The revolution of 1848/49 in the Kaisertum Austria

table of contents

the revolution starting from 1848 in Austria

starting from March 1848 jumps over the spirit of the revolution also on the Kaisertum Austria with his crowning countries.

overview

Aufhebung der Pressezensur durch Ferdinand I. am 15. März 1848
abolition of the press censorship by Ferdinand I. to 15. March 1848

in the year 1848 reached the revolution also the monarchy. In have-castle-reach and many people state Austria did not only become the monarchy by violent rebellions in the Empire of Austria, but also of further revolutionary unrests threatens, so for instance in Böhmen, in Hungary, and in upper Italy, where they were militarily supported by the Kingdom of Sardinien Piemont. While the Hungarian, böhmischen and Italian collections beside other one aimed at also the independence from the Austrian supremacy, the revolution had a liberal and a democratic change of the government politics and the end of the restoration in the heartland Austria similarly as in the other states of the German federation as a goal.

Also in Austria it had come 1847/ 1848 to one hunger winter. The economic emergency met particularly the subpopulations anyway already disadvantaged hardest. Also in the workers now rage was short on the traditional political system before overflowing. Works such as Alfred Meissners “new slaves” or Karl Becks poem “why we are poor” give a descriptive picture of the rage and despair, which prevailed under the population.

Finally it came to 13. March 1848 in Vienna with the storm on the condition house and notices of social revolutionaries against shops and factories in the suburbs for the outbreak of the revolution in Austria. The song “which comes there from the high”, whereby “Höh'" to the police and the barracks referred, became the song of the revolution. It is sung today still by various student connections, in order to think of the participation of the academic Legion.

Before the storm on the condition house became in one already at the 3. Speech the displeasure against the political system and the demands the revolutionary wrote March 1848 of the Hungarian nationalist leader Lajos Kossuth after a constitutional transformation of the monarchy and after conditions for the Austrian countries expressed. This speech was read out in the condition meeting by Adolf fish yard. The attempt to bring a Petition at emperors Ferdinand developed to a proper demonstration course, so that ore duke gave the instruction to Albrecht for firing and it came to the first victims.

In the evening of the same daily that withdrew in the meantime 78-jährige state States of Fürst Metternich, the hated symbol figure of the restoration, and fled to England. This event was brought up for discussion for example by Hermann Rolletts poem Metternichs lime tree.

To 15. March 1848 made emperors Ferdinand I. first concessions. He promised the abolishment of the censorship and a constitution. One to 21. March 1848 formed provisional state government compiled thereupon „the March condition “; however without participation of a representative government. After this oktroyierte condition at the end of of April 1848 was submitted, it came again to protests of the population, which flowed into the second Viennese rebellion. On the revolutionary pressure became to 15. May 1848 the March condition again back taken. The overtaxed guidance-weak emperors brought itself to 17. May 1848 by its escape to Innsbruck before intensifying unrests in security.

To 16. Austrian troops under Alfred prince struck down June to Windischgrätz the Prager Pfingstaufstand .

To 22. July 1848 constituent Austrian Reichstag with 383 delegated opened from Austria and the slawischen countries of ore duke Johann. Among other things at the beginning of of September the farmer release from the hereditary subserviency was decided there. The gratitude with the farmers documented for example the “new song of the all-admired emperor Ferdinand” (1848).

In consequence of the events in Hungary since that 12. September 1848, at which under guidance of Lajos Kossuth the Hungarian rebellion into a military conflict against the imperial troops flowed, and in consequence of the murder of the Austrian war Minister Theodor count Baillet von Latour to 6. October, came it into Vienna to the 3. Phase of the Austrian revolution, the Viennese in such a way specified „October Revolution “.

The Viennese October rebellion 1848, often also “Viennese October Revolution “mentioned, was the last collection of the Austrian revolution 1848. As to 6. Octobers 1848 from Vienna imperial Austrian troops against the insurgent Hungary to pull should, tried with the Hungary sympathizing Viennese workers to prevent students and meuternden troops the Abmarsch. It came to road fights, whereby even in the step Hans cathedral blood was poured; War Minister count Theodor von Latour was lynched by the quantity. The yard fled with emperor Ferdinand to 7. October after Olmütz, Reichstag became to 22. October after Kremsier (Kroměříž) shifts. In the process of the fights it succeeded to the Viennese citizens, students and workers to bring the capital into its force after the government troops had fled.

But could the revolutionary only short time hold itself. To 23. October was included Vienna by counter-revolutionary troops, which from Croatia (under the Banus Joseph Jellac (ic') and from the böhmischen Prague ( under field marshal Alfred prince to Windischgrätz) were moved forward. Under the guidance of the generals Alfred I. Prince to Windisch Graetz and count Joseph Jellačić of Bužim began to 26. October Austrian and Croatian military with the bombardment of Vienna. After one week Vienna was again taken against the violent, but resistance offering no prospects of the Viennese population by the imperial troops and the internal city to 31. October conquers.

Around the 2000 insurgent ones were please. Further leaders of the Viennese October Revolution fell the following bloody revenge that of military to the victim. Many were condemned to death or to long detentions. Among them were under other Cäsar Wenzel of fair houses, an important leader of the insurgent ones, the journalists Alfred Julius cup as well as Hermann Jellinek, which everything was executed in the days following on it.

Among under martial law shot the victims also the popular, the left wing of the liberals was an assigned delegate of the Frankfurt national assembly Robert Bluem , to 9 beside others. November 1848 despite its parliamentary immunity was executed, and thus a martyr of the revolution became. Its death underlines the powerlessness of the Frankfurt national assembly and makes it the symbol of the failed March revolution. For the recent workers' movement in Germany it becomes one of its substantial guidance figures. The fate Bluem is described in numerous literary works, as in Robert Bluem - song (people way 1848, eLibrary Austria, eLib full text) or in the song of Robert Bluem von Ludwig Pfau, 1849, which were sung however predominant in Germany.

To 2. December 1848 came it into Austria to the throne change. The revolutionary events had the guidance weakness of emperor Ferdinand I. clarified. On initiative of the field marshal second lieutenant Felix Fürst to Schwarzenberg Ferdinand resigned and left the throne to his 18-jährigen nephew Joseph, that the emperor name Franz Joseph I. assumed. With this name it leaned consciously to its great-great-uncle Joseph II. (1741 - 1790) on, whose had confessed politics for reform joyfulness.

Thus the revolution was depressed in Austria. In March the prepared condition never came into force. However the events remained in Hungary and Italy first still another obstacle for Franz Joseph I., its claim to power generally speaking have-castle-reach to intersperse.

The year 1848 was cultural by the short term abolition of the press censorship by Ferdinand I. to 15. March 1848 coined/shaped. This had the consequence the fact that a multiplicity of works was published, magazines from the soil shot and again disappeared and changed themselves the write culture fundamentally. Friedrich Gerhards “the press freely! ”, M. G. Sapphire “the dead censor”, the censor song or Ferdinand Sauters “secret police” give a picture of the departure tendency. Also sharp criticism at the existing system was practiced. Examples of it are in Johann Nestroys liberty in crowing angles, sketches to fear of hell, lady and cutter or the love Anverwandten (1848), political poems of Anastasius green as well as writings of Franz Grillparzer (the father country, thought on the policy).

The achievements of the March revolution were involved mostly lost and to Austria occurred the phase of the Neoabsolutismus .

Italian provinces and States of

Giuseppe Mazzini (1805 - 1872)

Italy existed in 19. Century, after the military completion of the napoleonischen hegemony in Europe and also in the Italian principalities, from different member states. The upper-Italian areas (Lombardei, Venetien, the Toskana and Modena) stood under Austrian sovereignty. At the latest for the 1820er years it had come already to the rebellions of the Risorgimento („repurchasing “), which aimed at an Italian unit state, and thereby also against the Austrian rule in upper Italy were directed. From the underground thereby the groups were particularly active around the radical-democratic nationalrevolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi into the 1830er years, when they had initiated several rebellions, which however all had failed in different regions of Italy as a result of the French July revolution.

Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 - 1882)

also in the time of the March revolution played it with the revolutionary movements in Italy an important role. Mazzinis theses of a geeinten free Italy in one of the monarchischen dynasties released Europe of the peoples, who were spread in the forbidden newspaper Giovine Italia (“young Italy “), had not only influence on the revolutions in the Italian states, but affected also the radical-democratic currents in many other regions of Europe.

The revolutionary events of 1848 met with not only in north Italy, but also in other provinces of Italy strong response. Already in January 1848 it had come into Sicilies, into Milan , Brescia and Padua to first collections of Italian freedom fighters against the supremacy of the Bourbonen in the south and those the Austrian in the north, itself to 17. March 1848 in Venice and Milan strengthened. In Milan the independence of the Lombardei from Austria and the connection became to the kingdom Sardinien of the revolutionaries - Piemont explains. This situation led finally to the war between Sardinien Piemont and Austria.

King Karl Albert von Sardinien, already to 4. March 1848 in its State of one at France oriented representative condition had issued, with which it introduced a constitutional monarchy, wanted the revolutionary tendency to use, around Italy under its guidance to one. After initial successes Karl Albert however 25 became to. July 1848 with the battle struck by Custozza in the proximity of the Gardasees the troops of the king of the Austrians under field marshal Johann Wenzel Radetzky. In the armistice of 9. August was surrendered the Lombardei to Austria, which occupied on it the country again. Only Venice remained provisionally vacant. It had itself to 23. March 1848 for independent explains and the republic under guidance of Daniele Manin proclaimed.

As finally in February 1849 insurgent against the Grand Duke Leopold II. from having castle in the Toskana putschten, came it again to the war. This became again in favor of the imperial Austrians under Radetzky with their victory to 23. March 1849 in the battle at November era against the 100,000 men strong army Sardiniens decided. Thus the Italian agreement movement was for the time being smashed and the Austrian supremacy to upper Italy essentially repaired. King Karl Albert von Sardinien thanked Viktor Emanuel II. in favor of his son. off and went to Portugal into the exile. The new king closed to 6. August in Milan a peace treaty with Austria.

As last bastion of the upper-Italian rebellions of 1848/49 became to 24. August 1849 the revolutionary republic depressed by Venice. Radetzky received from the emperor the office to general, civilian and military of the governor von Lombardo Venetien.

Also in many non-Austrian areas of Italy it came 1848/49 to revolutionary unrests, for example in the Kingdom of Neapel - Sicily (also kingdom of both Sicilies called), where it had already come in January 1848 to rebellions, on which king Ferdinand II. from Neapel Sicilies a condition issued.

In the church state Rome fled Pope Pius IX. due to unrests in November 1848 from Rome and set off after Gaeta . To 9. The Roman revolutionary under Giuseppe Mazzini the republic in the church state proclaimed February 1849. At the 3. July 1849 was struck down the Roman revolution by French troops, which had partly led in France to protests (for instance in Lyon). After striking down the rebellion of Rome power was taken over by an executive committee from cardinals. Only 1850 returned the Pope and restored old conditions.

Böhmen

in June 1848 came it into Böhmen to the Prager Pfingstaufstand. The rebellion was accompanied by one in Prague of 2. to 12. June taking place Slawenkongress, in which beside Posener Poland and slawischen Austrians as an only Russian also the Anarchist Mikhail Bakunin participated. On the congress the transformation of the Danube monarchy was demanded into a federation of equal peoples. Whereupon Czech revolutionaries began the Pfingstaufstand against the Austrian rule. The rebellion became to 16. June 1848 depressed by Austrian troops under Alfred prince of Windischgrätz.


Hungary

the message of the revolution in Paris and Vienna led to 15. March finally to the fact that the revolution - on the basis of plague - spread also to Hungary. At first it came to revolts of of the simple population, then the Magyaren wars led above all naturally against the not Magyaren in its kingdom ( against the Serbs (since June 1848), then also against the Croats, Romanian, Slowaken, Ruthenen , Romanian Germans) and against imperial (is called Austrian) troops, what to the fact led that the emperor Ende Septembers dissolved the Hungarian federal state parliament and explained in Hungary the state of war. A imperial-Croatian army became at the end of of September 1848 direction plague sent.

To 12. September 1848 replaced Lajos Kossuth, up to then Minister of Finance and chairman of the defence committee, the liberal Prime Minister Lajos Batthyány . The Austrian emperor emperor Ferdinand I. as consequence of the revolutionary events in Austria the acknowledgment was refused as a king of Hungary.

Imperial troops undertook end of 1848 over the Slowakei with support of slowakischer troops (continue to see) an attack against Hungary and occupied to 5. January 1849 plague. To 7. March dissolved the Austrian emperor the liberal Austrian Reichstag and issued a new condition, the so-called. Oktroyierte March condition. In the kingdom Hungary was abolished the Hungarian condition and separated Croatia , filter defiency guarantee and the military border from Hungary. The areas of the Slowaken, Ruthenen, Germans and Romanians in Hungary were not even defined against it on administrative level within Hungary.

The Oktroyierung of an imperial condition led finally to the independence rebellion. The imperial army under Alfred prince to Windischgrätz had itself to 10. April 1849 before the revolution army strengthened with free crowds and Polish emigrant first withdraw, and like that the Austrian emperor was forced at the 11. April in Bratislava /Pressburg of the Hungarian federal state parliament of Bratislava adopted March laws so mentioned to sign.

These created among other things a to a large extent autonomous magyarischen National state, in which many (however not all) farmers were freed (abolishment of the Hörigkeit) and Hungarian as the only public language applied. Since nobody was content with the “incomplete” liberalisation, was indignant Vienna about the independence efforts that Hungary and the requests of the not Magyaren were ignored, a civil war was pre-programmed.

To 14. April 1849 explained Hungarian Reichstag its independence from the house having castle Lorraine and proclaimed the republic . Kossuth thereupon as Hungarian realm Weser explains. It had as such diktatorische authority. Independence was not recognized however by the other European states.

Since Hungarian independence had internationally not been recognized, Russian and Croatian troops of the Austrian army rendered assistance on requests of the Austrian emperor. In the middle of June began an enormous Austrian-Russian offensive of the north and the west against the Magyaren. To 13. August capitulated the Magyaren after the battle of Világos (Siria with Arad). The revolution in the Hungarian part of the monarchy was practically terminated thereby. At the 3. October 1849 came it in the fortress Komárom to the surrender of the last Hungarian units. In the days and weeks following on it over one hundred leaders of the Hungarian rebellion in Arad were executed. To 6. October 1849, the first anniversary of the Viennese of October rebellion, followed also the execution of the former Prime Minister Batthyányi in plague.

Lajos Kossuth, the politically most meaning representative of the Hungarian liberty movement, could set off in August 1849 in the exile. Up to its death 1894 in Turin it exerted itself for the independence of Hungary.

The revolution of 1848/1849 brought in Hungary farmer release, a formal equality of all citizens before the law and economically the penetration of capitalism in the kingdom to Hungary.

Slowakei (Slowaki rebellion)

the Slowaki rebellion of September 1848 until November 1849 (not to confound with the Slowaki national rebellion) is the name for three slowakische armed campaigns against the Magyaren in the context of the revolution of 1848 and 1849 in the history of the Slowakei.

The prominent personalities were the Slowaken Ľudovít Štúr, Jozef Miloslav Hurban, Milan Hodža, Janko Kráľ and the Czech military leader Bedřich Bloudek.

In the context of the revolts it gave 1848 to the poor population in spring also to the Slowakei a revolt of the miners of Banská Štiavnica /Schemnitz, Revolten of the poor urban population in Bratislava/Pressburg, Nitra /Neutra, Trnava /Tyrnau etc. as well as force outbreaks in the Komitat hone under the guidance of Janko Kráľ). Then numerous popular assemblies took place. One of the results of these meetings was to 10. May 1848 the radical Petition “demands of the Slowaki nation”, which by Ľudovít Štúr and 30 its trailer was prepared after the model of similar Petitionen of the Croats and Serbs and read out with Liptovský Mikulás /Liptau-St.-Nikolaus. Were required among other things release for all farmers, freedom of reunion and pressing, Föderalisierung of the Kingdom of Hungary, use Slowaki in the schools and offices and slowakischsprachige central and universities.

The main authors Ľudovít Štúr, Jozef Hurban and Milan Hodža had to flee thereafter into other parts of the monarchy (Prague, Croatia, Serbia, Vienna) and participated there also in the revolutions. In Vienna they (with the Karl church ) created to 16. September the Slowaki national council as the political and military central executive body (a kind government) for the planned armed rebellion. Its leaders were Štúr, Hurban and Hodža and three Czech of military. First or September campaign in such a way specified ( 6000 Freiwillige, above all students) followed, with which a small area could be occupied around the city Myjava, the independence of the Slowaken concerning the Magyaren was explained and slowakische administration was furnished. To 28. Septembers were however struck it.

Then took place in October the first fights of the imperial ones with the Magyaren in the Slowakei and the Slowaken allied themselves with Vienna against the Magyaren. Second or winter campaign in such a way specified followed (November 1848 - April 1849). Two slowakische trooptroop troops were used as special units in the context of a large-scale campaign of the imperial army. The one was active in the southwest Slowakei, the other one in the north and Ostslowakei. Importantly above all the second unit was, to 4. December 1848 together with the imperial ones the Slowakei of Schlesien coming entered. After numerous fights the last Magyaren at the end of was pushed February 1849 from the Slowakei. In the slowakischen areas occupied by the imperial troops and the slowakischen trooptroop troop (the Ostslowakei was controlled directly by slowakischen Freiwilligen) 6 became since that. December 1848 on municipality as well as Komitatsniveau a new, predominantly slowakische administration assigned. These so-called national councils were appointed by the Slowaki national council on popular assemblies. The office language was - for the first time in history completely officially - the slowakische language. In February and March 1849 the national councils were replaced however from Vienna again by conservative Hungarian aristocrat. In April the slowakischen trooptroop troops and the imperial ones were away-pushed from magyarischen troops the Slowakei. In this connection at the beginning of two risings of the people broke May off in the Nordslowakei, which tried to prevent in vain that the imperial troops were struck in the Slowakei by the Magyaren.

After announcing the Oktroyierten condition the Slowaken put to the emperor to 20. March the so-called March asking writing forwards, in that it as reward for the winter campaign - like that as it them promised by the emperor before the campaign was - the acknowledgment of the slowakischen nation, which creation of a federal state parliament and a Slowakisch required as office language. The Austrian Minister of the Interior as well as the emperor promised the Slowaken thereupon the fulfilment of their demands and the Minister of Finance even suggested, his title to the emperor around “large prince of the Romanians extending Ruthenen and Slowaken”. Three men of confidence responsible for the Slowaken were appointed at the government in Vienna (to at the end of of 1849), among them v. A. Ján Kollár, which wrote also appropriate very detailed reports over the catastrophic national situation of the Slowaken in the Kingdom of Hungary. After the defeat of the imperial ones in Hungary in April the government in Vienna changed however its point of view in such a way that on the situation of the Slowaken now only after striking down the Hungarian revolution should be decided. When however the Slowaken was again used in June with the planned imperial-Russian offensive, Vienna fulfilled at least some their demands. Thus for example so-called district commissioners for the Slowakei appointed, which were obligated to it, the introduction Slowaki as office language to manage (which was then carried out however only partially) and since that 10. July appeared to brook in Vienna on initiative of Alexander the Slovenské noviny (Slowaki newspaper; appeared until 1861). The Slowaken set up in response new trooptroop troops. In the middle of June attacked the imperial army of the west (today's Hungary) and the Russian army in several waves of the north (Orava /Arwa and the Zips) and the east (Dukla - passport). The Russians magyarische troops from the Slowakei back-pushed at the beginning of of July. Only to 9. August, when the Magyaren was already nearly struck, in May the educated slowakischen trooptroop troops (third campaign became : Ausgust - November 1849) skillfully by the emperor von Bratislava/Pressburg out into the area of the strategically important mittelslowakischen mining industry cities. They solved to 30. August the Russian garrisons in Banská Bystrica /Neusohl off. Since at this time the fights already took place in the today's Hungary, these troops did not fight any longer - they secured only the hinterland of the Russian and imperial army and undertook several successful campaigns against magyarische Guerilla groups in the Slowaki ore mountains (the Komitat Gemer).

Between that 17. September and that 9. October 1849 took place in Vienna a special conference under the presidency of the emperor, which should decide on the future of Hungary, particularly on its (non) Föderalisierung. To 10. Octobers submitted about 100 slowakische personalities to the emperor a common Petition, which demanded among other things the creation of the separate crowning country “Slowakei”. Although emperors Franz Joseph I. if everything promised to do, what stood in its power and which is directed “toward the luck of the asking plates”, the Slowaken had to experience in the end of the conference that the Slowakei would remain further an integral component of Hungary. Slowakisch could be used however in the elementary schools as well as at least by low officials. The slowakischen trooptroop troops became (although solemnly) to 21. November in Bratislava/Pressburg before the today's government building dissolved and the entire Slowakei was occupied in the consequence by imperial (is called Austrian) troops.

The co-operation of the Slowaken with Vienna in the context of the revolution brought thus nearly nothing to the Slowaken. Otherwise however the revolution brought from 1848/1849 in Hungary the farmer release, a formal equality of all citizens before the law and economically finally the penetration of capitalism in the backward kingdom to Hungary.

to result

the achievements of the March revolution were involved mostly lost and to Austria occurred the phase of the Neoabsolutismus .

However the revolution brought from 1848/1849 the farmer release from the hereditary subserviency, a Landreform in the crowning countries, a condition and administrative reform with formal equality of all citizens before the law as well as farmer release and economically finally the penetration of capitalism in the backward kingdom to Hungary.


texts for revolution

contemporary descriptions let the spirit of the revolution up-arise and offer particularly easily a view of motives and procedures during this time of paging.

Robert Bluem (letters)

arrived at Vienna, writes Bluem 17. October to its wife:

Vienna is magnificently, wonderful, the love-worthiest city, which I ever seen; in a revolutionary manner in meat and blood. The people drive the revolution comfortably, but thoroughly. The institutes for defense are terribly, the Kampfbegier boundless. Everything competes at sacrifice, effort and hero courage. If Vienna does not triumph, then only a debris and a heap of corpse remain after the tendency, under which I could be buried with joyful pride.

Also after its arrest it remains calm and calmly and writes:

... I am held back involuntarily here. Think you meanwhile nothing terrible, we are very well treated. However the large quantity of the arrested ones can postpone the decision probably somewhat. ...

After its condemnation it writes it 9. November 1848 a last letter:

My expensive, good, dear woman, lives probably, probably for the time, which one calls eternally, which will be it however not. Educate ours - now your children to noble humans, then they will never make dishonor for their father. Our small fortune sells with the help of our friends. God and good humans will help you. Everything that I feel, runs in tears there, therefore again: farewell, expensive woman!
Regard our children as expensive legacy, with which you must usury, and honour so your faithful husband. Farewell, farewell! Thousands, thousands, the last kisses of your Robert. In the morning I completed 5 o'clock, at 6 o'clock. The rings I forgot, press I to you the last kiss on the Trauring. My Siegelring is for Hans, the clock for smelling pool of broadcasting corporations, the diamond button for IDA, the chain for Alfreds as memory. Distribute all other memories you after your discretion. One comes! Farewell, probably!


to Friedrich Engels

in Vienna meanwhile confusion and embarrassment prevailed. The Bourgeoisie had purged to its old distrust after the victory immediately again against the “anarchische” working class. The workers, whom them six weeks before from the armed shopkeepers assign become treatment had as little forgotten as the unsteady, varying policy of the middle class at all, wanted not to entrust to this the defense of the city and did not require weapons and their own military organization. The academic Legion, which burned to fight against the imperial the potentiometer mash was completely unable to understand the deeper sense of the alienation between the two classes or to understand the requirements of the situation otherwise. Confusion prevailed in the heads of the people, confusion in the prominent circles. The remainder of Reichstag - German Deputierte and a few Slawen, those, from some revolutionary Polish delegates apart, for their friends in Olmütz of informer services carried out - met in permanence; but instead of a decided attitude to take, they vertrödelten their whole time with useless debates over the possibility of a resistance against the imperial army, without exceeding the borders of the constitutional forms. The safety committee, compound from delegates of nearly all organizations of the people of Vienna, was probably to the resistance decided, stood however under the rule of a majority of stake citizens and small shopkeepers, who let it come never, energetic acting decided too consistently. The committee of the academic Legion seized heroische resolutions, was however completely unable to take over the guidance. , Awaking without weapons, without organization, the Geistesknechtung of the old regime regards the workers, with distrust escaped, evenly hardly only, not to consciousness, but to purely instinktiven seizing of their social situation and itself the political attitude resulting in from it, demonstrations could provide hearing only by loud; one was not allowed to expect her from them, the difficulties of the instant would master. But they were ready - like everywhere in Germany during the revolution - to fight up to the extreme one as soon as they received only weapons.

Thus the things stood in Vienna. Outside the reorganized Austrian army, berauscht from the victories Radetzkys in Italy, sixty to seventy <66> thousands men, well armed, well organizes, and if the guidance were suited also not much, so nevertheless nevertheless with leaders provide. Inside confusion, class splitting, disorganization; a national guard, of which a part was decided not to fight at all while another part was ready still to no resolution come and only the smallest part for acting; a proletarian mass, strongly at number, but without leaders, without each political training, just as easily bent to the panic as to near groundless rage outbreaks to fight a booty of each wrong rumor, which was scattered, quite ready but without weapons, at least at the beginning, and also later, than one finally led it to the fight, only incompletely armed and nearly not organized; a helpless Reichstag, which discussed still theoretical hairsplittings, when it already nearly the roof over the head burned; a leading committee without internal driving force and energy. Everything was differently become since the days March and May, when in the camp complete confusion prevailed to the countering revolution and existed a only one organized power: of the revolution the created. Over the exit of such a fight there could be hardly a doubt, and if there were nevertheless still one, then it repaired by the events 30. and 31. October and the 1. November.


Heinrich Heine

Heinrich Heine, even democratically more gesinnter, the nationalism of the Burschenschaften however increasingly reserves facing poet of the Vormärz, commentated a book burn critically with its famous sentence become “, where one burns books, burns one at the end also humans “.


selection of personalities of the revolution

surname in alphabetical order

Mikhail Bakunin, Friedrich Daniel Bassermann, of Louis blank, Robert Bluem, Hermann Theodor broad head, Lorenz Brentano, Karl Friedrich Christian Ludwig baron Drais von Sauerbronn, Friedrich Engels, Heinrich von Gagern, Giuseppe Garibaldi, George Gottfried Gervinus, Friedrich Hecker, George Herwegh and Emma Herwegh, Gottfried Kinkel and Johanna Kinkel, Lajos Kossuth, Ferdinand let-letting let-leaving, William dear farmhand, Giuseppe Mazzini, Ludwik Mieroslawski, Carl Mittermaier, Ludwig Pfau, Franz Raveaux, Carl Schurz, Franz Sigel, Eduard Simson, Valentin Streuber, Gustav Struve and Amalie Struve

literature

  • Dieter Dowe, Heinz Gerhard head, Dieter Langewie (Hrsg.): Europe 1848. Revolution and reform, publishing house J.H.W. Dietz successor, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-8012-4086 X
  • Robert Endres: Revolution in Austria 1848, Danubia publishing house, Vienna, 1947
  • Friedrich Engels: Revolution and countering revolution in Germany, first seeming: New York DAILY grandstand, 1851/52; Reprint: Dietz publishing house, Berlin, 1988 in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Werke, Band 8, in the Internet unabridged under [1]
  • Sabine Friday (Hg.): The 48-er. Life pictures from the German revolution 1848/49, publishing house C. H. Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-42770-7
  • Alfreds George Frey, briefly high chair: Wegbereiter of the democracy. The revolution of Baden 1848/49. The dream of the liberty, publishing house G. Brown, Karlsruhe 1997
  • Ruediger Hachtmann: Berlin 1848. A policy and a society history of the revolution, publishing house J.H.W. Dietz successor, Bonn 1997, ISBN 3-8012-4083-5
  • Klaus Herdepe: The Prussian condition question 1848, (= German university University of Bd. 22) acre et unitas: Neuried 2003, 454 S., ISBN 3-936117-22-5
  • Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution in the German southwest. The Grand Duchy of bathing 1848/49, (= writings to political regional studies of Baden-Wuerttemberg Bd. 26), publishing house Kohl hammer: Stuttgart 1998 (to refer also free of charge over the national center for political education Baden-Wuerttemberg), ISBN 3-1701-4039-6
  • Hans Jessen (Hg.): The German revolution 1848/49 in eye-witness reports, Karl smoke publishing house, Duesseldorf 1968
  • Günter Mick: The Paulskirche. Controversies for right and justice, scientific book company, Darmstadt 1997
  • Wolfgang J. Mommsen: 1848 - The inadvertent revolution; Fischer paperback publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2000, 334 sides, ISBN 3-596-13899-X
  • Thomas Nipperdey: German history 1800-1866. Citizen world and strong State of, publishing house C. H. Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-09354-X
  • Otto Rühle: 1848 - Revolution in Germany ISBN 3-928300-85-7
  • tungsten they man: The German revolution of 1848/49, (= new one historical library Bd. 266), Suhrkamp publishing house: Frankfurt/Main 1985, ISBN 3-518-11266-X
  • Ulrich bacon: 1848. Chronicle of a German revolution, island publishing house, Frankfurt/Main and Leipzig 1998, ISBN 3-458-33914-0
  • Veit Valentin: History of the German revolution 1848-1849, 2 volumes, Beltz Quadriga publishing house, Weinheim and Berlin 1998 (reprint), ISBN 3-886-79301-X
  • Heinz Rieder: The peoples ring to storm - the European revolution 1848/49, Casimir Catz publishing house, Gernsbach 1997, ISBN 3925825452

see also

March revolution in the closer sense:
March revolution in the broader sense and other connections:

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