend. The members of the German federal daily (MdB) can unite and enjoy for parliamentary groups or groups thereby a special procedure and organization status.

The President of the Bundestag manages the Bundestag . In current 16. German Bundestag, which is formed by 614 delegates, is the CDU - politician Norbert lamb ore President of the Bundestag; Vices-president and deputies of the president are Gerda Hasselfeldt (CSU), Wolfgang Thierse, Susanne Kastner (both SPD), Hermann Otto Solms (FDP), Petra Pau (left wing party) and Katrin Göring Eckardt (alliance 90/Die the Green).

The Bundestag has a multiplicity of functions: It has the legislative function, that is, it creates the Federal Law and changes the condition. Here it requires frequently the co-operation of the Upper House of Parliament, which is however no second house of parliament. The Bundestag authorized also the international contracts with other states and organizations and decides the Federal Budget. In the context of its creation function he selects among other things the Federal Chancellor and participates in the choice of the Federal President, the Federal High Court Judge and other important federal organs. The Bundestag exercises the parliamentary control in relation to the government and the executive of the federation, it controlled also the employment of the German Federal Armed Forces.

The public function is politically important, according to which the Bundestag has the task to express the desires of the population and to inform turned around the population.

Speech of Jacques Chirac before the Bundestag in the year 2000

table of contents

plenary assembly hall

the plenary assembly hall is the most important and largest meeting hall in the realm tag building. In it the German Bundestag meets. The Rednerpult forms the center of the plenary assembly hall. Before the speaker the Stenografen sits, behind it sits the President of the Bundestag or a representative, beside it its both secretaries. The president sees the plenum of the federal daily before itself. From him right in the semi-circle the delegates of the FDP sit, on the left of of it those the CDU/CSU. In the center the parliamentary group of alliance 90/Die the Green sits, and in the left half of the plenum the SPD has - parliamentary group their place. Although the Greens in their start time were regarded as „left “as the SPD, the SPD insisted 1983 on the fact that to the left of it no party may sit. During this allocation it remained then up to the reunification. Since that time completely outside the delegates sit the left wing party on the left of, during whose feed 1990 the SPD did not insist no more on its outside place. Over the delegates visitors of the federal daily sit on own grandstands. They may not give agreement or displeasure stating of itself, otherwise they can be referred the hall.

On the right of and to the left of the desk of the presidency the members of the Federal Government and the Upper House of Parliament place find direct. That the presidency nearest place is reserved in each case the Bundeskanzlerin and the Upper House of Parliament president.

Behind the desk of the presidency stand the federation and the European flag under the large federal eagle.

Behind the banks from Federal Government and Upper House of Parliament are boards, which indicate the straight current item on the agenda with shining letters. Likewise with a green „F “one signals, if the television transfers.

the mandate assignment

major item: Election to the Bundestag right

after the right to vote principles of the personalisierten elections on the basis of proportional representation the delegates in general, direct, free, same and secret choice in 299 constituencies are selected. The voter delivers two voices: With its voice for the national list it determines, with which strength the party in the Bundestag, selected by it, is represented (right column of the official Wahlzettels, secondary voice so mentioned). With the voice for the candidate it determines directly the delegate of its constituency (link column of the official Wahlzettels, Erststimme so mentioned).

The legal number of members of the Bundestag amounts since the beginning of the 15. Legislative period on 598. Half of these seats is assigned the successful candidates from the step-by-step selection in the constituency, one often speaks therefore of direct mandates. The other half becomes - according to the strength portion of a party of the total number of the sitting under charge of the direct mandates from the national lists occupies, which further, candidates fixed first contain. Here a party with its national lists is considered only if it received at least five per cent of the delivered secondary voices or at least three direct mandates.

Thus three typical cases of distribution develop:

  • A party achieved a larger strength portion than the number of direct mandates. You are then assigned further mandates after national list.
  • A party achieved a smaller strength portion in a Land of the Federal Republic than the number of direct mandates. All of these surplus achieved direct mandates are valid, the kind of such selected delegate draw in independently of the strengthen-moderate allocation of seats into the parliament. The total number of the delegates increases thus by these mandates, colloquially excessive mandates, and increases thereby the legal number in accordance with § 1 of the Federal electoral law.
  • A party achieved a strength portion, which corresponds to the number of direct mandates. No further mandates are assigned.

The system of the personalisierten elections on the basis of proportional representation makes possible for the voter to be correct on the one hand for the political party präferierte by it at the same time to make and a choice of a delegate candidate of its constituency independent of it.

The choice examination takes over according to the article 41 of the Basic Law the Bundestag, it decides also whether a delegate lost his mandate. Against the decision of the federal daily choice test complaint can be raised the Bundestag

meets at the latest on the thirtieth day after the choice at the Federal Constitutional Court. (Kind. 39, exp. 2 GG)

legislation

major item: Legislative procedure (Germany)

legislative procedure in the overview

the Bundestag has the right of bills apart from the Federal Government and the Upper House of Parliament to suggest (Initiativrecht).

A bill, which is brought in from the center of the federal daily, must be supported by one parliamentary group or 5 per cent of the parliamentarians and in accordance with article 77 of the Basic Law first in the Bundestag is treated. If he is decided there, then he goes to the consultation to the Upper House of Parliament. A bill of the Federal Government goes first to the Upper House of Parliament. Together with its statement the Federal Government leads the bill then to the Bundestag. Turned around a bill of the Upper House of Parliament as well as the statement of the Federal Government goes to the Bundestag.

If a law is decided by the Bundestag, it requires the further co-operation of the Upper House of Parliament beside the parliament, so that it comes to conditions. Thus it is not said however that it requires the agreement of the Upper House of Parliament. If interests of the Lands of the Federal Republic are concerned (this is nearly always the case, because they implement the Federals law), then the bill requires not already therefore the agreement of the Upper House of Parliament. This is necessary only if the Basic Law plans expressly a participation of the countries. According to the article 84 paragraph 1 of the Basic Law applies this for example for the case that the law makes detailed defaults, how the Land authorities for the execution of this law are to be structured.

To a law, with which changed or sovereignty rights to the European union will transfer the Basic Law, it always requires two-thirds majorities in Bundestag and Bundesrat (majority qualified).

If a law is not in need of agreement, the Upper House of Parliament can raise objection. This has the effect of a dilatory veto. Transmitted in such a case will the law again the parliament and the objection can - if no changes to be decided - be outvoted. This means also that a two-thirds majority can be outvoted when deciding the objection in the Upper House of Parliament only by a two-thirds majority in the parliament.

If the Upper House of Parliament wants to achieve extensive changes with an in need of agreement law, sometimes it raised also objection; this is however intended in article 77 of the Basic Law. Such an objection is not therefore irrelevant, thus refers the Upper House of Parliament the thing rather to the parliament back and avails themselves of another instrument than the mediation committee, in order to achieve another political will formation if necessary.

If several, contentwise not matching bills to one „for package “, are connected one speaks of a Junktim, which is manufactured between them.

treatment of laws in the Bundestag

a bill is treated first in one „first reading “. A first exchange of views or a debate in the plenum takes place depending upon importance and political interest situation. Subsequently, very often also without discussion, the bill is referred to different committees. Usually are concerned beside „the responsible “specialized committee also on the right of and the budget committee with a bill, since the laws have legal and fiscal effects. During the committee consultation the main and detailed work at the bills are carried out. The draft of the parliamentarians is examined and pretty often substantial changed, it consults regularly experts of the government, from the specialized administration and further experts from practice and science.

In the committee version the bill goes again into the plenum, where it will advise second reading in one „“. „The second reading “serves the consultation of details and requests for modification, which come to large extent from the committees, in addition, from parliamentary groups, groups or individual parliamentarians, which want to point alternative solutions out. Frequently however the committee versions are already among themselves co-ordinated and so calm that in a tuning „the second reading is terminated “over the entire bill.

To one „third reading “it can again come, if political resistance is formed recognizable, so that certain groups agree the law only if components in their sense are changed. This can come from the numbers of the opposition, signal from the center of the Prime Ministers, the one objection of the Upper House of Parliament or also from the government and/or. it supporting parliamentary groups. After the third reading the final vote takes place.

Independently of in need of agreementness of the decided law it must be transmitted to the Upper House of Parliament, so that it comes to conditions. There the legislative procedure is continued to continue.

The Bundestag is not an eternal organ, it gives only a current in each case parliament. With end of the legislative period it terminates its work and all collecting mains and projects is considered as settled, independently of it in which stage it is. This is called principle of the Diskontinuität. Political initiatives must again be brought in in the new parliament, if they want to be further operated. This is not natural always, since in the new Bundestag other political forces work together. An exception are Petitionsvorlagen, because they come from the citizen and are independent the request of the citizen of electoral periods.

the legislation is concentrated characteristics of the legislation

with deliveries and taxes with deliveries on the federation by the financial condition. Afterwards it has the legislation sovereignty in nearly all areas. Therefore there are nearly no national taxes in Germany. Of it to differentiate the yield sovereignty in such a way specified, thus the state-organizational authorization, is which regional administrative body keeps an arising of certain deliveries effective to which degree.

In changes of tax laws, which concern yields, which are entitled countries or municipalities, have the Lands of the Federal Republic according to the article 105 paragraph 3 of the Basic Law co-operation possibilities over federal organs like the Upper House of Parliament.

characteristics of the legislation in international-law questions

international-law contracts contain rules, which a component of the national, domestic order to very often become to be supposed. For this there is two mechanisms - the incorporation and the transformation. In the first case the transfer of the international-law set of rules takes place into the national juridical system already with normal contract conclusion or simple ratification, so for example in Great Britain.

In the second case its own conversion is necessary as domestic fulfilment act, whereby an error and a Konfliktpotenzial are put on in as well this fulfilment succeeds to the state. The intergovernmental contract conclusion leaves itself as act which creates an obligation, which illustrate domestic conversion as fulfilment business. The terms are however in this connection not always usual.

In Germany the transformation model it is practiced with the characteristic that it requires as agreement act of a contract law, if the international-law contract affects legislation subject. Without such a law the Federal President may not ratify the contract. Beyond that if the decree of new standards is necessary for the conversion, parallel the material conversion takes place on law and regulation level. Since such elements are often legislation-technically summarized, the laws are called colloquially „agreement laws “, this state however nothing over the question whether the Upper House of Parliament of a conversion must agree.

By the federation if international-law contracts over questions are closed, which concern special conditions of a country, the Federal Government has to listen to and during the political will formation take part this country before contract conclusion. On the Upper House of Parliament it does not depend, since it is federal organ (article 32 paragraph 2 of the Basic Law).

budget (household)

the budget right is traditionally one of the most important rights of the parliament. By means of the budget right the parliament defines, in which areas the federation would like to set priorities and binds thereby the government to a large extent. Budgeting is however no legislation strictly speaking. The parliament can be budget right just as well through simple vote of parliament to exercise. The Federal Budget is decided however traditionally in form of a Federal law - without agreement of the Upper House of Parliament -.

The German state tradition took over the democratic principle of the parliament budgeting only very zögerlich, although it belonged in the development of the democracy to the core of the parliament rights and exemplary for instance in the English House OF Commons was carried out. In contrast to it at present the Bismarck's government within important ranges held the budget right, and this experience showed that a parliament without complete budget control is a weak parliament.

In the debate over the household of the Office of the Federal Chancellor takes place both in first and in the second reading traditionally a general debate over the policy of the Federal Government. The opposition uses the opportunity, the weaknesses, which it constituted at the Federal Government to point out to the public; the government resists for their part with attacks on the opposition.

permission of German Federal Armed Forces missions

after constant iurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court may do the German Federal Armed Forces in accordance with article 24 of the Basic Law outside of NATO - territory to be used. The constitutional court sees however a general parliament reservation with the employment of the German Federal Armed Forces, why the employments must be approved by the Bundestag; this is called principle of the parliament army. If necessary with danger in the delay the Federal Government can make a provisional decision, which must later be approved by the parliament. Since then each employment of the German Federal Armed Forces, which by the government one decides, in a procedure consisting of two readings is treated, similar to the legislative procedure. With this decision no agreement of the Upper House of Parliament is necessary. It concerns here a simple vote of parliament.

In the year 2001 connected Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder such a permission with the question of confidence.

representation principle and self dissolution

the German condition take the principle as a basis of the representative democracy , so that a central role in the state organisation comes to the parliament. The people as a sovereign concentrates thereby the personnel and arranging tasks of the government authority on the selected representative government and does in the further one without direct decision of such questions. Other state organs of the federation are selected not by the people, plebiszitäre tunings in questions of substance are not as good as intended. The parliament is thereby the only directly selected state organ and enjoys therefore a special democratic authentication, which lends in relation to other institutions a special authority to it.

The Bundestag cannot dissolve. By the bad experience of frequent dissolution of parliaments and changes of government in the Weimar Republic with the emergence of the Basic Law such a right was rejected. In the German condition understanding democracy is regarded particularly as temporally limited exercise of power; the articles 20 and 39 of the Basic Law have a normative dimension, which affects the interpretation of other condition rules, which concern political crises, in this connection approximately to the question of confidence, to the legislation state of emergency or for state of emergency condition. For the same reason other constitutional bodies may specify not the parliament period, are it also with the goal of political stability.

In order to introduce a self dissolution right nevertheless to the political system today's Germany, a change of Basic Law would be necessary. Such would contrary-run however from constitutional view the representation principle and thus to inconsistencies in the political system would lead. In particular it is marked critically that parliamentary power would be exposed to a precarious inflation by democratic authentication in this case and indirectly selected state organs in relation to the directly selected parliament in their political power were revalued. The sovereignty principle would have broken through thereby.

creation function

the parliament creates the point of the other state organs. On subordinated level the highest state organs arrange according to this principle likewise democratic authentication for subordinate organs: Thus for example the Federal President appoints the federal officials and the chancellors determines the Ministers.

choice of the Federal Chancellor

major item: Federal Chancellor (Germany)

the Federal Chancellor is selected by the Bundestag in secret choice without discussion. First takes place a suggestion of the Federal President, who is regarding the person, whom he suggests, legally freely, politically however very strongly bound: Usually is certain already in the evening of the election to the Bundestag , who is suggested by the Federal President. This is usually the candidate for the chancellorship of the strongest victorious party. If the Bundestag selects the suggesting with the voices of the majority of its members, then the selecting is appointed by the Federal President. So far each candidate was selected by the Bundestag. If the Bundestag does not select the suggesting, then the Bundestag has fourteen days time to select after suggestions from its center a Federal Chancellor with the voices of the majority of its members (absolute majority). If the Bundestag does not succeed in selecting in this time a person then a new ballot takes place immediately at expiration of the term, is selected in which, who receives most voices. If this majority is at the same time an absolute majority, then the Federal President must appoint the selecting within seven days. If the selecting could unite only a relative majority on itself, then the Federal President can decide within seven days whether he appoints the selecting the Federal Chancellor or dissolves the Bundestag.

vote of no confidence and question of confidence

major item: Vote of no confidence, question of confidence

does not have the Federal Chancellor any more the majority of the federal daily behind itself, then this can relieve it only of its office, by at the same time selecting a successor with the voices of the majority of its members. The Federal President must dismiss then the past Federal Chancellor and appoint the again selected.

The Federal Chancellor can address also the question of confidence to the Bundestag. If it is answered not positively, i.e. agrees less than the absolute majority of the members of the federal daily to the confidence request, then the Federal President on suggestion of the Federal Chancellor can the Bundestag dissolve or with agreement of the Upper House of Parliament the legislation state of emergency proclaim.

choice of Federal President

Hauptartikel: Federal President (Germany), Presidential Election Council

task of the Presidential Election Council is the choice of the Federal President. The members of the federal daily place one half of the Presidential Election Council. The other half consists of persons, who are selected by the land days of the Lands of the Federal Republic according to the principle of the elections on the basis of proportional representation. The President of the Bundestag is a president of the Presidential Election Council.

choice of the Federal High Court Judges

the Bundestag determines half of the judges of the Federal Constitutional Court by a special election commitee. To the choice a candidate requires the voices of eight of the twelve members. Thus it is secured that condition judges are not selected politically on one side. Usually the two large parties agree on „a package “, with which in each case a same number of union - and SPD - close candidates are selected. Occasionally also one candidate each is nominated and selected by the Greens and the FDP. In their iurisdiction the condition judges decided however rarely along the political line of the parties, which nominated her.

The other half of the condition judges is selected by the Upper House of Parliament with two-thirds majority.

Other Federal High Court Judges, thus for the Federal High Court, which Federal Administrative Court, which Federal Finance Court, which becomes Federal Labor Court and the Federal Social Court by the specialized Minister of the federation as well as a judge election commitee selected, which is formed from the responsible in each case specialized Ministers of the countries and a same number of members of the Bundestag.

control of the executive

a further important task of the federal daily is it to control the executive.

speech right, presence right and - also

the members of the Federal Government and the Upper House of Parliament speech right in the Bundestag have obligation beside the members of the federal daily. They must be heard even at any time. Under appointment the former Hamburg Senator of the Interiors Ronald Schill before the election to the Bundestag on that tried 2002 to keep deviating from the topic and his before agreed upon speaking time covering an election campaign speech in the Bundestag. It thereupon the word extracted.

Members of the Federal Government, at least however their representative, participate in most meetings of the federal daily. Members of the Upper House of Parliament are rarer against it in the plenum; they participate often only in meetings, with which it concerns in special way land interests.

Turned around the Bundestag the quotation right: It can call for each member of the Federal Government at any time or require its whereabouts during the negotiation in the plenum or in a committee. This possibility serves control of the government and that to speech places in up to date questions of their politics.

inquiries

an important instrument of control are on and demand possibilities, which are open to the delegate. Particularly the delegates of the opposition use it very frequently.

  • „Small inquiries “are written inquiries of five per cent of the members of the federal daily or a parliamentary group to the Federal Government over all possible ranges of the government action. They serve rather the information of the delegates about local or special topic areas, since they are answered usually only in prints and published rarely. In 13. There was German Bundestag from 1994 to 1998 altogether 2070 small inquiries.
  • „Large inquiries “serve more strongly than „the small inquiries “causing a debate and exposing the government by the opposition. Also they are in writing placed to a certain topic, over the answer can take place however a discussion in the Bundestag. Also large one inquiries must be placed by five per cent of the members of the federal daily or a parliamentary group. In 13. Bundestag gave it altogether to 156 large inquiries.
  • In „the question time “in principle verbal inquiries can be placed against the Federal Government by the individual members of the federal daily. The delegates can deal by direct demands with the answer of the representative of the Federal Government. If the time is not sufficient for the answer of all questions, then the remaining questions are answered in writing. In 13. Bundestag gave it altogether to 18,477 verbal inquiries, 14,579 (79%) of it alone by the opposition at that time from SPD, alliance 90/Die the Green and Party of Democratic Socialism.
  • „Current hours “are short debates with fünfminütigen contributions, which can be requested following the question time or also detached by it. They are a relatively recent element of the Bundestag happening, when such gives and is it them since 1980, with their special structure to the loosening of the debate culture in the Bundestag to serve. Also a discussion is to be faster possible over very current topics by it. They are agreed upon either in the Council of Elders or requested by five per cent of the members of the federal daily or a parliamentary group. In 13. German Bundestag 103 current hours were requested.
  • Inquiries from the plenum take place also following cabinet meetings, them are well-known as „government questionings “. In each case a representative of the Federal Government informs about a topic, which was in the cabinet meeting taking place before the subject of the discussion; against this representative questions can be placed. In 13. Bundestag gave it to 41 government questionings.

the parliament a committee of inquiry uses committees of inquiry upon the request of a quarter of its members - thus also opposing a minority - , which is to clear an investigation topic up defined in the request publicly. The defence committee can explain itself also as the committee of inquiry. The work of the committees of inquiry is determined by the committee of inquiry law (PUAG).

Frequently a committee of inquiry is used by the opposition, in order to uncover actual or alleged bad states in the work of the government. At the work of the committees of inquiry frequently the criticism is practiced, it serves rather the damage of the political opponent as the truthful clearing-up of the investigation article. Because a minority quorum of a quarter of the committee members has the same request and Initiativrechte as with the installation resolution, usually government near majority of the commitee the investigation cannot block, so that a certain weapon equality is ensured. Since the majority of the commitee can nevertheless direct both the detailed work within certain limits and the final report with the investigation evaluations submits, the committee of inquiry bad states in the Federal Government determines usually only in obvious cases.

Since 1949 there were about 50 committees of inquiry.

military representative

the militaryassigned of the federal daily is an auxiliary body of the federal daily, without being allowed to be its member. Its task is it to receive complaints of members of the German Federal Armed Forces which these can place outside of the normal official routine. It is for it to provide that the fundamental rights of the soldiers, who can be limited by the Basic Law, not agreed upon however are protected. Thereby it examines in particular whether the principles „of the internal guidance are kept “. It represents the picture of the German Federal Armed Forces in this sense also as a parliament army, thus an army, whose employment is determined and controlled by the parliament.

control of the secret services

the parliamentary control committee, which consists of nine members of the federal daily, controls the work of the German secret services, which are subordinate to the federation, thus the Federal Information Service, the military shielding service and the Federal Office for protection of the constitution. The members of the committee are obligated also opposite their Bundestag colleagues to the discretion.

accusation of state organs

the Bundestag has the possibility apart from the Upper House of Parliament of accusing the Federal President of deliberate injury of the condition or a Federal law before the Federal Constitutional Court of relieving with the goal, it its office. In addition it requires a two-thirds majority in the respective committee.

This procedure consists of the reason that the Federal President is not determined as a head of state alone by the parliament and the organ, which selects him in particular the Presidential Election Council, not again and in the same composition become active can.

The parliament can accuse however no member of the Federal Government, since the government is completely dependent on the parliament partly directly, partly indirectly, anyhow however and can by a vote of no confidence be set off.

The members of the Federal Government do not enjoy as such an immunity. If they are simultaneous delegates, the Bundestag must waive their priviledge of immunity however if necessary, before the normal regulations of the code of criminal procedure application can find.

case of defense

major item: Case of defense

the statement of the defense case is met, if it can meet in time, by the Bundestag, otherwise by the common committee, that consists to a third of members of the Upper House of Parliament, to two thirds of members of the federal daily. The resolution requires in each case a two-thirds majority. If the case of defense is decided and if the Bundestag cannot meet, then the common committee takes over its rights and replaces Bundestag and Bundesrat. If the Bundestag is however resolutionable, then Bundestag and Bundesrat bills advise together with urgent laws. The electoral period of the federal daily is extended until six months after the end of the defense case. The Bundestag can the case of defense for terminated at any time explain, he must it do, if the conditions for its statement are given to no more.

organization of the delegates

parliamentary groups

most delegates of the federal daily are member of a parliamentary group. A parliamentary group is usually educated by delegates of the same party. A special case is the CDU/CSU - parliamentary group: There the CDU in all Lands of the Federal Republic except in Bavaria and the CSU only there start, stand the two parties in no competition to each other and have also common goals - for this reason the delegates of these two parties may educate a common parliamentary group. A group is a union of parliamentarians of the same party, which is too small however, in order to educate a parliamentary group: For establishment it requires a parliamentary group a number of members, which contains at least five per cent of the total number of the members of the federal daily; a group needs only five delegates. Accordingly groups in the Bundestag of fewer rights than a parliamentary group have; they have for example no requirement on placing from their center a Bundestag vice-president. Delegates, a whose party sends less than five members into the Bundestag, or who withdrew from their parliamentary group or from it were excluded, are parliamentary groupless delegates. They have all rights and obligations of a delegate in a parliamentary group or a group, not however the rights of the parliamentary group and/or group. In 16. German Bundestag are represented five parliamentary groups (CDU/CSU, SPD, FDP , left wing party, alliance 90/Die the Green).

Each parliamentary group determines their parliamentary group executive committee; this has important tasks in the co-ordination of the work of the parliamentary group and thus the federal daily altogether. The members of the parliamentary group executive committee have frequently exactly defined areas of responsibility: They deny themselves closely with the committee members in „their “topic areas and try to intervene there to favour of the line of the parliamentary group guidance. The individual delegate profited from the parliamentary group, for example by division of labor and support by own goals, must itself however the party discipline bend. This fact caused criticism in the past, since the delegates are not bound for their conscience according to the article 38 of the Basic Law only subjected and at orders and instructions. On the other hand the reference to the re-election chances does not appear with Nichtunterwerfung under the party discipline than direct compulsion. Furthermore it is argued that an individual delegate was not however absolutely selected only due to his party member shank, as a single personality and therefore a strong consideration for the party line is permissible.

A special task in the daily work comes to the parliamentary managing directors : These often also as „a breed master “designated supervisors are among other things for the arrangement of the duration of the individual debates, responsible for the influencing control in favor of their parliamentary groups at the Bundestag presidency and for the presence of all delegates of their parliamentary group with important or close tunings. They must have knowledge of the agenda also detailed.

The parliamentary groups as such receive funds for their work from the Bundestag. These are used approximately for employees of the parliamentary group, not however for employees of individual parliamentary group members.

presidency

Glocke des Bundestagspräsidenten, Plenum im Hintergrund
bell of the President of the Bundestag, plenum in the background

the Bundestag presidency consists of the President of the Bundestag and its deputies. The president gets off an unwritten rule to consequence from the largest parliamentary group of the federal daily, independently whether this member of the government coalition is or in the opposition. Since 1994 each parliamentary group has requirement on placing one of the vices-president. The members of the presidency alternate in the line of the Bundestag meetings; only with very important meetings the President of the Bundestag actually leads the presidency for the entire duration of the meeting.

The President of the Bundestag has the house right and the Polizeigewalt in the Bundestag; the police is subordinate to it with the German Bundestag. Also it meets the most important personnel decisions in the Bundestag administration. All writing down other constitutional bodies and also bills from the Bundestag are formally addressed to it. It represents furthermore the Bundestag outward and stands because of the step-by-step selection of the federal daily protokollarisch behind the Federal President in second place.

Council of Elders

although the Council of Elders by any means on life or service years the oldest members of the house to belong do not have, then the members of the Council of Elders are always experienced parliamentarians. This is because of the fact that this plays the presidency to the side standing committee an extraordinarily important role for the expiration of the plenary session. To its tasks the definition belongs, which topic when and how long in the agenda is intended. Also the Council of Elders adopts the fundamental plan of the meeting weeks. Frequently the parliamentary managing directors belong to the Council of Elders beside the Bundestag presidency, whose party-political composition likewise corresponds to that of the federal daily. The Federal Government is represented with an advisory member in the Council of Elders.

committees

major items: Committee of the Bundestag

to each important field of activity exists a committee of the federal daily. The committees consist of 15 to 42 members and are mirror-image for the composition of the parliamentary groups in the plenum distributed. The committee members are determined by the parliamentary groups. Parliamentary group lots delegates may cooperate in one committee each, have there however no right to vote. The committees prepare bills in their closed meetings and/or discuss them in the detail. In addition, they can organize public „Hearings “and in this way sound themselves the opinion of except-parliamentary experts over fundamental questions.

Apart from the task to master the legislation need in appropriate time which during consultation of all details in the Bundestag plenum would be impossible, the committees also the order have develop with the ordered the experts for the particulars fields of activity authority centers, from the particulars parliamentary groups from which the larger can catch up part of of the respective parliamentary group, which possesses no outstanding knowledge in the field of activity concerned, special information.

Parallel to the committees many parliamentary groups formed working groups, which prepare the parliamentary group-internal line for the committee meetings.

Important special rights have the household and legal committee: They cooperate in almost any bill, since nearly always household-legal and general-legal aspects are to be considered. Also the defence committee can explain itself - differently than every other committee - independently as the committee of inquiry. An important privileged position has also the committee for affairs of the European union: This committee can notice rights of the federal daily according to the article 45 of the Basic Law in relation to the Federal Government. The foreign committee, the EUROPEAN UNION, the defense and the committee on petitions are prescribed of the Basic Law. The number and strength of remaining committees are specified at the beginning of the legislative period.

Those presides over the committees likewise mirror-image for the relationship of the parliamentary groups is to each other distributed. Traditionally the opposition has the presidency in the budget committee.

the Bundestag Enquête commissions can furnish Enquête commissions for the discussion of important and specializedspreading social developments, that are to prepare handling of the legislator with these new currents. In addition for instance the Enquête commission serves „ethics and right of the modern medicine “, which is occupied with the legislative company of DNA tests , Präimplantationsdiagnostik , genetic engineering , clones and other biological and biotechnological innovations.

order measures of the presidency

the presidency can refer, if it considers this necessary, a delegate to the thing or for order call; this regulates § 36 of the agenda of the German federal daily. With the third reference to the thing or with the third order call the presidency must rule out of order to the speaker. If a member of the federal daily hurts „coarsly “the order of the house, then it can be excluded. It may not participate then in the meetings of the federal daily and its committees any longer; appropriate time absent is not refunded to it. Against the exclusion contradiction can be inserted. 1949 were excluded briefly Schumacher first for twenty meeting days, because he had called Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer „chancellor of the allied ones “. This disciplinary action was waived shortly thereafter after a conciliation between Schumacher and Adenauer.

the work of the members of the federal daily

the work of the members of the federal daily must be divided into two profiles: The work during the meeting weeks differs substantially from the work outside of this time. Usually alternate two meeting and each two meeting-free weeks each; however, already again and again alone from legal holidays, interruptions in this rhythm result.

work during the meeting week

the work in the meeting week begins for some delegates already on Monday. Then, on the late afternoon, the parliamentary group executive committees and also some important Untergremien of the parliamentary groups meet and prepare the committee and plenum meetings of the current week.

All other delegates must arrive on Tuesday morning, then the individual working groups of the parliamentary groups usually meet. In the afternoon the parliamentary group meetings are, afterwards often meet the regional committees of the parliamentary groups.

On Wednesday take place committee meetings as well as the question time and/or the current hour in the plenum.

Thursday and on Fridays the plenum discussions finally stand on the program. The concentration on the two last working-days in the week opens the possibility to the committees of meeting before the plenum meetings in addition so an overlap between committee and plenum meetings can be better avoided.

The meeting week usually ends in the early Friday afternoon, so that the delegates can back-travel to their places of residence. However also the weekend is not usually free time, on the contrary the delegates must be present still at „the basis “, thus in their constituency locally and visit for instance association meetings on weekend.

This pattern of the work week strictly one does not always hold out. Thus the overlap of committee and plenum meetings can be avoided only with difficulty in the reality.

The working day of a Member of the Bundestag usually covers twelve to fifteen hours. The delegates must thereby among other things the sifting of post office and newspapers, the parliamentary group often lasting several hours, working group, committee and plenum meetings, which possibly still overlap, interview inquiries, groups of visitors from their constituency, which bring preparations of speeches and the elaboration of bills under a hat.

Many delegates have thus during the plenary sessions other important obligations. For this reason it does not surprise, if with the everyday work in the Bundestag only some dozen of members sits in the plenum - they are in all rule the experts for the straight discussed topic.

outside of the meeting weeks outside of

the meeting weeks also important dates in the constituency line up to work apart from the preparation on the meeting weeks: Many Members of the Bundestag offer citizen consulting hours or must in party meetings participate. Also they must maintain already regarding a re-election possibly aimed at contacts, in particular with the local Honoratioren; are possibly added European or international dates. Besides many delegates exercise also still occasionally their own occupation, which they can operate if necessary in the meeting-free weeks.

no delegate for any expression

or tuning, which he transacted in the Bundestag or in one of his committees, knows immunity, by rivet RK and right to refuse to give evidence according to the article 46 of the Basic Law, while or after his time in the Bundestag for criminal or serve-legal responsibility are pulled. This does not apply to slanderous offenses. The President of the Bundestag can give however Rügen and references and exclude even members of the federal daily from the meeting.

On the other hand no delegate of the federal daily without its agreement may be arrested because of a criminal offence or pulled for responsibility. This does not apply, if he is arrested on committing the act, thus „in flagranti “, or in the course of the following daily . Likewise it requires for introduction a procedure for the withdrawal from fundamental rights to article 18 of the Basic Law of the agreement of the federal daily. Furthermore each preliminary investigation and also a procedure for the withdrawal must be suspended by fundamental rights on arrangement of the federal daily.

These regulations serve the independence of the parliament for the protection, not for the protection of the individual delegate. They are historically conditioned: At the beginning of the parliamentarism the executive tried frequently to withdraw unpleasant delegates under a pretext from its mandate in addition entangling was in alleged or actually committed criminal offences a popular means. Accordingly in-flagranti-regulation was created, since within a daily a crime, which had not taken place so at all, is to be designed very with difficulty. Today the regulation is regarded predominantly as anachronistisch. The Bundestag waives the immunity at the beginning of the legislative period regularly approximately for motoring offences .

After the right to refuse to give evidence the delegates do not have to state over discussions with persons, if they held these conversations in their characteristic as delegates. Also the seizure is forbidden by the right to refuse to give evidence by documents, if these information about the discussions contains. This protection for the informants is to make the perception of their control function for the delegates possible.

supply of the delegates

major items:

To permit, the delegates a taxpayer Diät, a taxfree cost lump sum and some other privileges receive delegate remuneration around their office appropriate a Lebensführung like a mains circuit board of the course, reimbursement of costs for flights, the assumption of coworker salaries, a transition money after separating and an old-age pension. A special paper of the Bundestag administration worries about these interests.

the work of the federal daily

agenda

the substantial regulations for the work of the federal daily are in the agenda embodied. She must again be decided at the beginning of each legislative period. Usually the agenda of the previous legislative period with easy adjustments is taken over. The agenda contains important regulations, for instance „the behavior rules for the members of the German federal daily “or „the secret protection order “as appendices, which is just as obligatory on the members of the federal daily as the agenda. The agenda is alterable with simple majority, of their can be deviated, if two thirds of the present members agree.

debates

Zwischenfrage während einer Debatte im Bundestag
intermediate question during a debate in the Bundestag

debates in the German Bundestag run off sometimes quite emotional: Interruptions are at the agenda and are the speaker from the concept to bring, against whom own parliamentary group arranged remarks become frequently with indignant verbal protest or however with hämischem laughter answered. If the speaker permits it, also intermediate questions at these can be placed. The interrogator announces his question by push of a button. If it is called, it stands on around its question to place. The interrogator must stop so long, until its question was answered. The political opponent only in exceptional cases one applaudiert, while the applause is mandatory with speakers of the own parliamentary group. From the hectar-mixed „laughter “actual also with respect to stenografischen minutes - to differentiate „the amusement “, which is rather positively occupied: It can occur that the remark of a member of the government coalition causes amusement at his parliamentary groups „“, with the opposition against it „laughter “.

tunings

most tunings of the German federal daily take place by Handzeichen. During the final vote however with rising and seat remaining one co-ordinates.

Itself if the meeting executive committee is in disagreement over a majority, then „the division is arranged “. All delegates leave the hall and withdraw by three with „“, „no “or „abstention “doors which can be identified again into the plenary assembly hall, while the voices are counted. The presidency co-ordinates publicly.

If a secret choice is legally prescribed, then the choice with covered voting cards takes place only for this case. Each Member of the Bundestag receives a voting card, which it must fill out in a being correct cab against collecting main of his being correct document of identification. Subsequently, it throws the covered voting card into the Wahlurne.

Upon the request of a parliamentary group or an appropriate number of delegates on a question in particular one co-ordinates. With each Member of the Bundestag one determines, how it was correct; the casting of votes is noted in stenografischen minutes. This kind of tuning is to force - straight with disputed questions of substance - each delegate of stating its decision publicly. It serves also to expose the political opponent because in questions of substance of the parliamentary group opinion deviating delegate must along-be correct either against her personal conviction parliamentary group-conformal and so that to appear improbable or instead represent their own point of view and so that the contentwise disagreement of their party to demonstrate.

the administration of the German federal daily

center and parliamentary services

Stenografin im Bundestag
Stenografin in the Bundestag

during the plenary sessions write the Parlamentsstenografen the wording of the complete debate including the interruptions and voting results.

Supporting and in the plenum visibly, are the hall servants who can be recognized easily by their dark-blue Frack .

The Members of the Bundestag can adjust own assistants from means of the federal daily. A special paper exclusively worries about these interests.

scientific services and press facilitiy

the scientific service of the German federal daily is to the delegate at the disposal. This supplies it with appraisals, newest or freshly prepared information and sources. During a legislative period several thousand inquiries are placed against the scientific service.

The Bundestag library as part of the scientific service offers a good basis to the delegates for provision of information. With 1.2 million volumes and 11,000 magazines it belongs to the important scientific relief organizations of the Bundestag. To the Bundestag library belong also parliament archives, which hold all Plenarprotokolle and prints ready.

The press facilitiy of the federal daily evaluates daily many in and foreign magazines on the search for information relevant for the delegates and prepares for journalists the work of the federal daily.

the 16. German Bundestag (since 2005)

with the election to the Bundestag of the 2005 to 18. September selected 16. German Bundestag is to 18. October 2005 met.

After the final result of the federal returning officer accompanying mandate distribution results.

The delegates selected the leaders of the parliamentary group:

  • CDU and CSU form again a parliamentary group community, for whose chairman was intended first Angela Merkel. To 21. November 2005 was selected peoples Kauder in place of the designate Bundeskanzlerin Merkel to the party head.
  • At the SPD Franz Müntefering was selected again to the leader of the parliamentary group. To 21. November 2005 took over Peter Struck the parliamentary group presidency for the designate vice-chancellor Müntefering.
  • Wolfgang Gerhardt takes over the presidency of the FDP parliamentary group until May 2006. Afterwards a change is planned to Guido Westerwelle.
  • Gregor Gysi and Oskar Lafontaine form the double head at the parliamentary group of the left wing party.
  • Chairmen of the parliamentary group of alliance 90/Die the Green are Renate Künast and Fritz bold.

history

historical development

Germany does not have a large parliamentary or democratic tradition on national level like other European states or the United States of America. Rather there were 19 with exception of the Hambacher of celebration 1832 and first parliamentary conditions in South Germany up to the center . Century no systematic efforts after parliamentarism and democracy.

A first to some extent democratic parliament was the Frankfurt national assembly, which met to 1848/ 1849 in the Frankfurt Paulskirche and planned into its Paulskirchenverfassung a democratic constitutional monarchy for Germany. The fundamental right catalog became considerably i.e. for the second and third democratic condition of Germany, those Weimar condition and the Basic Law. The Paulskirchenverfassung and with it the national assembly failed however because of the resistance of the princes.

Reichstagsgebäude ca. 1900
Realm tag building approx. 2005
up to the establishment of realm

1871 there were 1900 realm tag buildings therefore again no German parliament. In the same year created Reichstag in more general, more freely, same and secret choice one selected, had however no influence on the formation of a government; only men possessed besides the active and passive right to vote.

Only those Weimar national assembly of 1919 developed the first also democratic condition for the German Reich, used in the reality. After the entry into force that Weimar condition functioned the national assembly also a time long as parliament to it by the selected Reichstag was finally replaced.

With the resolution of the enabling act 1933 also the democratic phase of Reichstag ended. When institution it remained, lost to exist however its task as legislative and the government controlling organ.

After the unconditional surrender at the end of the Second World War a parliamentless time developed, since the Germans held no more sovereignty rights. With the progressing of the east west conflict saw the three western allied ones, the USA, the united kingdom and France, however the necessity to establish a West German state. At the 1. September 1948 took up the parliamentary advice to Bonn its work: Its task was the creation (provisional) of a Basic Law for West Germany. Hope for an imminent reunification of the three western and of the Soviet Union occupied „east zone “disintegrated however. To 23. May 1949 was announced the Basic Law, it came into force on the following day. To 7. October became the past east zone the German Democratic Republic.

The mechanism one „people daily “, this designation was changed only in „Bundestag “, with powers handing far was a little disputed relatively late in the parliamentary advice in the comparison to the structure of the later Upper House of Parliament. Also the discussed rights and obligations essentially agree with those, which the Bundestag actually holds today.

To the reunification the Bundestag changed 1999 in the course of the capital resolution from the year 1991 of Bonn into the realm tag building in Berlin.

first Bundestag (1949-1953)

election to the Bundestag results

of the 1. German Bundestag, to 14. August 1949 selected was, stepped to 7. September 1949 in Bonn to its first meeting together. Still before it the Upper House of Parliament had for the first time accumulated. The two legislations of state organs were constituted thereby. The first meeting was led by chairman by seniority Paul Löbe, until Erich charcoal burner was finally selected to the first President of the Bundestag. To 12. September became Theodor Heuss from the Presidential Election Council to the first Federal President, to 15. September Konrad Adenauer from the Bundestag to the first Federal Chancellor selected. After President of the Bundestag Köhler had lost also the support of his own parliamentary group, 1950 Hermann Ehlers were selected to the second President of the Bundestag.

The 1. Bundestag had the difficult task to hold the consequences of war and driving out by legal measures in the bearable framework. Likewise it had to set the legal basic conditions for an economic growth and the reconstruction of the infrastructure. Important laws were to the distribution of burdens, in addition, the ratification important of the with regard to foreign policy contract over the European community for coal and steel (Coal and Steel Community). In addition adoptions of resolutions came over the industrial democracy act, the housing law and the restrictive trade practice act, which contributed to arising the Wirtschaftswunders. Also the reparations agreements, which the Federal Government with the State of Israel closed, required permission by the Bundestag. Already in November 1949 it came to an eclat, when the SPD faction leaders briefly Schumacher Federal Chancellor Adenauer was excluded as „a Federal Chancellor of the allied ones “designated and but temporarily from the Bundestag.

second Bundestag (1953-1957)

of the 2. Bundestag was selected 1953. At its first meeting, which was led first by age president Marie Elizabeth Lüders, Hermann Ehlers was selected again to the President of the Bundestag. Also the choice of the Federal Chancellor fell for the second time on Konrad Adenauer. 1954 were Theodor Heuss ' re-election to the Federal President undisputedly. After the sudden death of Hermann Ehlers 1954 became Eugen Gerstenmaier its successors (until 1969) as a President of the Bundestag. With its choice to 16. November gave it thereby the case unique in the Bundestag that two parliamentary group colleagues stood as a candidate against each other around the office of the President of the Bundestag: Against „the official “ CDU/CSU - stepped candidate Gerstenmaier, which was too church near to many delegates also the government coalition, from that the FDP - on and only difference lost delegate Hans hoar frost suggested Ernst Lemmer in the third ballot with only 14 voices.

Also the 2. Bundestag had to fight still substantially for the consolidation of the German commonwealth. Even if by the Wirtschaftswunder many clear improvements were possible, the required substantial switch positions of the agreement of the federal daily. Into its Legislatur fell the pension reform to the dynamic pension, the agreement to the Roman contracts and to the European defense community in the long run failing. Also the fact that the Federal Republic became 1955 again mostly sovereign and so that became authorized to act with regard to foreign policy extended the tasks of the federal daily. Finally the rearmament and the structure of the German Federal Armed Forces with that were NATO - entry an important development, which had to be accompanied legislative by it. To it also the first larger change of the Basic Law with the insertion of a military condition belongs. These changes took place against the strong resistance of the SPD - opposition.

third Bundestag (1957-1961)

of the 3. Bundestag was selected 1957. At its first meeting, which was led first again by age president Marie Elizabeth Lüders, Eugen Gerstenmaier was selected again to the President of the Bundestag and Konrad Adenauer again to the Federal Chancellor. With the Federal President choice 1959 the choice fell after the retreat Adenauer on the CDU politician Heinrich Luebke, who became thereby second Federal President.

The legislative period ran first without large characteristics. 1959 announced the SPD however the Godesberger program, with which she made the break with a class warfare party to a social-democratic people's party. 1960 explained the SPD delegates harsh ore Wehner that the SPD would carry from now on the west connection and the integration into the Western European contract systems. The building of the citizens of Berlin wall 1961 fell in the middle into the election campaign.

fourth Bundestag (1961-1965)

at the constituent meeting 4. Federal daily, which was led of Robert Pferdmenges as a chairman by seniority, was selected again Eugen Gerstenmaier to the President of the Bundestag and Konrad Adenauer for the fourth time to the Federal Chancellor. After the Adenauers' resignation 1963 Ludwig Erhard became against the decided resistance of his predecessor of new Federal Chancellors. The Federal President choice 1964 ran against it more unproblematically: Heinrich Luebke was appointed again into the office for president.

Legislative important decisions fell into the fourth legislative period: The contract over the French-German friendship was signed at the beginning of of 1963 still by Adenauer and ratified in the Bundestag. The Bundestag proved however its self-willedness by putting a preamble in front, which referred to the remaining alliance obligations to the other western partners. The mirror affair 1962 represented the beginning of the end of the government Adenauer: Adenauer and its Secretary of Defense Franz Josef bunch led a revenge campaign against the critical news magazine: Bunch had to withdraw, Adenauer was fastened. In the course of the affair withdrew also all FDP - Ministers. Adenauer with the promise had to achieve the reentrance of the FDP into the government to withdraw 1963. Erhard's style, which from that the chancellor democracy Adenauer deviated clearly and distributed to many groups of interests of gifts, became doubtful with the entrance of an easy crisis relating to market conditions. An important discussion, which is ranked today among „the great moments “of the parliament, was the debate over the periods of limitation, which began 1965 twenty years after the end of the National Socialist regime; finally obsiegte the side of those, which required an abolition or at least an extension of the periods of limitation. Also the policy of detente beginning to the east was topic in the Bundestag.

fifth Bundestag (1965-1969)

the term of office of the fifth Bundestag, which began after the choice 1965, was coined/shaped of the end the chancellor shank Ludwig Erhard and of the large coalition under briefly George Kiesinger. At the constituent meeting, which was led by chairman by seniority Konrad Adenauer, Eugen Gerstenmaier was selected again to the President of the Bundestag. After Erhard's resignation 1966 Kiesinger was finally selected to the third Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic. For the first time the SPD with vice-chancellor Willy Brandt came into the government responsibility. The choice of Gustav Heinemann to the Federal President 1969 already gave a reference to the social liberal to coalition starting from 1969.

At that time the recession strong for conditions led to a cabinet crisis, in whose process in October 1966 the FDP Ministers withdrew and Ludwig Erhard withdrew according to the agreement of CDU/ CSU and SPD over a large coalition to favour from briefly George Kiesinger. In this way „the natural “equilibrium of a same strength was expenditure-levered by government coalition and opposition: More than 400 delegates of union and SPD opposed only well 50 delegates of the FDP. Also the government parliamentary factions took increasingly a more critical attitude for Federal Government, yet a except-parliamentary opposition ( APO) developed, which fed itself from the protest against those their opinion after undemocratic large coalition. Most important topic of the large coalition was the Verabschiedung of the emergency acts and with it the second large change of the Basic Law. The APO here particularly protested against the alleged possibility of a coup d'etat by common committee and Federal Government, occurred in addition, against covering the entangling of the parents generation the national socialism and found in the former NSDAP - member and nunmehrigen Federal Chancellor Kiesinger a be worth-worth goal. Politically mostly the APO settled to the left of the SPD protested however also against Viet Nam war and capitalism. The discussion over the introduction of the Mehrheitswahlrechts, which appeared first very probable, suffocated at the resistance within the SPD. Important further topics were the legal equalization of illegitimate children and the stability law, which set the politico-economic yardsticks of the policy of the Federal Government. Also the financial condition was reformed. The relaxation opposite the Eastern Bloc began, however by setbacks was interrupted again and again.

sixth Bundestag (1969-1972)

the sixth Bundestag was Bundestag of the constitutional Erstanwendungen: For the first time a constructional vote of no confidence and the question of confidence of the Federal Chancellor were asked, dissolved for the first time the Bundestag. At the beginning of the legislative period was coined/shaped already by pagings: For the first time SPD and FDP formed a coalition the union into the opposition were with one another, for the first time pushed. Chairman by seniority William Borm presided still the choice CDU - of the politician dock Uwe von Hassel to the President of the Bundestag , but one selected for the first time already afterwards with Willy Brandt a Social Democrat in the chancellorship.

The beginning of the government Brandt was characterized relating to domestic affairs to eliminate remainder of the era Adenauer designated of the governing as „Mief the “. The new social liberal government wanted after the words of the governmental declaration Brandts in state and society „more democracy to dare “, the criminal law liberalisieren, among other things by decriminalization of Homosexualität and Gotteslästerung, financially more weakly placing more chances in the education politics grant, which develop welfare state and which environmental protection anpacken. The most important innovation was however a completely new concept in the foreign policy: the east politics in such a way specified. Willy Brandt succeeded it against violent resistance of the conservative opposition, the reconciliation with the Soviet Union to advance with Poland and with Czechoslovakia and to set also the relations with the GDR to a new basis. Some member of the government parliamentary factions left from protest against this politics the coalition and followed the opposition from CDU and CSU. This tried finally to 27. April 1972, Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt by constructional vote of no confidence by its leader of the parliamentary group, Rainer Barzel, to replace. By rumors proven later a tuning bought to consequence Barzel lost however scarcely the vote of no confidence. Finally Federal Government and opposition agreed on a compromise; the Bundestag decided the east contracts. Further a Patt between coalition and opposition existed nevertheless, so that Brandt to 22. September 1972 the question of confidence placed and intentionally lost. Later Federal President Gustav Heinemann the Bundestag already dissolved and wrote one day new elections out.

seventh Bundestag (1972-1976)

the constituent meeting 7. Federal daily after the election to the Bundestag 1972 was led by chairman by seniority Ludwig Erhard. With Annemarie Renger a woman and social-democracies into the office of the President of the Bundestag one selected for the first time for the first time. Willy Brandt was red-elect as a Federal Chancellor. Its resignation because of the espionage affair around Günter Guillaume 1974 led to the choice Helmut Schmidts to the Federal Chancellor. Few weeks later walter cross-eyed was selected from the Presidential Election Council to the fourth Federal President.

With regard to foreign policy played the basis-of-relations treaty with the GDR, which the mechanism of constant agencies contained, likewise an important role like the entry of both German states to the UN. Both contracts had to be ratified by the Bundestag. Altogether it suggested itself however that also the union of the east politics of the social liberals government opposed increasingly less hostilely. Relating to domestic affairs there was large controversy between the both bearings however with the discussion over the Abtreibungsparagrafen 218 in the penal code and the reform of the law of divorce. Without fundamental discussions however the federal training promotion law (student financial assistance scheme) was decided. The terrorism, which had shown its face with the olympic plays in Munich already 1972, played a more important role, in particular by arising the Baader Meinhofgroup and later the RAF. But also the oil crisis 1973 had large effects on the policy; the environmental policy stepped increasingly into the foreground.

figure eight Bundestag (1976-1980)

the respected Bundestag, which was selected 1976 , was opened to Karl Carstens by chairman by seniority Ludwig Erhard, selected afterwards to the sixth President of the Bundestag. He became after the Federal President choice 1979 fifth Federal President, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Stücklen began his follow-up as a President of the Bundestag.

The legislative period of the respected federal daily fell in outside like difficult relating to domestic affairs times. While 1977 the terror of the RAF with the murder of Hanns Martin Schleyer and the kidnapping of the Lufthansa airplane raved „land hat “ after Mogadischu, the Federal Government went and with it the Bundestag legislation-technically „to to the edge of the constitutionally possible one “. Thus for example by an express law a contact barrier was imposed over the RAF terrorists in-sitting in Stuttgart master home, who were not allowed to communicate thus with their attorneys. With regard to foreign policy the invasion of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan and the NATO double resolution provided for a rereviving of the peace movement.

ninth Bundestag (1980-1983)

the ninth Bundestag, selected 1980, experienced two questions of confidence as well as a constructional vote of no confidence and at the beginning of of 1983 was finally dissolved. In the constituent meeting led by chairman by seniority harsh ore Wehner was selected smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Stücklen again to the President of the Bundestag. Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt placed at the beginning of 1982 a positively answered question of confidence. Nothing the defiance was its government in October 1982 to end, when it by a constructional vote of no confidence of CDU/CSU and its former coalition partner, which were replaced FDP, by Helmut Kohl. This asked the question of confidence in December 1982 and lost intentionally. Despite heavy constitutional doubts Federal President Carstens finally dissolved the Bundestag.

The aftereffects of the NATO double resolution provided within the SPD, tensions over the Federal Budget and the welfare state within the coalition for attrition: Finally the government in the summer failed 1982, the FDP changed under heavy internal-party arguments the coalition and became partner in a Christian liberal government. After some few had been channeled as „urgently “designated programs through the Bundestag, the Bundestag already ended after the constitutionally not undisputed dissolution decision of the Federal President.

tenth Bundestag (1983-1987)

of the 1983 selected tenth Bundestag, into which with the Greens for decades again a new political Kraft drew for the first time, was opened by chairman by seniority Willy Brandt. Subsequently, Rainer Barzel to the sieved President of the Bundestag and Helmut Kohl was selected again to the Federal Chancellor. With the Federal President choice 1984 smelling pool of broadcasting corporations von Weizsäcker was selected to the sixth Federal President. In the same year Barzel withdrew because of its entangling into the repairing affair as a President of the Bundestag, its successor became Philipp Jenninger. 1986 moved the Bundestag into the old water company on the area of the federal daily, since the past meeting room had become ramshackle.

The policy of the Federal Government Kohl and that it basic majority in the Bundestag were coined/shaped in the first half of its term of office by the attempt to get already at that time relatively high unemployment into the grasp. In addition different laws were adopted by the Bundestag, which should improve the economic situation of the country. The repairing affair provided for the installation of a committee of inquiry. The 40. Anniversary of the end of war to 8. May 1985 heated the discussion up around handling the Second World War, the disaster of Tschernobyl 1986 strengthened the debate over a better environmental legislation. The census planned for 1987 failed because of a judgement of the Federal Constitutional Court. The Federal Government and the Bundestag remained with regard to foreign policy with a hard course: The NATO double resolution was converted. The policy of detente with the GDR was advanced nevertheless. Into this legislative period also famous, falls the set of the Green Party politician Joschka Fischer addressed become to Bundestag vice-president Stücklen: „With leaves, Mr. Präsident, Sie are an asshole. “, which fell, after Stücklen Jürgen Reents of the Bundestag had referred.

Elfter Bundestag (1987-1990)

plenary assembly hall in the old Bonn water companies (1986-1992)

the work elften Bundestag began after the choice 1987 by the constituent meeting, which was led by chairman by seniority Willy Brandt. Philipp Jenninger was selected again to President of the Bundestag , Helmut Kohl again to the Federal Chancellor. After a speech to 50. Anniversary of the so-called realm crystal night had to withdraw Jenninger 1988, since linguistic inaccuracy was accused to it with the designation of the motives of the authors. Its successor became Rita Süssmuth. With the Federal President choice 1989 smelling pool of broadcasting corporations von Weizsäcker was red-elect.

The world-political events, in whose center 1989 and 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany was located, coined/shaped also the work of the federal daily. 1989 the day of the wall opening followed a larger health reform to 9. November of the same yearly, when whose becoming known in the Bundestag the national anthem was angestimmt. Few weeks later Helmut Kohl presented to the Bundestag and the world public its plan of point of ten to the German unit. According to the permission of the reunification by the Soviet Union the Bundestag treated the law changes necessary by the rapid agreement process. In particular the agreement contract had to be ratified.

twelfth Bundestag (1990-1994)

plenary assembly hall of the Bundestag 1992-1999

to 20. December 1990 took up for the first time since 1932 a freely selected all-German parliament its work. With the Party of Democratic Socialism a further political Kraft drew into the Bundestag, however not into parliamentary group strength. In the first meeting led by chairman by seniority Willy Brandt was selected again again Rita Süssmuth to the parliamentary speaker and some weeks late Helmut Kohl to the Federal Chancellor. With the Federal President choice 1994 novel duke was selected to the sieved Federal President. 1992 took place for the first time a meeting in the again built Bundestag building in Bonn.

Major task of the new federal daily was the accomplishment of the heavy tasks, which came by the so fast reunification to Germany. The economy in the former GDR had broken down, a structure east necessarily. The completion of the many state enterprises was taken over by the trust establishment. A billions-worth Solidarpakt had to be introduced , with the West Germany the improvement of the economic situation of East Germany nevertheless financed. A considered large revision of the Basic Law did not take place, but several smaller changes were transferred to the now all-German condition. Again - because of the different treatment of the case in east and west - the question of the abortion came on Tapet. Finally the knappe decision fell that the federal organs should move until 1999 from Bonn to Berlin. A further important topic relating to domestic affairs was the containment of the asylum abuse. Since for this the Basic Law had to be amended, it came to the asylum compromise between Federal Government and opposition. Right-wing politically important decisions were the improvement of the protection of the sexual self-determination; besides a nursing care insurance was introduced. Also with regard to foreign policy some changed for larger Germany: After the ratification of the two-plus four-contract 1991 the ratification of the contract from Maastricht stood to the establishment of the European union on the program. In addition the Federal Constitutional Court the Bundestag knows further responsibility too, by it to each employment of the German Federal Armed Forces outside of NATO - area its agreement required. A somewhat abseitige debate gave it to 25. February 1994, when in the Bundestag controversially veiling the realm tag building by the artists Christo and Jeanne Claude were discussed. Veiling took place finally in June 1995.

three tenth Bundestag (1994-1998)

the three tenth Bundestag, which had come out from the election to the Bundestag 1994, Stefan Heym Rita Süssmuth selected again to his president in his constituent meeting under the direction of chairman by seniority. Also Helmut Kohl was selected for the fifth time to the Federal Chancellor.

Also the second Bundestag selected after the reunification had to concern itself with the problems of the structure east. In addition aggravatingly the ever more clearly becoming globalization came. The Bundestag tried in coordination with the Federal Government to keep the economic situation Germany competitive and strengthen to maintain at the same time however the welfare state as far as possible. An important change was the pension reform of 1997, which came against the resistance of the opposition. The agreement of the federal daily was important with regard to foreign policy to the contract of Amsterdam and for the introduction of the euro.

four tenth Bundestag (1998-2002)

plenary assembly hall of the federal daily in the realm tag building

from the election to the Bundestag 1998 came out completely changed Bundestag. Chairman by seniority Fred Gebhardt could congratulate to SPD - politician with Wolfgang Thierse for the first time for 26 years to the assumption of the office of the President of the Bundestag. More importantly it was however that Gerhard Schröder was selected to the sieved Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic. 1999 moved the Bundestag to Berlin in the realm tag building . 2001 asked the Federal Chancellor the question of confidence.

Quintessential points of the new Red-Greens Federal Government were the ecological tax revision, the atomic door, the cancelling of the sociopolitical cuts of the predecessor government and a new Zuwanderungsgesetz. In addition the discussion came over a forced laborer remuneration. While the first three points were converted, the coalition had to put a defeat in with the Zuwanderungsgesetz by the now lead by the Union Upper House of Parliament. Coining/shaping were with regard to foreign policy war employments, 1999 in the Kosovo and 2001 in Afghanistan, after Federal Chancellor Schröder had connected this employment of the German Federal Armed Forces with the question of confidence. Only with the Iraq war 2002 the Federal Government placed itself against the war course of the USA. This decision before the election to the Bundestag is seen short together with as well judged crisis management during the century flood as important basis for the knappe re-election.

five tenth Bundestag (2002-2005)

the election to the Bundestag 2002 could be won by the Red-Greens government scarcely. Therefore chairman by seniority Otto Schily could congratulate also to President of the Bundestag Wolfgang Thierse and Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder to the re-election. 2004 were selected refuge charcoal burner to the Federal President. After the defeat with an election of the federal parliament the Federal Chancellor 2005 asked the question of confidence, which he lost intentionally. Subsequently, Federal President Köhler dissolved the Bundestag; this decision was confirmed by the Federal Constitutional Court.

After the scarce re-election Federal Chancellor Schröder decided to concern a reform program. In addition it presented its agenda 2010 , which contained solid cuts in the social system and also before the cancelling of the cancelling of the sociopolitical cuts of the government Kohl did not back-frighten in March 2003. Against substantial protest of the trade unions the Bundestag decided laws such as Hartz IV, with which the commonwealth should be reorganized. The Zuwanderungsgesetz was passed after a compromise with the Upper House of Parliament. The continuation of the reform course relating to domestic affairs and the fight against the right-wing extremism - a prohibition request of the federal daily against the NPD failed 2003 - stood just as on the further program as with regard to foreign policy the ratification of the European condition.

Sechzehnter Bundestag (starting from 2005)

the election to the Bundestag 2005 led to a result, in whose consequence also unorthodox coalition models (Jamaica coalition) were discussed. Chairman by seniority Otto Schily could congratulate to that CDU - politician Norbert lamb ore to the choice in the office of the President of the Bundestag. The Bundestag selected one month after the constitution the CDU politician Angela Merkel to the Bundeskanzlerin.

One of the first projects of the large coalition is the adoption of resolutions over the federalism reform.

electoral periods of the German federal daily

from 1949 to 1976 the election to the Bundestag in the last quarter of the electoral period had to take place; the electoral period took accurately four years. In the case of the dissolution of the federal daily there was a parliamentless time, likewise between the end of the four-yearly period and meets a new federal daily.

From 1980 to 1998 the election to the Bundestag took place at the earliest 45, at the latest 47 months after beginning of the electoral period; the electoral period ended however in each case with meets the new federal daily.

Since 2002 the election to the Bundestag takes place at the earliest 46, at the latest 48 months after beginning of the electoral period.

The 6. German Bundestag (1972), the 9. German Bundestag (1983) and the 15. German Bundestag (2005) were dissolved. In these cases the new election had to take place at the latest sixty days after the dissolution order of the Federal President; this regulation applies also to future dissolutions of the federal daily.

parliamentary groups in the German Bundestag

the CDU, the CSU (since 1949 in parliamentary group community), the SPD and the FDP are since that 1. Bundestag in parliamentary group strength in the Bundestag represent.

The German party was represented in the federal days from 1949 to 1961, since 1953 however only owing to the profit of direct mandates. 1957 gave it an arrangement with the CDU, which did not begin in some constituencies, so that the there DP-candidates had clearly larger chances.

From 1949 to 1953 the Bavaria party ( BP) was, the center, the reconstruction combination (WAV), the German realm Reich (DRP), which Südschleswig voter federation - all together not in parliamentary group strength - and three independent direct candidates in the Bundestag represent. The multiplicity of the different groups is explainable from the fact that a party had to jump over the five-per cent hurdle only in a Land of the Federal Republic, in order to be represented in the Bundestag. This rule was already abolished to the election to the Bundestag 1953.

From 1953 to 1957 only the all-German block/federation of the refugees of homeland and Entrechteten was represented in parliamentary group strength in the Bundestag beside the three large parliamentary groups and the German party. In addition only three direct candidates of the center came.

From 1961 to 1983 only the three parliamentary groups were represented by CDU/CSU, SPD and FDP in the Bundestag.

1983 the Greens ( starting from 1993 alliance 90/Die the Green) were added, who had parliamentary group strength up to the time of 1990 to 1994, when only into the East German choice area drew the alliance 90 into the Bundestag, always.

finally 1990 pulled the Party of Democratic Socialism, which renamed SED, into which Bundestag was in, it from 1990 to 1998 in group strength and from 1998 to 2002 in parliamentary group strength in the Bundestag represented. From 2002 to 2005 only two parliamentary groupless members of the Party of Democratic Socialism (starting from late summer 2005 left wing party ) were delegates of the federal daily. In 16. Bundestag (since 2005) is again in parliamentary group strength represented the left wing party.

See also: Political spectrum

of allocations of seats in the federal days

allocations of seats in the federal days (at the beginning of the legislative periods)
Bundestag Legislatur of mandates CDU/CSU SPD FDP alliance 90/Die the Green 1 the left one.2 DP other one
1. Bundestag 1949-1953 402 ,139 ,131 52 - - 17 63 3
2. Bundestag 1953-1957 487 ,243 ,151 48 - - 15 30 4
3. Bundestag 1957-1961 497 ,270 ,169 41 - - 17 -
4. Bundestag 1961-1965 499 ,242 ,190 67 - - - -
5. Bundestag 1965-1969 496 ,245 ,202 49 - - - -
6. Bundestag 1969-1972 496 ,242 ,224 30 - - - -
7. Bundestag 1972-1976 496 ,225 ,230 41 - - - -
8. Bundestag 1976-1980 496 ,243 ,214 39 - - - -
9. Bundestag 1980-1983 497 ,226 ,218 53 - - - -
10. Bundestag 1983-1987 498 ,244 ,193 34 27 - - -
11. Bundestag 1987-1990 497 ,223 ,186 46 42 - - -
12. Bundestag 1990-1994 662 ,319 ,239 79 8 17 - -
13. Bundestag 1994-1998 672 ,294 ,252 47 49 30 - -
14. Bundestag 1998-2002 669 ,245 ,298 43 47 36 - -
15. Bundestag 2002-2005 603 ,248 ,251 47 55 2 - -
16. Bundestag since 2005 614 ,226 ,222 61 51 54 - -

1 1983 to 1990 the Greens, 1990 to 1994 alliance 90, since 1994 alliance 90/Die the Green
2 1990 to 2005 Party of Democratic Socialism, since 2005 the left wing party.
3 BP 17, KPD 15, WAV 12, center 10, DKP-DRP 5, SSW 1, independent one 3
4 GB-BHE 27, center 3

strongest parliamentary groups and parties

strongest parliamentary group was in the time of 1949 to 1972, of 1976 to 1998 and since 2005 the parliamentary group of the CDU/CSU, while between 1972 and 1976 as well as between 1998 and 2005 the SPD faction was the strongest.

Since CDU and CSU are different parties, the SPD up to the elections to the Bundestag was 1953, 1957 and 1990 a always strongest party. In the three years mentioned the CDU was a strongest party.

literature

  • Wolfgang Ismayr: The German Bundestag: Functions, will formation, reform beginnings. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1992, ISBN 3-8100-0828-1
  • Carl Christian emperor, Wolfgang boiler: German Bundestag 1949-1999. Olzog, Munich 1999, ISBN 3789280151
  • Wolfgang Ismayr: The German Bundestag in the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2000, ISBN 3-8100-2308-6
  • Heinrich Oberreuter (Hrsg.): The German Bundestag in the change: Results of newer parliamentarism research. 2. Edition. West German publishing house, Wiesbaden 2002, ISBN 3-531-33684-3
  • biographic manual of the members of the German federal daily 1949-2004. Hrsg. v. Rudolf four-house and Ludolf autumn under cooperation of Bruno Jahn. 3 Bde., Munich, K. G. Saur, 2002/2003, ISBN 3598237804
  • Rupert send, Hermann J. Carpenter: Thus the German Bundestag works. Organization and function; the legislation of the federation (15. Electoral period). 17. Edition. New Darmstädter publishing house, Rhine broad brook 2003, ISBN 3-87576-501-X
  • of Kürschners people manual German Bundestag. New Darmstädter publishing house, Rhine broad brook 2004, ISBN 3875765257
  • Klaus von Beyme: The legislator. The Bundestag as decision center. West German publishing house, Opladen 1997, ISBN of 3-531-12956-2

documentary films

  • democracy, how that functions? - Behind the window blinds of the federal daily. Pool of broadcasting corporations documentation, 2003. Book and direction: Torsten would sit.

see also

Web on the left of

Commons: Category: Bundestag - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Bundestag - quotations


Elections to the German Bundestag
1949 | 1953 | 1957 | 1961 | 1965 | 1969 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1983 | 1987 | 1990 | 1994 | 1998 | 2002 | 2005 | 2009
This article was taken up to the list of exzellenter articles.
 

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