German medal

Tannhäuser as a German medal knight
miniature from the Codex one-eats

the German medal (also Ordo Teutonicus, Ordo domus Sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, medal of the brothers of the German house pc. Mariens in Jerusalem, German gentleman Mr., cross knight medal, German knight medal or German knight medal) (shortened OT = Ordo Teutonicus) is religious a knight medal and was considerably involved to the German Ostkolonisation. Since 1929 it is a klerikaler medal. It is beside the Johanniter and/or. Malteserorden and temp-learnthe third large knight medal, which was created during the medieval crusades.

Table of contents

indications, clothes, slogan

the medal character is a black cross on white reason. To the typical medal clothes belongs for the clergymen, who Soutane, neck cross and chest crosscarry, a white coat, on which rechtsseitig a black cross is attached. The slogan of the medal reads „helping, healing, weir “.

history

establishment time and crusades

medal cross

the establishment of the German medal found 1190 during the third crusade instead of. First high master was Heinrich whale poet of bass home. The original nursing for the sick medal was converted in March 1198 into a religious knight medal, that its seat in the port Akkon in the holy country, in the north of the today's Israel, had. The Templerorden served during this transformation as model. This transformation is to be due to the operation of the German Reich and began already among emperors Heinrich VI. in the year 1197. The medal, its militarization by the Johanniter and Templer one waited, should serve the influencing control of the realm in the holy country, since the Germans possessed there no base, which could represent their interests. In the holy country the acquisition of the harbour due did not only succeed to the medal in Akkon and 1220the acquisition of the Seigneurie de Joscelin, but also attaining a Lehnsexemption, which did not solve it from the leaning federation of the kingdom, probably however released from all obligations this opposite. To this still those stepped, although in sarazenischer handpresent, Baronie Toron. This was taken out of any leaning federation and formed a completely independent rule. This renouncement of the Kingdom of Jerusalem of all realm rights is without example and finds its reason in the fact that emperors Friedrich II., at the same time king of Jerusalem, which medal wanted particularly to grant privilege and build in outstanding place into its imperial policy. It by the way repeated this with the delivery still from the medal to which can be conquered of the areas at the Baltic Sea. All of this is unquestionable on the high master To lead back Hermann of Salza, which most important advisor of the emperor, without whose advice these nothing undertook.

the medal looked for concentration on

Europe and Ostkolonisation after the failure of the crusades a homeland in Germany. Andreas's II.from Hungary offeredin the year 1211 on to acquire by war services against the Kumanen a right of domicile in the Burzenland in filter defiency guarantees. The attempt of the medal to develop this homeland as an independent state ended with driving the medal out in the year 1225.

Siegel des Hochmeisters des Deutschen Ordens
Sealthe high master of the German medal

a third attempt of the land acquisition was successful: The medal high master Hermann of Salza II. left itself from the German emperor Friedrich. with the golden one bull of Rimini and of the Pope Gregor IX. with the golden one bullfrom Rieti it guarantees that after subjecting and Missionierung of the Baltic (among other things the Pruzzen) the conquered country at the medals falls.

A campaign for the support of the Polish duke of the Piasten, Konrad I. from Masowien, began in the year 1226. Konrad von Masowien gave after longer hesitating in the contract of Kruschwitz 1230 “ on eternal time” the Kulmer country to the medal. Controversially contract is less the legal transaction than rather the authenticity problem at the Kruschwitzer (denied from M. Perl brook;polarize from that. Historiography to a large extent taken over). A. Seraphim made substantial reasons for the authenticity of the present Treaty considerable. The authenticity controversy has in as much in principle meaning as in the case of falsification the legal basis of the medal state could be defizient in Prussia. Except questionit stands that the result of the development of Prussia not the original intentions of Konrad I. corresponded. The German medal regarded the contract as instrument for the creation of an independent rule area in Prussia. , Konrad participates not too forgotten “gave away” its claim PrussianTo keep area, which partial was conquered before, which to it however did not belong.

Already in 1224 emperor Friedrich had II. in Catania inhabitant of the Prussia country and neighboring territories as realm-free a duke, only the church and the empire directly does not subordinate andlater in the year 1224 the Pope had William of Modena than Legat for live country and Prussia and others announced.

The history of the medal from this time to the year 1525 is closely with the fate of the medal state linked, from later East Prussia, cure country, live country and Estonia came out.

Silbervergoldeter Feldaltar eines Großkomturs des Deutschen Ordens (1388 in Elbing angefertigt, jetzt im Schloss zu Marienburg).
Silver-gilded field altar of a Grosskomturs of the German medal (1388 made in Elbing, now in the lock to Marienburg).

Subjecting Prussia (accompanying with the Christianisierung of the country) by cross driver armies from thatRichly and many countries of Europe employ the medal more than fifty years and only 1285 one locked. It created itself a powerful rule area and had to be afraid thereby no competition of the splintered Polish state. 1309 pulled the high master in the Marienburg to the Nogat , Prussia had become the center of the medal. 1234 were integrated remainders of the knights by Dobrin (Dobriner medal) in the German medals. 1237 had itself the 1201 in Riga created sword brother medal (white coat with red cross) afterits defeat with the German medal combines 1236 in the battle of column against the Litauer and Semgaller; thus live country was acquired as the second heartland and covered like Prussia with a system of castles. A further expansion eastward succeededin addition, the German medal not.1242 became a knight army in the battle on the Peipussee of Alexander new ski, which defeats princes of Nowgorod. Lithuania in the southeast ascended gradually to a powerful large principality and conquered enormous areasof the golden horde/hurdle.

Also in Poland itself the central state under king Wladislaw I. could. (1306 - 1333) consolidate again. The appropriation Danzigs and Pommerellens by the medal in the year 1308 poisoned the relationship to the southern neighbour.Also the peace of Kalisch, in which Poland did 1343 without Pommerellen, a relaxation hardly brought.

The high master Vienna-smell from Kniprode (1351 - 1382) led the medal state to his largest bloom and defeated 1370 the Litauer. Under Konrad von Jungingen (1393 - 1407) became with the acquisition of Gotland, which reaches new Marks and Samaitens the largest expansion. But 1386 had themselves by the marriage of large prince Jagiello of Lithuania (1377 - 1434)and queen Hedwig of Poland (1382 - 1399) the two most powerful opponents of the medal unites. To 15. July 1410 was struck the army of the medal under Ulrich of June-gone with fir mountain (green forest). That knew the core of its territoryMedals in the first peace of Thorn 1411 maintain. However high reparations were to be carried out.

In the following decades internal disputes scooped out the medal state. Landsmannschaftliche groups argued about influence in the medal, the German master strove for stronger independence from the high master. ThoseCities and land aristocracy demanded participation due to the high taxation and united 1440 in „the Prussian federation “. 1453 allied itself this federation with king Kasimir IV. from Poland, a long war broke out. In the second peace ofThorn 1466 lost the medal among other things Pommerellen, the Kulmerland and the Marienburg; it had to recognize the Polish sovereignty, which remained however contentious. For the further receipt of the medal state now large subsidies from the Balleien of the realm were necessary, the many cominginto a precarious financial situation brought. The German master looked for support with the emperor and recognized 1494 leaning sovereignty Maximilians I. on.

time after the reformation

representation of knights of the German medal

the thoughts of the reformation beginning spreadalso fast into the medal state out. On advice Martin Luther fällte the high master Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia the resolution to secularize the medal and the king of Poland, Sigismund I.to recognize, as a sovereign, after it is enough in vain in the realm,as well as in Denmark for support and the war had asked to attain around full Soveränität from the Poland king to, remained undecided. Thus Albrecht the office for high master gave up, over to its uncle Sigismund I. a personal oath to carry out and the medal state became inthe duchy Prussia converted. Duke Albrecht resided to 9 starting from that. May 1525 as Albrecht I. in king mountain. The medal used walter von Cronberg as new high master, who had its seat however now in Mergentheim. Cronberg became administrator of Prussiaand on the imperial Reichstag to Augsburg in the year 1530 with the Prussia country belehnt. Duke Albrecht came under imperial spell.

Nevertheless Prussia received first a lutherische regional church, one at all in Europe. Likewise cure country became 1561 the layDuchy under the former master, duke God hard of Kettler. The duchies Prussia and cure country been subordinate the Polish leaning sovereignty. Live country and southern Estonia became directly Polish, while northern Estonia with Tallinn came to Sweden. After the endthe large Nordi war was subordinate live country with Riga and Estonia starting from 1721 to the Russian realm completely (see Ostseegouvernements).

Further administrators were used for Prussia, like for example Maximilian III, the son emperor Maximilians II. As Danzig and Elbing 1734 , the entries of the inhabitants, baptism, for marrying, were besieged by Russian and Saxonian troops dead ones in the ore diocese Cologne were made, since the archbishop was at the same time high master of the German medal.

After 1525 the German medal concentrated on its possessions inGerman Reich. Since it had no closed territory, but over strongly absent-minded fragment possession, one developed a three speed management system:

  • A rule district was combined into coming and was subordinate to the Komtur.
  • Several coming formed a Ballei. Since the reformationthe medal was tridenominational, so that there was catholic, lutherische and reformed Balleien.
  • The entire medal possession was subordinate to the high master (and not, like the other medals, a large master), who had its seat in bath Mergentheim.

Altogether there were twelve German Balleien:

  1. Thuringia
  2. Alden Biesen
  3. Hessen
  4. Sachsen

  1. Westphalia
  2. Franconia
  3. Koblenz
  4. Elsass Burgund

  1. to the Etsch and in the mountains
  2. Utrecht
  3. Lorraine
  4. Austria

19. to 21. Century

German medal knight at a Hauswand in Neckarsulm

the secularization of the medal in early 19. Century concernedits possessions equally as its members. Since the material and personnel emphasis of the medal lay since the crusades in the Baltic, only a smaller remainder of the medal remained in the German Reich. The seat became under the high master roll ago from Cronbergafter Mergentheim shifts.

The medal 1809 was forbidden by Napoleon, and its properties Napoleons allied awarded. Only in Austria the German medal continued to exist. Only 1834 were again officially certified the medal as „German knight medal “, but most goods remainedin lay possession. 1929 were converted the medal into a purely religious medal and received the names „German medal “. Also in the time of the national socialism of 1938-1945 the medal was waived and forbidden by the ruling powers.

Starting from the end that1990er years developed the D.O. itself within a short time to a large social company. Among other things he took over numerous hospitals and engaged themselves with excavation and tourism projects in Israel and the Palestinian areas. The guidance of the medal took over itself economically. InJanuary 2000 announced the German brother province inability to pay. The top management had to go. The work of a committee of inquiry to the German medal in the Bavarian federal state parliament ran 2002/03 in the sand.

General abbott of the medal, which carries the title high masters, is since 2000 Dr. Bruno of flat.

seat and mechanisms

today are Vienna seat of the high master. There, directly behind the step Hans cathedral , German medal central archives and a museum worth seeing are.

Since 1996 a German medal museum in former German medal German of bath Mergentheim, that existsfrom 1525 to 1809 residence of the high masters of the German medal was.

the medal has members coats of arms of the high masters

of the German medal current about 1000 members. Of it approximately 100 priests, 200 sisters and 700 family ones. While the priests,organized in 5 provinces (Priorate:Italy, Austria, Germany, Tschechien and Slowenien), primarily in the Pfarrseelsorge active are, dedicate themselves the sisters of the ill and old person care.

Historically important and well-known members were:

see also: List of the high masters

used article

literature

  • Hermann writer: Prussia and the Baltic among the Kreuzrittern - the history of the German medal, Casimir Katz publishing house 2003, ISBN 3-925825-83-5
  • Marian Tumler: The German medal in, waxes and working until 1400. Vienna, 1954
  • Hartmut Boockmann: The GermanMedal. ISBN 3-406-38174-X
  • cross and sword. The German medal in South West German country, in Switzerland and in the Elsass. Exhibition catalog Mainau, 1991
  • Alain Demurger: The knights Mr., history of the religious knight medals. C.H. Beck ISBN 3-406-50282-2

Web on the left of

Commons: German medal - pictures, videos and/or audio files


 

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