Diamond

of these articles is concerned with the mineral diamond. For the enterprise and/or. the mark diamond see: Diamond of bicycle works AG
diamond
Diamanten im Brillantschliff
Chemismus C
crystal system cubically fcc
Kristallklasse Fd3m
color colorless, all colors possible by impurities or lattice defects: yellowish, brown, red,pink, green, yellow, blue, black etc.
Line color knows
Mohshärte 10
density 3.52 + - 0.01 g/cm 3
gloss diamond gloss
opacity transparency
break muschelig to splittrig
fissileness perfectly (111)
Habitus penetrated
frequent crystal faces __
twin accomodation __
crystal optics
refractive index 2.417 with <math> \ lambda< /math> =590 Nm
birefringence none; frequently abnormally
optical orientation __
angles/dispersion
of the Zes-axis
2v z 0,025
further characteristics
chemical behavior chemically inertly opposite nearly all chemicals except at high temperatures hydrogen, oxygen, Fluor; easily solubly in molten baths of carbon-soluble metals howIron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, palladium, chrome, partially under carbide formation.
similar minerals __
radioactivity usually not radioactively, by irradiation or contained impurities radioactively
magnetism not magnetically
special characteristics highest melting point of a mineral (3820 Kelvin), heat conductivity five times betteras silver, electrical conductivity: theoretically ideal insulator, practically by impurities variable, semiconductors to almost metallic conductivity.

Diamond (of Greek diaphainein: „shine through “and adamantos: „the uncontrollable “) is beside graphite and the Fullerenen one of the three modifications of the Carbon and with a Mohshärte of 10 the hardest naturally occurring mineral (only ADNRs possibly is a still harder material). Its sharpening hardness is even 140-mal as largely as those corundum. However is the hardness diamond on itsindividual crystal faces differently, whereby it becomes only possible to sharpen diamond with diamond since in the diamond powder used for it each degree of hardness occurs. Diamond is metastable at ambient temperature. The activation energy for the phase transition into the stable modification (graphite) is howeverso highly that a transformation in graphite does not take place at ambient temperature practically. Diamond possesses a cubic crystal system and is often however colored by impurities in the most diverse colors in pure condition transparency; the line color is white.

The mass of individual diamondstraditionally in carat one indicates, to a unit, which corresponds to 0.200 gram.

Beside the actual, cubically crystallizing diamond there is also a very rare hexagonal carbon variant, which hexagonal diamond or Lonsdaleit is called.

Ballas (Radialstrahlig) and Carbonado (polycrystalline)designate against it no Varietäten or modifications, but diamond, whose crystal structure is by unfavorable growth conditions incorrect or strongly deformed.

Table of contents

structure and chemical behavior

cubic face-centered crystal structure (fcc) diamond. Each carbon atom is equivalent with four neighboring atoms kovalent bind, at the bottom left hand corner in the design emphasized.

Diamond ones not exclusively consist of pure carbon. Even if the internal structure consists theoretically of pure carbon, then the free atomic bonds at the boundary surfaces of the crystal are nevertheless with oxygen or hydrogensatisfied.

In the diamond the carbon atoms are tetrahedrally bound; that means, each atom has four symmetrically aligned connections to its next neighbours. The large hardness results from the very high binding energy completely of the chemical connections available in FR 3 - hybridizing.

Diamond glows in pure oxygen with approx. 720 °C, in air with over 800 °C to carbon dioxide. With hydrogen diamond reacts at high temperatures to hydrocarbons. Diamond is soluble in molten baths of carbon-soluble metals and their alloys, like iron, nickel,Cobalt, chrome, titanium, platinum, palladium and the like. Due to the very small reactive surface the conversion speed is also accordingly small. By illuminating with neutrons of certain energy diamond can “be hardened”. This hardness increase diamonds been based on by the neutron radiation causedLattice transfers. Diamond can “be activated” however by neutron irradiation, whereby radioactive carbon 14 C develops. Herein also the borders of the procedure lie.

emergence and production

diamond form in the Earth's mantle at high pressures and temperatures, typically in oneDeep one of approximately 150 kilometers and temperatures from 1200 to 1400 °C. The source rocks of the diamonds are Earth's mantle rocks such as Peridotit and Eklogit. Gas-rich volcanic rocks, Kimberlite or Lamproite so mentioned transport fragments of the Earth's mantle with the contained diamondstheir eruption to the earth's surface, where one diminishes it in the Pipes, volcanic Eruptivschloten. The transportation speeds from the depth become estimated on few hours, so that due to the speed no phase conversion takes place to graphite. Diamond ones are stranger or Xenokristallein Kimberlit and Lamproit and in these magmas chemically not stably. So one can always observe dissolution features at natural diamonds. Of their occurrences in Pipes the diamond crystals can by natural decomposition processes, with which they remain intact due to their hardness, removedbecome, and enrich themselves then in sedimentary rocks , which represent today one of the main sources of the mineral. One calls such occurrences alluvial.

They are won also in the Pipes of the extinct Kimberlitvulkane, those, perpendicularly downward first in the open mining, thenunder days, to be diminished. The source rock will grind in order to win the diamonds. In Namibia in the southwest of Africa diamonds occur also in the desert and within the coastal range of the sea under water. For the dismantling to water special becomeShips assigned, which wash the diamonds from the sand.

Micro diamonds develop particularly with meteorite impacts: At the high temperatures and pressures arising with it terrestrial carbon is so strongly compressed that small diamond crystals and also Lonsdaleiten form, itselffrom the explosion cloud to be deposited and this very day in the environment by Meteoritenkratern like to the Barringer Krater being proven can.

Micro diamonds occur also in pieces of find of iron meteorites and ureilitischen Achondriten, where they were probably formed by shock events from graphite. Tiny diamonds,because of their typical size of only nanometers often nano-diamonds unite mentioned, occur besides in the form of präsolaren minerals in primitive meteorites . Terrestrial micro diamonds were found for example in the ore mountains, in Greece and in Kazakhstan. The occurrences are onSections of the earth's crust bind, which during a Gebirgsbildung and metamorphosis under high pressures and temperatures were brought.

The age of the diamonds can be determined on the basis their inclusions. These inclusions grow at the same time with the diamond, which encloses them, and often existfrom silicate minerals of the environment. The age of the silicate minerals can be determined with the Geochronologie on the basis their isotopischen composition; in addition mainly decay systematics from 147 Sm to 143 lp and 187 RH are used for 187 OS. On the basis in the meantime largeData base at isotope data can be stated that the diamond formation took place again and again at different times over all earth ages away, and, but also younger however always gives it not only very old diamonds, which are older than three billion years,still another age of several hundred million years reach.

From the relationship of the sturdy isotopes 13 C and 12 C conclusions on the origin of carbon can be pulled. Radioactive 14 C has a relatively short radioactive half-life. After 500,000 yearspractically completely disintegrated to 14 C and into natural diamonds exactly the same as available in nature graphite no longer (remains computational after 500,000 years only approx. 1 atom 14 C per 100 million ton carbon receive).

occurrences

Terrestrial occurrences

the largest promotion nations (2003)
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
rank country deliveries
(in millions Carat)
1 Russian Föd. 36
2 Botswana 30
3 Australia 24.3
4 the Congo, that. Rep. 23
5 Canada 11.2
6 South Africa 10,8
7 Angola 6.2
8 Namibia 1.7
9 Ghana 1
10 Brazil 0.8
Staaten mit der größten Gewinnung von Diamanten

the largest diamond occurrences is in Russia, Africa, in particular in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, the democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone, in Australia and in Canada. However on all continents diamonds were found. In Europe there is an occurrence with Archangelsk. The world production at natural diamond is today with approximately twenty tons per year and does not cover for by far no more the needthe industry off. The natural diamonds cannot cover about 80 per cent of the need. Therefore in rising measure synthetically produced diamonds, whose characteristics can be determined such as tenacity, Kristallhabitus, conductivity and purity exactly, fill this demand gap.

carbon planet

scientistassume that in the Milky Way carbon - planets exist, which could contain kilometer-thick diamond layers. Also in the proximity of the center of the Milky Way such heavenly bodies are assumed, since the stars exhibit on the average higher carbon content there. In the future could itselfCarbon planets accumulate up, because by the nuclear fusion in the stars the quantity of carbon in the universe increases.

carbonaceous Chondriten

of carbonaceous Chondrit

carbonaceous Chondriten is Steinmeteorite with a comparatively high (up to 3%) portion of carbon. These contain sometimestiny, nanometer-large diamonds, which however originally do not originate from our solar system.

synthetic diamond

since 1955 is it with the help of the high pressure high-temperature technique in such a way specified (HPHT - English: high pressure high temperature) possible to manufacture artificial diamonds. With this procedure becomesGraphite in a hydraulic press with pressures pressed together by up to 6 Giga pascal ( 60,000 bar) and temperatures of over 1500 °C. Under these conditions diamond is the thermodynamically more stable form of carbon, so that itself that graphite tooDiamond converts. This process of transformation can under would add a catalyst to be accelerated. To the diamond cubic boron nitride (CBN) can similar be likewise made of the hexagonal modification of the boron nitride using the high pressure high temperature synthesis. CBN reached not completely the hardness of diamond, is but for example at high temperatures against oxygen steadily.

Parallel to it the shock wave diamond synthesis was developed with help of highest pressures, as they arise with explosions. This commercially successful way supplies diamond powders to different refinement.

An alternative possibility for the production of artificial diamondthe coating of substrates is with the help of the chemical gaseous phase separation (CVD - English: chemical vapour deposition). In a vacuum chamber some micrometers a thick diamond layer on the substrates, for example carbide tools, is separated. Basic material thereby is inGas mixture from methane and hydrogen, whereby first serves as source of carbon.

In accordance with the Ostwald Stufenregel mainly metastable diamond should separate; according to the Ostwald Volmer rule graphite predominantly forms because of its smaller density. With atomic hydrogen, graphite succeeds selectively toodecompose and the formation from diamond to to favour. Atomic hydrogen (H) develops heated plasma from molecular hydrogen gas (H 2) in one for thermally or electrically.

The substrate temperature must below 1000 °C be appropriate, around the transformation into the sturdy graphiteto prevent. Then growth rates of several micrometers per hour can be reached.

As the further development only few micrometers know thin layers out diamond-like carbon so mentioned with the help of the technology of the plasma coating (DLC: diamond like carbon) to be manufactured. ThisLayers combine at the same time the extreme hardness of diamond and the very good sliding friction characteristics of graphite. In them, depending upon coating parameters, a mixture of FR 2 - and FR 3 - hybridized carbon atoms is present.

Recently is it nano-technicians of the Rensselaer PolytechnicInstitutes in Troy successfully to manufacture magnetic diamonds. They are only tiny 5 nanometers small and possess their own magnetic field. The effect is based on a defect in the crystal lattice. The magnetic field of individual electrons is set free and bundled. Applications of the health-compatibleCarbon are prognosticated particularly in the medicine.

diamonds

find use prestigeträchtigste application as high-quality gem stones. They have a higher economic meaning however today by its industrielle use in production of boring, gumption, sharpeningand Polierwerkzeugen, whereby one makes oneself its large hardness, abrasion resistance and its heat guidance ability. It is expressed economical in many ranges to use diamond tools whereby loss costs and Umrüstzeiten can be minimized for example for tools. The demanded surface quality often leaves itselfreach by diamond tools without additional treatment in a work procedure.

Thin layers from diamond-like carbon serve in industrial yardstick as verschleissschutz. Diamond-occupied Skalpelle could be used for example in the medicine. With electrically conductive diamond coating can electrodes forthe employment in chemical reactions to be manufactured, which must withstand very reactive radicals. Industrially here the waste water treatment comes and - cleaning into the field of vision.

Diamond can be made by additive of boron , phosphorus or nitrogen conductive and as semiconductors or evenas superconductors function. An employment in electronic circuits could lead because of the high mobility of the charge carriers in the diamond single crystal and the good temperature compatibility to higher switching speeds.

Carried out the coating of silicon Wafern with artificial diamond, those by the semiconductor industry was already usedwill can, in order to manage a better cooling of electronic circuits.

A further application field is the spectroscopy with infrared light, since diamond absorbs infrared radiation only to small extent.

diamonds as gem stone

a blunt raw diamond

a diamond hasa very high refraction of light and a strong gloss, paired with a remarkable dispersion, why it becomes traditionally polished as jewel. Only by the invention of modern cross sections in 20. Century, by those the fire diamonds only correctly, became obvious its true value becomes effective. It is based on countless internal light reflections, which are caused by the careful cross section of the individual facets, which must be located in particularly selected angle angles to each other. Meanwhile cross sections and their effect on computers becomesimulated and the stones on automats polished, in order to achieve by means of an accurate execution optimal results. Only one quarter of all diamonds is qualitatively at all suitable as gem stone. Of it again only a small fraction fulfills the criteria, those today to gem stonesare placed: sufficient size of, suitable form, high purity, and depending upon desire coloredness or colorlessness.

Diamond ones are worked on for the 1980er years among other things with lasers, in order to remove dark impurities and mark stones. The self-color diamonds leavesdo not affect each other as simply as with other gem stones. One gives unattractive stones for color change for the 1960er years in nuclear reactors for irradiation. The result are durable color changes: Dirty-grey and yellowish stones receive a bright blue or green. To it can still another thermal treatment follow, whereby the crystal changes produced by radiation “heal completely” partially again and as the further color change become visible. The results are not clearly foreseeable always.

Unedle, not as gem stone diamonds which can be used, more finely diamond-deaf and/or. Industrial diamonds becomeBort calls.

diamond regulation

diamond spectrum, number data in Ångström - units

criteria for the recognition diamonds are its density, hardness, heat conductivity, gloss, light scattering or dispersion, refraction of light or refraction as well as kind and training of existing inclusions.

A further important distinction instrument betweennaturfarbenen and artificially colored diamond lie in the absorption spectroscopy. Diamond ones occur in all colors and shades, but are it only the yellow, brown and green diamonds, which produce a line spectrum. The colors and concomitantly the absorption linesis based on nitrogen-added in the carbon lattice natural diamond.

brilliant

Eppler brilliant

a particularly characteristic - and for diamond with distance the most frequent - cross section form is the brilliant cross section. Only so polished diamonds may be called brilliants. Additional dataas genuine or something similar are thereby not permitted, there misleading. It is to be processed possible - and also not uncommonly - other jewels or Imitate in brilliant cross section, these must then however clearly designation be, for example than Zirkonia inBrilliant cross section.

Characteristics of the modern brilliant cross section, also full brilliant mentioned, are a circular Rundiste, at least 32 facets plus board in the upper section as well as at least 24 facets plus if necessary a Kalette in the lower part. It became around 1910 from old cross section in such a way specified of thepreceding century develops. There are today different variants:

  • The Tolkowsky brilliant of 1919 has a very good luminous efficiency and applies in the USA as basis of the cross section graduation.
  • The ideal brilliant, 1926 of Johnson and Rösch imported, applies contrary to itsName not at all as ideal, since its proportions work too shapelessly.
  • The park he brilliant of 1951 has a good luminous efficiency, but because of a quite flat upper section a small dispersion, which leads to an unsatisfactory color play.
  • The Scandinavian standard brilliant of 1968is, like the name to assume leaves, in Scandinavia the basis for graduation.
  • The fine cross section brilliant from 1939 became from Professor. W. F. Eppler and E. Klüppelberg developed and is in Germany basis of the graduation.

Due to to a large extent which are certain proportions with the brilliantit is possible, on the basis the diameter the approximate carat - weight to determine.

Diameter carat
1.3 mm of 0.01 ct
2.0 mm of 0.03 ct
3.0 mm of 0.10 ct
5.1 mm of 0.50 ct
6.3 mm of 1.00 ct
8.3 mm of 2.00 ct
11.2 mm ct [
work on]

the development of the brilliant cross section historical

cross sections

the diamond use already finds 5,00 for at least 2000 years as gem stone, but a purposeful treatment set only in 14. Century. First however became here only the increase of theoptical effect the natural Kristallfächen polishes. This - still to a large extent in its natural form left - first diamond cross section was called, its characteristic accordingly, pointed stone.

By splitting off or sanding the octahedron points off one produced soon an additional large surface on the top side(Board) and a small on the lower surface (Kalette or rib) which led Dickstein or board stone so mentioned to.

Since end 15. Century put on one, owing to the development of the grinding wheel, ever more additional facets. Over 1650 - which after on suggestion of the French cardinal Mazarin - for the first time a stone with 34 surfaces (32 facets plus board and Kalette) as well as rounded, although yet circular, sketch (Rundiste) does not develop excessive quantity. This, double property or also Mazarin cross section form mentioned received to end 17. Century by the venezianischen Edelsteinschleifer Peruzzi its increase in the three-way one so mentioned property or Peruzzi cross section. This already knows all facets and also similar proportions of the later brilliant cross section up. In addition,with old cross section, the direct forerunner of the modern brilliant, is not yet consistently converted the circular body. This happened only at the beginning 20. Century.

There the diamond, straight in a decoration-worthy quality, very more expensively, because more rarely andunder large expenditure attractive raw material is, was and is naturally always anxious one to work at sharpening as efficiently as possible. This means that one tries, under as small a waste as possible as large optical - and thus worth-increasing - an effect as possible tooobtain.

Fancy of dia. moon

the name Fancy of dia. moon (English fancy “send”), also briefly Fancys mentioned, designates colored diamonds. Most diamonds are colored, many are however unattractive; so knows the self-color diamonds of all huewithin the range grey, yellow, green, brown to be dominated; occasionally it changes also within a stone. Pure intensive colors are rare and valuable; according to better prices are paid for which can lie partially considerably over the standard for colorless diamonds.Statistically seen on the average only a “Fancy” participates - diamond with 100.000 diamonds. Yellow and brown tones, which constitute more than 80 per cent of all colored diamonds, are strictly speaking no Fancys. Kanariengelb or Cognacgoldbraun are however Fancy colors.

The colour designations become sales purposesselected: Gold orange, Lemon, Schoko, Noir/Black, Electric Blue. The first large Fancy source was found 1867 in South Africa. Since the 1980ern is the Argyle mine in Australia the most important find place for pinkfarbene to red Fancy diamonds.

One differentiates seven Fancy colors, beside those still manyfurther intermediate colors as for example gold, grey or yellowish green exist. For the colouring another material each is responsible:

  • Kanariengelb: For the Gelbtöne nitrogen is responsible. The more largely the Stickstoffgehalt, the more intensively the yellow or also green tone. The most famous andprobably largest yellow diamond is Tiffany of 128.51 carat, its Rohgewicht amounted to 287.42 carat. Yellow brown the most frequent color of diamonds is white after and together with.
  • Brown:For the brown tones crystal impurities are responsible. The largest brown polished diamondthe Earth is star with 111.6 carat. The largest brown diamond ever found is probably that Lesotho with 601 carat.
  • Blue: The element boron is responsible for the blue colouring of diamonds. The largest and most famous blue diamond is thatallegedly verfluchte Hope - diamond, which 112.5 bluntly carat weighed and weighs in polished condition today 45.52 carat. However the stars Mithras are larger, bluntly weighed them 145 each carat, white one not, there them in a private collection are and the ownersno information on it to give likes. It means however that they are polished approximately as large as the fist their names have them of the Indian divinity Mithra. There is ingesammt three diamonds, which are absolutely identical. Blue diamonds are very rarely, but more frequently than green or red.
  • Green: The most well-known and perhaps also largest diamond of this color is that Dresden - diamond with a weight of 41.0 carat (blunt 119.5 carat). The Greens diamonds are very rare.
  • Red:Crystal defects are supposedresponsible for this colouring. The largest red diamond ever found is the Australian talks dia. moon with a Rohgewicht about 35 carat. The largest polished diamond is the likewise Australian talks Shield with 5.11 carat. Pure red diamonds are the rarestunder all diamonds. 90 per cent of the red diamonds come from the Argyle mine in Australia. From the purpurnen diamonds only ten copies exist, about which the largest 3 carat weighs. All came likewise from the Argyle mine. Red diamonds are thosemost expensive all diamonds.
  • Pink or pink one: Often pinkfarbene diamonds are ranked among the red diamonds. Crystal impurities are responsible for the color also here. The largest raw diamond is Darya I Only with a weight of 285 carat, the largest polished diamond that Stone-cutter Pink with 59.6 carat. From the 66 largest diamonds is only colored for a pink.

evaluation from polished diamonds

to the evaluation of the quality and concomitantly the price polished diamonds become as criteria in such a way specified four C consulted:

mass in carat (carat weight)

the Masseneinheit for jewels is ct the carat, abbreviation Kt or. The name of this unit leads itself from the Arab and/or. Greek name for thoseSeed of the Johannisbrotbaums off. These were used in former times as weights. A carat corresponds 0.200 gram.

purity (clarity)

to the description of the purity following abbreviations and technical terms are used (order of rank):

  1. if (internally flawless) - magnifying glass clean
  2. vvs (very,very small inclusions) - very much, very small inclusions
  3. vs (very small inclusions) - very small inclusions
  4. SI (small inclusions) - small inclusions
  5. P1 (Piqué 1) - inclusions do not reduce the brilliance
  6. p2 (Piqué 2) - inclusions reduce the brilliance onlyweakly
  7. p3 (Piqué 3) - inclusions reduce the brilliance clearly

color (colour)

diamond, which seems to be colorless for the untrained eye, can by the specialist into different color classes be divided:

  1. High-fine Weiss+ (River), GIA designation: D,
  2. High-fine white (River), GIA designation: E,
  3. fine Weiss+ (Top Wesselton), GIA designation: F,
  4. fine white (Top Wesselton), GIA designation: G,
  5. white (Wesselton), GIA designation: H,
  6. easy sounded Weiss+ (Top Crystal), GIA designation: I,
  7. easy sounded white (Top Crystal), GIA designation: J,
  8. sounded Weiss+ (Crystal), GIA designation: K,
  9. Sounded white (Crystal), GIA designation: L,
  10. sounded 1 (Top Cape), GIA designation: M, N,
  11. sounded 2 (Cape), GIA designation: O

cross section (CUT)

Diamant im Tropfenschliff
diamond in drop cross section

the cross section is for the fire diamonds considerably. So can the onealmost liveless work, while from the other one apparently sparks spray. Following overview after ral 560 A5E.

  1. Very well (very good) outstanding brilliance. Few or only slight outside characteristics. Very good proportions.
  2. Well (good) property brilliance. Some outside characteristics, proportions alsosmall deviations.
  3. Means (medium) brilliance reduced. Several larger outside characteristics. Proportions with substantial deviations.
  4. Small (poor) brilliance substantially reduced. Large and/or numerous outside characteristics. Proportions with very clear deviations.

large ones and famous diamonds

in the following tablesome particularly famous diamonds as well as their find weight as well as discovery site are specified and - year:

Name Rohgewicht find year find country remark
in carat
Cullinan 3106 1905 South Africa was split up into 105 stones.
Excelsior 995.20 1893 South Africa was split up into 22 stones.
StarOF Sierra Leone 968.90 1972 Sierra Leone was split up into 17 stones.
Incomparable 890 1980 the Congo polished 407.5 carat
Grossmogul 797.5 1650 India bluish diamond; applies since 1739 as disappeared.
President Vargas 726.8 1938 Brazil
Jonker 726 1934 South Africa
Orloff 189,62 unknown India in the Zepter of the Russian emperor; today in the Kremlin in Moscow
Koh i Noor 186 approx. 3000 v. Chr. evt. India oldest well-known diamond; today in the Tower OF London
Florentiner 137.27 unknown unknown yellow diamond; The whereabouts after that 1. World warunknown
regent or Pitt 136.75 around 1700 India today in the Louvre
Hope 112.5 unknown India blue diamond; 1642 for the first time emerged, today as continuous loan in the Smithsonian of institutes in Washington to see
Schah of 86 unknown unknown its three owners royal with engraving(one was Schah Janan, therefore its name); today in the Kremlin in Moscow
Sancy 55 unknown India
Dresden diamond 41 around 1743 India the Green color, today in the country Gewölbe in Dresden

social influences

during the majority the today'sDiamond with modern means from very few internationally operating companies like the company De Beers is diminished, comes it by the exorbitant price, which is paid for diamonds, particularly in the underdeveloped regions and crisis areas of the world to excavationsunder erbärmlichen and partially lethal conditions. Even if the individual worker become fündig, the raw diamonds are sold mostly cheaply to the local war gentlemen, so that only a fraction of the profits remains with the actual Schürfern.

With the profits outthe diamond trade on the African continent also several civil wars are financed, so for example in the democratic Republic of the Congo. Also for this reason today one tries to prevent the trade with this blood diamonds and/or conflict diamonds. However is not itcompletely easily to regard to a diamond its origin and certificates, which are to give a certificate of origin, are frequently falsified. Today it is possible to mark diamonds with lasers too individually. The origin can be examined then due to this identification number.

History

first delivered diamond find originated from that to 4. Millenium v. Chr. from India. One said magic effects already at that time to diamonds after, why one used her also as talismans. Diamond ones were also with the old Romans admitted and becamevery estimated. The use of diamonds as tool describes already Plinius the older one in its work Naturalis historia, XXXVII 60. Around 600 n. Chr. the first diamond was announced on the Indonesian island Borneo, but although India now notmore the only source was, remained the Indonesian finds insignificantly, since the number was too far too small and transport to the commercial towns. Only in 13. One discovered century that diamonds can be worked on, which however in India rejectedbecame, since the stones could lose so allegedly their magic forces. The today's typical brilliant cross section was only developed around 1910.

In 18. Gradually the Indian and Indonesian mines were exhausted century. As a Portuguese on the search for gold in Brazil was, discovered it the first diamond outside of Asia. This find caused „diamond intoxication for one “. One found 1869 in Kimberley in South Africa to the first diamond in the source rock Kimberlit. One year later took over South Africa the role of the main supplier, there also findsin Brazil became rarer. On the world exhibition in Philadelphia 1876 with diamonds occupied stone AEG machines of a broad public were shown for the first time. one discovered 1926 also at the Atlantic coast diamond, and 1955 were finally manufactured the first diamond artificially. The first diamondson the sea-bottom one found only 1961. Today Australia is main supplier for diamonds. 2005 rented the DeBeers company for two years a Zeppelin NT to the diamond search in the southern Africa.

further Erstfunde

see also

list of minerals, Diamantoide, Adamantan blood diamond

literature

  • Ulrich black: Diamond: nature-grown jewel and custom-made material. Chemistry in our time 34 (4), S. 212 - 222 (2000), ISSN 0009-2851
  • Helzberg, Hendrik: Pocket Guide diamond, publishing house Gentlemen's Digest 2005. free Download

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