Diaspora

the term Diaspora (v. griech.: διασπορά diaspora = scatteringness) designates since late 20. Century religious or ethnical groups, which left their traditional homeland and under other-thinking one living over far parts of the world absent-minded are. In addition, it knows simply a minority situationv.a. a group of religions designate.

Table of contents

general

original meant the designation Diaspora specially the people of the Jews, 586 v. Chr. (as Oberschicht) from Judäa by the Babylonier exiliert and 70after the destruction of the temple by the Romans over the entire world one scattered. Since the early modern times the term is referred also to konfessionelle minorities of the Christianity.

The word is a coinage of the Septuaginta interprets. 28, 25 and. o. „you should be a Diasporain all realms on ground connection “, whereby diaspora as Euphemismus for „frightening “, or „dishonor “etc. one selected.

Today Diaspora refers to

  • the Jewish Diaspora in the modern sense - the Jews, who live outside of the Jewish State of Israel. Under Diaspora predominantly freiwillige becomes and under Galut (hebr.) the involuntary exile understood (see also left below)
  • the Christian Diaspora - Christian minorities v. A. in east and Southeast Asia; also the konfessionelle Diaspora (z. B. Catholic in north, Protestanten in south Europe)
  • the African Diaspora - the whole of the African and their cultures,historically by the slavery
  • the Irish Diaspora - the millions of scattered Irish refugees in consequence of Irish potato hunger and political suppression
  • the Armenian Diaspora - was scattered developed by the driving out, those the Armenians in the course of history again and again by different conquerers (Perser, Arab, Mongol, Turk) suspended were, culminating in the genocide at the Armenians 1915 in the Osmani realm; the survivors fled first into several areas of the Near East and formed later world-wide numerous further Diaspora municipalities (particularly in America and France)
  • those Southeast Asiatic Diaspora - the scattered refugees of the numerous wars in Southeast Asia (the Second World War, Korea war, Viet Nam war)
  • the Islamic Diaspora - the Muslim minority in Europe and North America.
  • the Diaspora of the Turks as Balkans Turks and Cyprus Turks.

modern trend Diaspora

that 20. Century is drawn as a century of the Migranten by countless ethnical refugee crises, which have their cause in war, nationalism and racingism. In the first half 20. Century saw numerous refugees from Europe, Asia and North Africa their welfare in America. In addition count and. A.:

  • Afghan
  • Aramäer
  • Armenian
  • German, in the course of driving out from formerly East German areas
  • Iraqis, (approx. 4 Millionen) im Zuge von Vertreibungen und Verfolgungen von Oppositionellen, des ersten Golfkrieges (1980-1988), des zweiten Golfkrieges (1991), der Sanktionen von 1991 bis 2003, des dritten Golfkrieges 2003 und dertoday's uncertain situation in the Iraq
  • Jew, Roma and other ethnical minorities, see also: Holocaust
  • Kurd
  • Lebanese, it live approx. 3,5 million in Lebanon and more than one half million outside of
  • Poland, in the course of the results of the Second World War
  • Palestinian
  • Tamilen,in the course of its conflict with the Singhalesen
  • Chechen
  • overseas Chinese
  • different ethnical minorities from the Russian and Soviet rule range

the largest number by escape of entwurzelter ethnical groups is in Africa.

meaning

beyond the material problems presents the Diasporasituation humansthe question of the cultural identity. Often and superelevate they stress the values of their origin country. An effect, for which there is even a German phrase: The further of Rome, so much the better the catholics.

Freiwillige or forced off and Ausgrenzung on the one hand, assimilation up to the loss thatown Ethnosprache or religion on the other hand is the extremes, between which Diasporabevölkerungen look for their way. Thereby for centuries the won experiences can be valuable for a world, in which cultural variety becomes the normal situation.

Altogether minorities , which may not hope long time anywhere, develop a majorityto become, quite specific “policy” - concepts; also in relation to other minorities.

literature

  • G. Sheffer: Diaspora Politics: RK Home Abroad. Cambridge, 2003, ISBN 0521811376
  • R. Mayer: Diaspora: A critical term explanation. Bielefeld. 2005 ISBN 3899423119

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Diaspora - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)