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service designates an achievement, those in the economical demarcation not that Production of a material property serves. Thus it is assigned to the tertiary sector. The primary production (primary sector) and the production of industrial goods (secondary sector) are to be distinguished from it.

Services become from a natural person or a legal entity or an authority at one time or within a time framework furnished. In the broadest sense also achievements rank, e.g. among the services. free of charge in the household to be carried out, or such, which one furnishes for itself. Economicalally seizes and asPart the national product to be proven however only services, which can be evaluated at least over market prices.

From economical view a service is differentiated from the contribution of equipment. The service is not storable, rarely transferable (Immaterialität of the service) and needs an external factor(Integration of the external factor). The production and the consumption of the service fall usually temporally together (UN actu principle).

Services are in their result predominantly immaterial, can however material components contain, for example a carrier medium, on that the result thatService is handed over. One calls the quality of the service Service-Qualität or service quality. By the Immaterialitätsgrad it can come thereby to problems with the measurement of the service quality. Additionally to the achievement result of a service attains in particular the achievement creation process (integration of the externalFactor) as well as the Leistungspotenzial (e.g. Appearance and authority of the management consultant) at meaning. All three so-called “achievement dimensions” are also included into the evaluation of the service quality.[1]

Services are differentiated into standardized and individual services. Characteristic from standardized services is that thoseAchievement for a fictitious average customer is provided. The individual service is provided however for a concrete individual. The degree of the participation (degree of integration) of the customer is higher with individual services.

The demarcation between contribution of equipment and serving is in the long run flowing. Thus attainService components in Business ton Businessmarketing, for example in the machine and equipment construction, strengthens at meaning (e.g.: Consultation, Teleservice). In addition, in the Konsumgünterindustrie carry service components for intensified differentiation and thus for the acquisition of competition advantages with (e.g. Paragraph financing of Hifi electronics orPKW's). Last such service components cannot be purchase crucial and be promoted thus to the main part of the product.

Therefore increasingly the attempt is given up to distinguish services from contributions of equipment.[2] All paragraph objects are understood here as achievement bundles, their achievement result on the one hand rather materially or immaterial,the achievement creation process rather autonomous or integrativ pronounced is. A such understanding permits a differentiated conception of the paragraph-political equipment.[3]

kinds of services

original services

acts here around services of enterprises, onlyServices and no material goods manufacture, like e.g. Laundries, towing-services etc.

product-accompanying services

these are offered by enterprises, which manufacture also material goods apart from the services, like vehicle manufacturers, or producers of capital goods.

  • Pre Sales services: Services forwardsthe purchase, for example a detailed consultation, the preparation of individual suggestions, planning services like the adjustment of an installation kitchen to the spatial conditions.
  • After Sales services: Services after the purchase, about spare part supply, maintenance , modernization (Retrofit)
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Examples of service ranges


producer use the offerof additional services increasingly, in order to differentiate itself from their competitors to, e.g. by the offer of financings, advisory activities etc. in this way to akquirieren and additional customers.

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Web on the left of:

A criticism of the service term and the foreign trade categories by the example of the globalization discussion]


  1. Avedis Donabedian: The definition OF quality and Approaches tonIts Asessment. Exploration in quality Assesmment and monitoring. Volume I, Ann Arbor, 1980.
  2. Werner Hans Engelhardt; Michael Kleinaltenkamp; Martin Reckenfelderbäumer: Achievement bundle as paragraph objects. A beginning for the overcoming of the dichotomy of special and services.Magazine for economical research (zfbf), 45. Jg.,No. 5, 1993, S. 395-426.
  3. Christian Homburg; Harley Krohmer: Marketing management. Strategy - instruments - conversion - management. Wiesbaden 2003, S. 809 FF.

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