the diadochi (griech. διάδοχοι, successors, actually the something for another take over) were former field gentlemen Alexanders of the large one and their sons ( the Epigonen), those after its unexpected death 323 v. Chr. the Alexanderreich under itself divided themselves and with changing Alliances in altogether six diadochus wars fought. Afterwards a state system had been established, that up to the occurrence of the Roman realm in the eastern Mediterranean area in 2. Century v. Chr. Existence to have should and the frameworks for the cultural development of the brightism offered.
The terms diadochi and Epigonenin the science of history by Johann Gustav Droysen were coined/shaped. It called those army leaders, that argued immediately after Alexanders death about power, diadochus only as Epigonen however the following generations of the brightistic kings (see. also Droysens history of the brightism).
Table of contents
resuming information to this topic: History of the brightism
- 323 v. Chr. Alexander dies in Babylon
- 323/322 v. Chr. Lami war
- 322 v. Chr. Perdikkas conquersKappadokien, Eumenes becomes sowing RAP
- 321 v. Chr. Conference of Triparadeisos and re-organization under the remaining diadochus
- 317 v. Chr. Polyperchon announces „the liberty of the Greeks “, murder of Philipp III. Arrhidaios
- 310 v. Chr. Alexander IV. Aigos is murdered by Kassandros, end of the old Macedonian king house
- 306 v. Chr. Antigonos and its son Demetrios take the king title at
- 301 v. Chr. Death of the Antigonos in the battle of Ipsos
- 281 v. Chr. Death of the Lysimachos in the battle of Kurupedion
- 276 v. Chr. End of the diadochus time
decay of theAlexanderreiches
Alexander the large one died to 10. June of the yearly 323 v. Chr. in Babylon, after it its friend, who army leader Perdikkas, its Siegelring presented and had mentioned alleged, it will the strongest one among its field gentlemen its realm handed over. Everyone the battle-seasonedNow the question had to arise commanders, who was to follow Alexander.
Perdikkas and other officers wanted to be waiting whether Alexanders would bring a son to high pregnant woman Mrs. Roxane to the world. Perdikkas wanted to secure the inheritance of its father for this. He found support for this project with the Reitereithe army, in which the aristocracy had the strongest weight. Resistance against it rose with the foot people of the Phalanx. The Macedonian army meeting called on it Alexanders spirit-weak half brother Philipp III. Arrhidaios to the king out. As Roxane shortly thereafter a son, Alexander IV. Aigos, the life, became this gave on pressure of the Perdikkas and the prominent commanders and with of Philipps III. Agreement likewise to the king proclaimed.
In the name of Alexanders son began Perdikkas, those To occupy Satrapien again, whereby it was considered to keep the army leaders away if possible from Alexanders capital Babylon. Antipater, which won influence on Perdikkas, kept the office of the strategist of Europe and controlled in such a way Macedonia and Greece. Krateros, nominal Antipaters of superiors, became firstturned into, later however appointed „the representative of “both kings.Ptolemaios received Egypt, Thrakien fell at Lysimachos, Eumenes received Kappadokien and Lykien. Pamphylien as well as Pisidien went at Antigonos. Seleukos became commander of the Elitekavallerie of the Hetairen.
The realm Alexanders was not thereby yet by any meansdivided, but a unit remained formal. Most army leaders it might have been clear that their reconciliation would not be from long duration, but they had to terminate first unrests, which broke out after Alexanders death in its former sphere of influence: They suppressed a rebellion of Greek soldiers inBaktrien just like rebelling Athens in Greece. The defeat of Athens made also clear that the age was that finally past pole ice. The future should belong to the kingdoms of the diadochi and the Greek confederations of states.
Soon after the distribution of the Satrapien stepped only laboriouslysuppressed conflicts openly to day. Perdikkas faced a coalition from Antipater, Krateros, Antigonos and Ptolemaios, which did not want to resign themselves to its supremacy. In particular Ptolemaios speculated probably already on a splitting off of its rule area from the realm.321 v. Chr. the Perdikkas supported by Eumenes seizedOn, but he failed to Egypt because of the Nile transition and thereupon of its own officers, under it Seleukos, murdered. This received the Satrapie Babylonien to the following conference from Triparadeisos from Antipater, which was intended for the guard of the young king. Antigonos became the army leader in Asiaappointed and assigned to eliminate Eumenes the Krateros had defeated and had killed.
Antipater ignored with the regulation of its follow-up its son Kassandros in favor of the field gentleman Polyperchon. Kassandros closed thereupon the alliance from Antigonos, Ptolemaios and Lysimachos. The following fights, in of themProcess the two „royalist “generals Polyperchon and Eumenes cooperated, dragged on over years. At the end of the first phase of the very changeful running fighting 316 v. became. Chr. the majority of the Macedonian king family extinguished. Kassandros conquered Macedonia. 310 v. Chr.it left also Alexander IV.kill.
Meanwhile Polyperchon in Greece had appeared to pole ice as vorgeblicher Befreier that, however soon at power had lost. It is at an unknown time after the peace treaty between Antigonos and the other diadochus in the year 311 v. Chr. died.
Also Eumenes, one of the last advocates, could not hold itself for the realm unit. He was betrayed by his soldiers and delivered at Antigonos, which let him execute shortly thereafter. The fate of the Eumenes clarified new conditions: From the standing Macedonian army mercenary federations had become actual, those by oath only at theirrespective commander bound were.
Antigonos strove now openly for the autocracy. It secured its position in Asia and drove 315 v. out. Chr. Seleukos, which fled to Ptolemaios. 312 v. Chr. defeated these two Antigonos with Gaza. Seleukos returned to Babylon, secured into thatto the following years his power base and brought also the east of the realm under his control. The following fights between the diadochi extended again over large parts of the breaking apart Alexanderreiches, but brought them no real decision. With exception of Egypt were the borders of the respective spheres of influenceconstantly in the river and only decades should solidify themselves later. Also the power of the Antigoniden grew after the defeat of Gaza.
education that diadochus realms
Demetrios, thatSon of the Antigonos, fought for by driving the Makedonen out from Athens, the re-establishment of the attischen democracy and the destruction of the ptolemäischen fleet with salamis in Greece and Macedonia a stable powerful position. 306 v. Chr.accepted it and its father the king title of Macedonia,with which a clear claim to leadership was connected on the theoretically still existing total realm. In the year after also the other diadochi accepted own in each case king titles. Consequently a development initiated itself, which should become soon a typical characteristic brightistic ruler ideology: In several pole ice becamethe monarch ritual honours proved; some even as Gods were explained later.
In order to increase its impact force, Demetrios renewed 302 v. on behalf its father. Chr. and its guidance took over the Korinthi federation. Now a coalition stood for the two Antigoniden consisting of Kassandros, Lysimachos and opposite Seleukos, while Ptolemaios waited for the run of the things. Again 301 v. came to fights, those with the battle of Ipsos in the year. Chr.ended, in the Antigonos fell. With it actually also the idea of the realm unit was carried none to grave, therethe other rulers power had, the realm again to one.
In the time after 301 v. Chr. a status seemed quo found, a of several years however unstable peace, that in the year 288 v. Chr.ended. Demetrios tried further to attain a powerful position those comparablywith that of his father was. Lysimachos and Pyrrhos of Epirus penetrated in Macedonia, forced Demetrios to the escape and divided Macedonia under itself, whereby Lysimachos could become generally accepted soon as autocrats. Demetrios died later in seleukidischer shank.
Against the realm of the Lysimachos formed now(which large parts of small Asia covered) Seleukos pulled 281 v. Chr. into the war. It triumphed in the battle of Kurupedion over Lysimachos, but it by Ptolemaios Keraunos was shortly thereafter murdered, which even the Macedonian aimed at. 276 v. Chr.Antigonos' finally took overGrandchild Antigonos II. Gonatas power in Macedonia. Both events mark the end of the age of the diadochi.
As result of the fights three succession states had formed, those up to the occurrence of Rome in 2. Century v. Chr. Existence to have should: the Ptolemäerreich in Egypt, the Seleukidenreichin Asia and the Antigonidenreich in Greece.
the four diadochi presented here are exemplary for all. A complete enumerating of all diadochi is in the list diadochus realms to that.
major item: Antigonos I. Monophthalmos
Antigonos (Ἀντίγονος)a contemporary of Alexanders was father Philipp II. Its power base was first in small Asia, it switched off however Eumenes and brought so the majority of the asiatic part of the Alexanderreiches under its rule. In the subsequent years Ptolemaios and Seleukos became its main opponents. With Ptolemaios it foughtaround Syria and the naval supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean, with Seleukos around Babylon and the eastern Satrapien. Antigonos rose and its son Demetrios 306 v. Chr. to kings, the remaining diadochi pulled tight. Thus the Alexanderreich had finally broken. Nevertheless Antigonos is considered as lastAdvocate of the realm unit.
The authority of the Antigonos was so largely that the other diadochi feared, successively by it to be subjected. Ptolemaios, Seleukos and Lysimachos allied themselves against him and defeated Antigonos 301 v. Chr. in the decisive battle with Ipsos, in their process italso one killed. Despite this defeat Antigonos became the master father of the last Macedonian king dynasty, the Antigoniden. Its son Demetrios tried still in vain to bring the Macedonian heartland under his control its grandchild Antigonos II. Gonatas finally secured itself and its successors the Macedonian throne.
major item: Lysimachos
Lysimachos (Λυσίμαχος) was appointed still from Alexander to the governor von Thrakien. After its death 323 v. Chr. took partit first at the fights among the remaining diadochi, but did not secure itself its rule over Thrakien. Because of its brutal methods Lysimachos was regarded of many contemporaries as barbarian. For the death of the Eumenes Lysimachos reached to small Asia and Macedonia out and closed that Coalition against Antigonos on. After its end in the battle of Ipsos Lysimachos with its past allied Seleukos came into conflict, which he 281 v. Chr. with Kurupedion was subject. Lysimachos' death with Kurupedion is considered as the end of the diadochus wars.
major item: Ptolemaios I.
Ptolemaios I. (Πτολεμαῖος) Alexanders took over the Satrapie Egypt after death, where he let the body Alexanders transfer later for the legitimacy of his power. He took part in the diadochus wars, secured themselves Egypt and took 306 v. Chr.the king title on. It extendedits realm around Kyrene and Cyprus and secured it outward by intelligent marriage politics, inward by good an organization of the administration and military. Besides Ptolemaios I. promoted. Sciences and arts. Among other things it created the famous library of Alexandria. 285 v. Chr.Ptolemaios thankedin favor of its son Ptolemaios II. off. Actual successor to the throne would have been its oldest son Ptolemaios Keraunos. This fled together with its nut/mother, that had offended, to the yard of the Seleukos. Ptolemaios I. died 282 v. Chr., briefly before the end of the diadochus wars.
major item: Seleukos I.
Seleukos (Σέλευκος) was the son of a general Philipps II. It accompanied Alexander the large one on its Asia campaign and drew with the fights in India 326 v. Chr. out. After Alexanders death did not receive own Satrapie to Seleukos. 321 v.Chr. it was complicated into the murder of the regent Perdikkas and received during the second handing hurrying the Satrapie Babylonien. After conflicts with Antigonos it won 312 v. with the support of the Ptolemaios Babylonien. Chr. finally as rule area.
305 v. Chr.Seleukos took like the othersDiadochus the king title on. Two years later it, after it had advanced the east of Iran subjected and in the Punjab , closed with the Indian ruler Chandragupta peace. He retired a part of his rule area at these and received for it 500 war elephants, thosein the battle of Ipsos 301 v. Chr. a crucial advantage meant. In this battle it defeated the Antigonos together with Lysimachos. 285 v. Chr.he took prisoner Demetrios, the son of the Antigonos. Four years later it defeated Lysimachos in the battle with Kurupedion. Seleukosnow Macedonia and Thrakien wanted to take in possession, after the crossing to Europe von Ptolemaios Keraunos was murdered however briefly. Seleukos left Antiochos I. to its son. with the Seleukidenreich the largest, in addition, most heterogeneous diadochus realm.
society and culture of the diadochus time
resuming informationto this topic: Rule and administration the Königtum
the Alexandernachfolge stood for diadochi
/society and culture [work on] and the acclamation by the armies on two columns. The states did not exist thereby independently of their system of government, which was not kings kings of Syria, butKings in Syria. The Königtum was not a national office, but a personal became conceptual, the monarch did not see the state not distinguished from it as its affair (see. Polybios 5, 41). The whole conquered country was theoretical in the possession of the king, why these it also by will ona strange power like the Romans to convey could.
The person cult, which had developed around Alexander, was promoted by the diadochi. The ritual admiration of the diadochus rulers was promoted however at least first not by them, but from the outside by „the free “ pole ice of Greece to itnear-carried. The rulers were called for the time being only „“. Only 304 v. Chr. designated the Rhodier Ptolemaios I. as God and Sōtēr called him („rescuers “).
The diadochi and their successors governed with the help of written decrees. The ruler of a committee from friends was advised and used.The most important man beside the king was a house supervisor, who was responsible for economics, finances, administration, army and foreign policy. While one can speak already at present the diadochi of an absolutist state, the typically brightistic ruler cult began only among its successors. Crucial influence wonthe rule form of the diadochi on the younger Greek Tyrannis, the Karthager and the Roman Kaisertum.
The administration that diadochus realms was organized and by tenured civil servants was led centralistic. This bureaucracy stood in the tradition of the achaimenidischen and the pharaonischen realm. Comparable gave it in the antiqueGreece only in the private-economical estate administration. Like the employees of a property of its owner, then the officials of the diadochi depended on their ruler. The administration of the diadochi put the foundation-stone for the personnel-intensive bureaucracy the brightistic time. Native officials hardly became higher officescertified, which were occupied with Makedonen or Greeks usually.
The territorial structure that diadochus realms decreases/goes back still on Alexander the large one even. Alexander had handed the military powers of the native Satrapen to Macedonian strategist over, whom after his death gradually the entire clerical work took over.The strategists were now also responsible for the housing settlement and the law. The king could assign parts of the king country subdivided into districts and villages or the income from it as Lehen. The external possessions, which did not belong to the king country, formed their own territorial type. These enclaves did not standunder direct administration of the diadochus ruler. Some of it made themselves in the course of the time independently, in particular in the east of the Seleukidenreiches and in small Asia.
army and warfare
Was of fundamental importance for the diadochus realms the army. Apart from the national defense it fulfilled in particular to four tasks taken over by the Macedonian army meeting:
- proclaiming or confirmation of a king (acclamation),
- the order of guardians for minor kings,
- the acknowledgment of royal wills and
- the condemnation of political opponents as state criminals.
The size of the armies is only difficult to determine, since the antique historians in this regard often exaggerated. Nevertheless no doubt about the fact can exist that the brightistic armies, compared to the armies of the classical time, were enormous andseveral 10,000 men covered. The still influence of the army decreased/went back however ever more, only the garrisons of the capitals very large at the beginning of the diadochus time could to the political guidance its will later force upon.
The use of war elephants decreases/goes back on Seleukos , that in Apameia500 Indian elephants held. In addition camels, were used armored riders and FE storage machines whereby the FE storage technology made enormous progress. Demetrios Poliorketes, the son of the Antigonos, which let enormous capital ships with up to sixteen rows of Ruderern build, gave important impulses for the war navy. Thoselater of the Ptolemäern built twenty, thirty and vierzigreihigen ships were probably against it pure show pieces, which were built only in very small numbers of items.
The diadochi already had a standing army, which was mobile and constantly operational. It became in times of war by a largeNumber of military settlers supplements, who were settled by Seleukos in cities, by Ptolemaios in villages. The military settlers were usually Greek immigrants and built the cities themselves created for them. However also mercenaries were enlisted and isolate native troops into the Phalanx integrated.
The diadochus realms operated a regular economic policy. The removal of corruption, economical no-load operation and often chaotic private initiatives made Egypt the richest country and the Ptolemäerkönig the richest man of the antique world. It profited by it not least fromthe inclusion of the rich temple districts, which formed a kind state in the state before. Its capital Alexandria remained for that into the time of the Roman of emperor Augustus the largest commercial centre at that time well-known world.
The basis of the brightistic economy was agriculture organized in the detail. ThroughIntroduction of modern cultivation methods became Egypt the grain chamber of the eastern Mediterranean area, the king received for instance a third of the yields. To the seleukidischen Babylonien the Makedonen introduced the viticulture . More clearance remained for private entrepreneurs in the range of the trade.
Basic food such as oil, salt, fish, beer, honey and Datteln,the production of papyrus, textiles, glass and Luxusartikeln as well as transportation, banks and foreign trade were thing of the state. This protected the own economy by tariffs of up to 50% and achieved not least by an extension of trade with the east considerable foreign trade surplus.
society and social structure
The diadochus realms were coined/shaped by two large contrasts: the separation into social layers and the allocation in nationalities. The aristocracy played however only a small role. This lay also in the interest of the diadochus rulers, whose bureaucracy was dependent on the fact that offices after capability and not afterBirth were assigned. Therefore lent ranks were not first hereditary from the king.
Also the slaves were less numerous than in other antique commonwealth. The land work was operated in Egypt von Fellachen, who purely legally not when slaves applied. Marriages between free ones and unfree ones were relativefrequently. Apart from the temple slaves, it gave particularly in the private households enriches Greeks Sklaven. They were considered as luxury property and were subject therefore to a special tax. Prisoners of war in the slave status occurred however already among the diadochi. These worked particularly in royal quarries and mines.
Thatlargest social problem represented the contrast between Greeks and Orientalen.Philon testifies the existence of a two-class company: Egyptians were only punished with the whip, Greek with the stick. The portion of the Greeks of the total population amounted to at the most 1%. Ptolemaios and Seleukos led soon oneSeparation between native and Greek function carriers through. First did with the structure of its administrative machinery completely without native ones, which was allowed to only carry political responsibility on the level of the Dorfschulzen. Into this picture of a apartheid company it fits that mixed marriages were forbidden and each subpopulation was subject to its own right.The contrast between immigrants and Orientalen was thus larger and more importantly than between slaves and free ones.
The diadochi and their successors wanted to strengthen the Greek element in their states and favoured therefore their immigration. Greeks stepped as soldiers or officials into the king service andleft themselves in the Greek cities of the east, in which they also as private individuals received the citizen right immediately, as dealers, manufacturing ones or farmers down. Established immigrants were released from the military service. In addition, Galater and Jews were accepted to the army, the cities took also Jewsand Phöniker up. With the immigrated Greeks already soon the differences, it levelled themselves developed a kind „unit Greek “, the local traditions withdrew, a totalGreek traffic language developed.
The Makedonen remained longest culturally independently. The designation „Makedone “became however already soon the condition term andeven by Jews one led later. Altogether the desire for affiliation to the Greek culture was large with the Orientalen. Even the Romans appointed themselves before Seleukos to an alleged blood relationship over their sayful Trojan ancestors. Thus became despite the rigiden separation of the ethnical groups in the long runa mixture of Greeks and Orientalen facilitates. In the Nile valley the Greeks were ägyptisiert and the Egyptians were hellenisiert. Particularly accomodating Ptolemaios showed up opposite the Fellachen, probably above all, in order to prevent possible rebellions. Anyhow the prosperity of the Egyptian farmers in the diadochus time increased so far,that a Fellache more earned than a Greek worker on Delos.
Relatively well also the situation of the women was in the diadochus realms. They won the right to state before court in the own name and lead independently enterprises. Also were them all stages of the education accessible. Women visited the Gymnasion, worked as poet inside or philosopher inside and organized themselves in own associations. In Delphi and Priene women officiated as Archonten. Besides important Mrs. Zugang to the citizen right of foreign cities had. Women from the king houselike Arsinoë II., the daughter of the Ptolemaios, intervened even actively in the policy. However still far more frequently newborn girls were suspended than boys. This fate met however the daughters of slaves, unfree ones was only rarely generally as luxury goods desired.
Religion and cult
the diadochi permitted their subjects the admiration of native Gods. While however Seleukos permitted their cult places the autonomy, tried Ptolemaios, to integrate the rich Heiligtümer Egypt into its administrative machinery. The Ptolemäer could be along-admired in the temples and appointed also the priests.Greek control officials took over the supervision over the temple economy, even Greek priests occurred. The yields of the temples were taxed and limited, the cult remained their right of asylum however large in its before-brightistic form.
Only in Egypt also the diadochi themselves did not enjoy göttliche honours.Already Alexander instructed 324 v. Chr.the own Vergöttlichung. The diadochi continued the Alexanderkult, whose center formed Alexanders grave in Alexandria. Besides they promoted legends by means of their own göttliche descent. While in Macedonia a ritual admiration of the ruler did not take place, it became into thatsoon already on a large scale practices to other two realms. The sons of the diadochi arranged the admiration of their fathers and those the own person and built for it own temples. In each gau an upper priest supervised the ruler cult, in honours of the diadochus rulers regularly festivals was held,the guests from all world tightened.
The Judentum took an amazing upswing among the diadochi and their successors. Mental center of this brightistic Judentums was however no more Jerusalem, but Alexandria. Toward end of the diadochus time began the work to the Septuaginta, the Greek version of the Old will. Altogether the Jews were subjected to a Hellenisierungsprozess, which led also owing to the support by Seleukos and the first Seleukiden to large equal rights with the Greeks.
New eastern release religions became ever more important in the diadochus realms. The olympic Gods of the Greeks lost onMeaning. Religion private thing, only the ruler cult remained as connecting element. Probably the religion-political innovation consequence-fraughtest beside it was the introduction of the Sarapiskults by Ptolemaios. Sarapis was a fusion from the Egyptian Gods Osiris and Apis and the Greek God father Zeus. Besides were increasedGreek and eastern Gods equated, for example the harvest goddess Demeter with Isis, the wife of the Osiris.
science and culture
The diadochus time introduced the upswing in science and technology of the brightistic time, of thatstill the modern times to profit should. The Alexanderzug was already accompanied by surveyors, whose recordings for the Geografie were of great importance. In the brightism formed some the most important philosophical currents out (see for example Stoa, Epikureismus and Peripatos), whereby in addition, mathematics, Art and medicine in this productive time to unfold further could.
The center of the Greek gel honouring SAMness Alexandria with its Museion and the well-known library became since the time of the diadochi. The Museion lain in the palace district of the city leaves itself earliest with a today's University compare. There apart from philosophy also natural sciences and medicine were taught. The physicians of Alexandria probably dared themselves as first to a comprehensive study of human anatomy and dissected for it executing. Here geographical mathematics arrived at the full development, equally important contributions developed to philosophy and Astronomy. Also Eratosthenes worked here. It benefitted it like also the other scientists, man of letters and artists of that time that he could select its effect place freely. Thus an international layer from scholars developed.
The library attached to the Museion covered up to 700.000 roles. PtolemaiosII., the son and successor of the Ptolemaios, let collect the writings of the Greeks, Chaldäer, Egyptians, Römer and Juden, acquired the library at the beginning of the diadochus wars the deceased philosopher Aristoteles and bought to go with particularly in Athens and Rhodos further books. Kallimachos wrote firstLibrary catalog, the first library chief was Zenodotos. The large library of Alexandria woke the ambition of the rulers straight Pergamon separating from the Seleukidenreich. Of Ptolemaios II. imposed export prohibition for papyrus went around it by the use of the new Pergaments.
Even if the capitalthe Ptolemäer was developed according to plan by these for the cultural center of the brightistic world, then nevertheless the other cities did not come too briefly. Particularly the Greek motherland was considered again and again by the diadochi with donations. In order to affect the Greek public in their sense, supportedthe diadochi the pole ice financially by donation and by buildings like the Olympieion in Athens. This vordergründigen support of the cultural life and the financial situation of the cities their extensive political deprivation of power faced. Foreign policy, military and taxes were now thing of the diadochus rulers, those the citiesbut despite all relatively carefully treated. So culture and sciences could unfold in a way in them in the brightistic time, which made the modern time of the antiquity from the brightism.
The astronomical work of the Eudoxos from kneeling DOS became in the 3. Century of Aristarchoscontinued by Samos, which justified the heliozentrische conception of the world and which turn of the earth recognized. Eratosthenes computed its extent and created the system of the degrees of longitude. Already at present Alexanders drove on Pytheas the North Sea and discovered Britannien. Ptolemaios II.envoy sent to India and leftthe inside of Africa investigate. Also within the range of the technology many progress was made, which made some decades possible of late Archimedes and Heron of Alexandria their important inventions. Already at the diadochus time Demetrios Poliorketes one let well-known FE storage machine , with which he attacked Rhodos design as Helepolis.
In addition, the literature of this time was partially remarkable: To call among other things Kallimachos , a most important alexandrinische poet, is as well as its pupils, among them also Apollonios of Rhodos, which wrote its famous work to the Argonautensage. In brightistic time developed alsothe romantically made a sea protest Alexanderroman, which could enjoy to into the modern times of largest popularity. In the Middle Ages it was even after the Bible the furthest common book and from Europe to Southeast Asia was read.
Generally it can be stated that itself the brightistic literaturein the context of already well-known kinds, this however developed further and transformed moved. In the area of the comedy importantly thereby above all Menander was. The transformation process in the literature was promoted by public schools and the extensive library nature of the brightistic time. Owing to these libraries could itselfScientists and writers for the first time on broad basis by material already analyzed support and thereby apart set themselves.
resuming information to this topic: Diadochus/Rezeption
from the antique one to in 19. Century was seen generally quite negative the time of the diadochi.For Plutarch the liberty ended with the death of the Demosthenes 322 v. Chr. and thus at the beginning of this time. The diadochus time marked the end of the Greek classical period and thus at the beginning of the brightism felt as purge process. It was however usually surveyed that the Kanonisierungonly in Roman time developed for the classical period in such a way specified only in the brightism taken place and the term.
The positive appreciation of the time that diadochus realms goes particularly on the historian Johann Gustav Droysen into 19. Century back, that the brightism as a modern time of the antiquitydesignated. Droysen turned against the idealization of the classical time and meant that the diadochi undertook the successful attempt to overcome the individualistic Polissystem and to seize large countries by central planning politically and economically really. On Droysen the estimate of the diadochus states goes as partsa comparatively modern, urban coined/shaped world civilization back, which was coined/shaped by an economic upswing, a technical progress, a mobility, individualism and the meeting of different cultures. In 20. Century found this estimate general acknowledgment.
It remains general noting that to today no real agreement one obtained. Still the AmericanHistorian Peter Green comes into its detailed and interesting, in addition, problematic study From Alexander ton of Actium to a rather negative evaluation, differently about Graham Shipley or Hans Joachim Gehrke. Also Demandt defends Droysens estimate and stresses the similarities between brightism and modern trend. According to it standsthe time that diadochus realms in similar relation to classical and archaischer time as the modern times to the Middle Ages and antique ones. He sees similarities with the extension of the habitat, the establishment of colonial regimes over technically less developed peoples, scientific-technologic progress, the emergence of a world market andthe urbanisation.
The meaning of the diadochus time is to a large extent undisputed in the range of the foreign policy. In this time developed a monitoring system with regard to foreign policy, which brought intergovernmental relations into firm forming. With this regulation went however an instability of the diadochus states, which was connected with the fact that nearly each diadochusa large conquerer in the style Alexanders of the large one will wanted. During itself those in each case different one in the time around 300 v. Chr. however in among themselves closed alliances against an aggressor from the own rows, could they resisted above all in each case itself later to those meanwhileturn Romans become to the Vormacht in the Mediterranean area. These - and not the diadochi - became finally the executors of the large Alexander and established the world realm, about which the diadochi could only dream.
resuming information to this topic: Diadochus/sources
The brightism, whose beginning forms the diadochus time, is considered as the writemost joyful time of the Greek antique ones. Already the diadochi collected the works of contemporary authors in their libraries. Hardly historical or philosophical writings are received nevertheless from that time.Most were lost obviously in Byzantine time, since they did not correspond to the klassizistischen language ideal defended at that time. Also the destruction of the large library of Alexandria contributed reliably to this bad excessive quantity situation. Are fragmentarily received the Greek authors Timaios of Tauromenion, Hieronymos of Kardia and Poseidonios of Apameia.
It looks clearly better with in Roman time the writing authors. These are not however all contemporaries of the diadochi. Diodor, Pompeius Trogus and Appian , which wrote an overview of the Seleukiden , are nevertheless important antique sources.Likewise in Roman time wrote the Greek Plutarch, who wrote among other things Viten of Eumenes , Demetrios and Pyrrhos. An at first sight little obvious source are Jewish texts in Greek and aramäischer language such as Flavius Josephus and the book Daniel of the Old will.
The documentary certifications of that time are quite extensive. Beside the inscriptions are in particular the Egyptian papyri, which Michael Rostovtzeff evaluated, and which cuneiform script documents from the Mesopotamien of the first Seleukiden for the Historiografie important.
For our picture of the diadochus time is importantalso the alignment of the sources with the archaeological findings. Unfortunately the remainders of the capitals the large diadochus realms are rather meagre, larger finds in Milet, Ephesos and Pergamon were made. Titles and haven advice of the diadochi are particularly well-known from Münzbildern and Marmorbüsten us.
resuming information to this topic: Diadochus/Bibliografie
- Alexander Demandt: The brightistic monarchies. In: ders.: Antique systems of government. Academy publishing house, Berlin 1995, S. 291-320, ISBN 3-05-002541-7.
Scarce overview of history and society that diadochus realms with Bibliografie.
- Johann Gustav Droysen: Historythe brightism, 3 volumes, Gotha 1877-1878 (reprint Darmstadt 1998).
- Hans Joachim Gehrke: History of the brightism. 3. Edition, Oldenbourg, Munich 2003 (Oldenbourg sketch of history, 1A), ISBN 3-486-53053-4.
Knappe representation with research part and comprehensive Bibliografie.
- Günther Hölbl: History of the Ptolemäerreiches. Politics, ideology andreligious culture of Alexander the large one up to Roman conquest. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 1994; Special expenditure. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1868-4.
- Klaus roses: The alliance forms of the diadochi and the decay of the Alexanderreiches. In: Acta Classica 11 (1968), S. 182ff.
- Hatto H. Schmittand Ernst Vogt (Hrsg.):Small encyclopedia of the brightism. 2. Edition, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1993; Expenditure for study 2003, ISBN 3-447-04727-5.
Relatively detailed article with comprehensive Bibliografie.
- Jakob Seibert: The age of the diadochi. Wiss. Buchges., Darmstadt 1983 (yields of the research, 185), ISBN 3-534-04657-9.
Research report overthe diadochus time.
Web on the left of
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