the expression dialect (of griech. dialegomai: talk with one another) can in two different way be defined:
- As jedwede regional Varietät (linguistics) (e.g. Standardsprache, standard dialect, Nationalvarietät, a regional dialect).
- As those regional Varietäten, which do not fulfill the criteria of a development language (and/or. Standardsprache or high-level language).
Dialects (according to both definitions) can differ on all linguistic levels. In the following “dialect” is understood in the sense of the second definition.
From the term dialect is to be distinguished the term accent. Accent refers only to the phonologicalCharacteristics of the discussion. So a Bavarian high German can speak high German with a “bairischen dialect” with a bairischen accent, but not.
That part of the linguistics, which with the traditional description of the dialects is concerned, is called Dialektologie. In the newerLinguistics is concerned also the Soziolinguistik with dialects.
The term dialect was eingedeutscht by Philipp of Zesen by the expression dialect.
Table of contents
demarcation language - dialect
it does not give clear criteria for the distinction of dialect and language.
Since the own language belongs to the own identity, the distinction between dialect and language is also for many Nichtlinguisten an important questionand often very emotional one discusses. This is because of the fact that in the designation dialect for many along-sounds a certain inferiority contrary to a “correct” language. Besides the distinction of dialect and language can depend on the political situation (z.B.Serbo-Croatian). For these reasons them are frequently very disputed and after different, partly contradicting considerations are accomplished.
In the historically aligned German Dialektologie was the distinction of dialect and language comparatively unproblematically, there the dialects on thoseold German master languages were led back.
Newer linguistics tries to keep out after possibility from the emotional controversy between dialect and language. For the avoidance of the often negatively konnotierten term of the dialect the term of the Varietät was created.
is often called the mutual comprehensibility as criterion for the demarcation of dialect and language. The exact determination of the mutual comprehensibility is disputed however also in linguistics.
The mutual comprehensibility is only a gradual criterion, there it betweena large range of partial comprehensibility to complete mutual comprehensibility and immutability gives. Also it does not only hang of personal background (z. B. Fremdsprachenkenntnisse or holidays stays) and gift of individual speakers off, but also of the readiness to want to understand each other.
Oftenis it also like that that no mutuality is ensured. For example understands a speaker a Walliserdeut standard-German discussion much better than turned around a speaker of the standard German a walliserdeutsches.
development language, spacer language
of the Soziolinguist Heinz Kloss has the terms Development language and spacer language imported, in order to be able to describe better, which Varietäten as independent language to be considered.
A Varietät is then a development language, if it is used as standardized written form, not only in barking trichloroethylene TIC, but alsoe.g. in the scientific technical literature. Development languages are for example the standard German or the Netherlands. No development languages are for example Bairi, Meisseni or the Swiss German. It is problematic that a certain minimum difference must be given. Thus z applies.B. Swiss the high German not as own development language, the of Luxembourg however already.
A Varietät is a spacer language if it deviates linguistically very clearly from another. As typical example Baski , that is considered completely clearly a spacer languagethe Spanish is. According to this criterion also Sorbi applies as a spacer language of the German. The determination of the clear linguistic deviation is problematic.
Also the pair of terms development language - spacer language does not know the common distinction of dialect and language in allCases justify. Thus the of Lower Saxony is considered neither as own spacer language nor - contrary to the central down Germans - as development language; nevertheless it was recognized of the Federal Republic of Germany as independent regional language in the sense of the European Union - Charter of the minority languages.
The spoken language begins quotations with the dialect. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
each region loves its dialect, is nevertheless actually it the element, in which this soul scoops its breath. (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
thosepolitical side of the demarcation dialect - language is more undzer tsayt clearly in a linguist joke in the article by max wine realm “yivo un problems fun” (Jiddi scientific Institut and the problems of our time): A language is a dialectwith an army and a navy (אַשפראַךאיזאַדיאַלעקטמיטאַןאַרמײאוןפֿלאָט, A shprakh iz A dialect also on armey un seam; in Yivo more bleter, 1945, Bd. 25, No. 1, S. 13). (Thoseoriginal source is.) [work on
- Soziolekt, Basilekt, Mesolekt, Akrolekt, register, group of dialects, dialect continuum
- Germanic languages
- colonial dialect
- German-speaking countries, German dialects
- ” FRG language “and GDR linguistic usage
|Wiktionary: Dialect -Word origin, synonyms and translations|
Web on the left of
- Breuer Pyroth, Norbert (1996), „Vaschte me? “- Small dictionary of the alto Saarlouiser of language property, edition Norbert Breuer, Saarlouis, 3. Edition 1996, ISBN 3-00-005873-7, purchase also over www.breuer-exportmarketing.de
- German dialects of the present
- Mostviertler dialect
- dialect encyclopediain the Karlsruher Stadtwiki
- http://woerterbuch.saarlaendisch.de Saarland dialect dictionary
- “The Linguasphere register”, zone 52 - Germanic languages
- “digital Wenker Atlas”: Maps to dialect phenomena. Only with log in registration
- many left, also for hearing examples
- of hearing examples for German dialects as RealAudio files
- dialect map - the German dialects around 1965
- Discussion dialect vs. Language
- of dialect dictionaries
- Forschungsinstitut for German language
- Austrian dictionary
- Pinzgauer dialect encyclopedia
- the erzgebirgische dialect or de arzgebirgsche Sproch
- Krieevelsch dictionary on-line
- Plautdietsch - flat German of the Russia Mennoniten
- Moselfränki dictionary
- language teachings Moselfränki
- dialect and Sprachforschung at the office for rheinischeRegional studies with many maps and hearing examples
- Varietäten in the change, Diachrone representation of German dialect theories 20. Jh.
- “Sound monument of realm-German dialects” (1936/37)